Prevention of influenza virus shedding and protection from lethal H1N1 challenge using a consensus 2009 H1N1 HA and NA adenovirus vector vaccine.
ABSTRACT: Vaccines against emerging pathogens such as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus can benefit from current technologies such as rapid genomic sequencing to construct the most biologically relevant vaccine. A novel platform (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]) has been utilized to induce immune responses to various antigenic targets. We employed this vector platform to express hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses. Inserts were consensuses sequences designed from viral isolate sequences and the vaccine was rapidly constructed and produced. Vaccination induced H1N1 immune responses in mice, which afforded protection from lethal virus challenge. In ferrets, vaccination protected from disease development and significantly reduced viral titers in nasal washes. H1N1 cell mediated immunity as well as antibody induction correlated with the prevention of disease symptoms and reduction of virus replication. The Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] should be evaluated for the rapid development of effective vaccines against infectious diseases.
Project description:Anti-vector immunity mitigates immune responses induced by recombinant adenovirus vector vaccines, limiting their prime-boost capabilities. We have developed a novel gene delivery and expression platform (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]) that induces immune responses despite pre-existing and/or developed concomitant Ad5 immunity. In the present study, we evaluated if this new Ad5 platform could overcome the adverse condition of pre-existing Ad5 immunity to induce effective immune responses in prime-boost immunization regimens against two different infectious diseases in the same animal. Ad5 immune rhesus macaques (RM) were immunized multiple times with the Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] platform expressing antigens from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Immunized RM developed cell-mediated immunity against SIV antigens Gag, Pol, Nef and Env as well as antibody against Env. Vaccinated and vector control RMs were challenged intra-rectally with homologous SIVmac239. During a 7-week follow-up, there was perturbation of SIV load in some immunized RM. At 7 weeks post-challenge, eight immunized animals (53%) did not have detectable SIV, compared to two RM controls (13%) (P<0.02; log-rank Mantel-Cox test). There was no correlation of protective MHC contributing to infection control. The RM without detectable circulating SIV, now hyper immune to Ad5, were then vaccinated with the same Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] platform expressing H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin (HA). Thirty days post Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-HA vaccination, significant levels of influenza neutralizing antibody were induced in all animals that increased after an Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-HA homologous boost. These data demonstrate the versatility of this new vector platform to immunize against two separate disease targets in the same animal despite the presence of immunity against the delivery platform, permitting homologous repeat immunizations with an Ad5 gene delivery platform.
Project description:Recombinant Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors have been used as vaccine platforms in numerous animal and human clinical studies. The immune response induced by Ad5 vaccines can be mitigated due to pre-existing Ad5 immunity. We previously reported the use of a novel Ad5 platform to induce cellular immune responses (CMI) against HIV-1 Gag in Ad5 hyper immune mice. Here, the effectiveness of the Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] vaccine platform was evaluated using a triad mixture of HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Nef as antigenic transgenes. Broad CMI was induced following vaccination with the HIV-1 expressing vectors in Ad5 naïve and Ad5 immunized mice. A mixture of the three vaccines induced CMI against each transgene product even in the presence of hyper Ad5 immunity. These studies revealed that CMI responses to immunization with Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-gag, Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-pol or Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-nef vectors were transgene specific and did not induce CMI responses against irrelevant antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) or influenza virus antigens. We are evaluating this recombinant triad viral vector as an HIV-1 vaccine in a non-human primate model and the data indicate that the vaccine is worthy of clinical evaluation.
Project description:Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors are promising vaccine candidates due to their intrinsic immunogenicity and potent transgene expression; however, widespread preexisting Ad5 immunity has been considered a developmental impediment to the use of traditional, or conventional, E1 and E3 gene-deleted Ad5 (Ad5[E1-]) vaccines. Even in the presence of anti-Ad5 immunity, recent murine and human studies have confirmed E2b gene-deleted Ad5 (Ad5[E1-,E2b-]) vaccines to be highly efficacious inducers of transgene-specific memory responses and significantly less toxic options than Ad5[E1-] vaccines. While these findings have been substantially confirmed, the molecular mechanisms underlying the different reactions to these vaccine platforms are unknown. Using cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) derived from multiple human donors, we found that Ad5[E1-,E2b-] vaccines trigger higher levels of hPBMC proinflammatory cytokine secretion than Ad5[E1-] vaccines. Interestingly, these responses were generated regardless of the donors' preexisting anti-Ad5 humoral and cell-mediated immune response status. <i>In vitro</i> hPBMC infection with the Ad5[E1-,E2b-] vaccine also provoked greater Th1-dominant gene responses yet smaller amounts of Ad-derived gene expression than Ad5[E1-] vaccines. These results suggest that Ad5[E1-,E2b-] vaccines, in contrast to Ad5[E1-] vaccines, do not promote activities that suppress innate immune signaling, thereby allowing for improved vaccine efficacy and a superior safety profile independently of previous Ad5 immunity.
Project description:Phenotypic heterogeneity of human carcinoma lesions, including heterogeneity in expression of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), is a well-established phenomenon. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), MUC1, and brachyury are diverse TAAs, each of which is expressed on a wide range of human tumors. We have previously reported on a novel adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector gene delivery platform (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]) in which regions of the early 1 (E1), early 2 (E2b), and early 3 (E3) genes have been deleted. The unique deletions in this platform result in a dramatic decrease in late gene expression, leading to a marked reduction in host immune response to the vector. Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA vaccine (ETBX-011) has been employed in clinical studies as an active vaccine to induce immune responses to CEA in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. We report here the development of novel recombinant Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-brachyury and-MUC1 vaccine constructs, each capable of activating antigen-specific human T cells in vitro and inducing antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vaccinated mice. We also describe the use of a combination of the three vaccines (designated Tri-Ad5) of Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA, Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-brachyury and Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-MUC1, and demonstrate that there is minimal to no "antigenic competition" in in vitro studies of human dendritic cells, or in murine vaccination studies. The studies reported herein support the rationale for the application of Tri-Ad5 as a therapeutic modality to induce immune responses to a diverse range of human TAAs for potential clinical studies.
Project description:Adenovirus vectors have been shown to be highly effective as vaccine platforms capable of inducing both humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses. An Ad serotype 5 vector containing unique deletions in the E2b region (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]) has been reported to have several advantages over conventional Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors deleted in only the E1 region (Ad5 [E1-]), including increased carrying capacity and diminished viral late gene expression. Here, we evaluated a novel Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] vector utilizing the E.C7 cell line for viral packaging. Its' effectiveness as a potential vaccine platform as compared to the currently utilized Ad5 [E1-]-based platform was assessed in both Ad5 naïve and Ad5 immune mice. We employed the HIV-1 Gag gene as the antigenic transgene expressed by the novel vector. Cellular expression of the Gag was confirmed by Western Blot analysis. Dose response studies using three intradermal immunizations of 10(7) to 10(10) virus particles (VP) of each construct revealed that immunization with 10(10)VP resulted in the maximum immunological response. Multiple immunizations of Ad naïve BALB/c mice with an Ad5 [E1-, E2b]-gag vaccine resulted in higher ELISpot CMI responses as compared to mice immunized with an Ad5 [E1-]-gag vaccine. More importantly, multiple immunizations of Ad5 immune BALB/c mice with an Ad5 [E1-, E2b]-gag vaccine resulted in significant increases in ELISpot CMI responses when compared to Ad5 immune mice vaccinated with an Ad5 [E1-]-gag vector. Preliminary studies in three Ad5 immune non-human primates (NHP) demonstrated that vaccination with Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-gag-induced elevated levels of interferon-gamma and IL-2 secreting lymphocytes as assessed by ELISpot assays. These studies indicate that the novel Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] viral vector can be utilized as a potential vaccine platform to induce elevated CMI responses as compared to current generation Ad5 [E1-] viral vectors even in the presence of pre-existing Ad5 immunity.
Project description:The effectiveness of recombinant Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors to induce immune responses against targeted antigens has been limited by the presence of pre-existing or Ad5 vaccine induced anti-vector immunity. The Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] platform, a recombinant Ad5 with additional deletions, has been previously reported by us to induce immune responses in the presence of Ad5 immunity. In an Ad5 immune non-human primate (NHP) model, an Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] construct expressing HIV-1 Gag induced immune responses in the presence of pre-existing Ad5 immunity. In the present study we expand on these prior observations by comparing the cell mediated immune (CMI) responses induced by Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-SIV-gag/nef in Ad5 naïve and Ad5 immune NHP. Additionally, NHP were immunized with an Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-HIV-pol construct following two homologous administrations of Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-SIV-gag/nef to determine if an immune response could be induced against a third antigen in the presence of vaccine induced Ad5 immunity. Positive CMI responses, as assessed by interferon-gamma (IFN-?) secreting lymphocytes, were induced against all three antigens. These CMI responses increased over a course of multiple immunizations and the response profiles observed in Ad5 naïve and Ad5 immune NHP were similar. No influence of the major histocompatibility complex on CMI responses was observed. These data indicate that the new Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] platform based vaccine could be used for homologous vaccination regimes to induce robust CMI responses in the presence of Ad5 vector immunity.
Project description:First-generation, E1-deleted adenovirus subtype 5 (Ad5)-based vectors, although promising platforms for use as cancer vaccines, are impeded in activity by naturally occurring or induced Ad-specific neutralizing antibodies. Ad5-based vectors with deletions of the E1 and the E2b regions (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]), the latter encoding the DNA polymerase and the pre-terminal protein, by virtue of diminished late phase viral protein expression, were hypothesized to avoid immunological clearance and induce more potent immune responses against the encoded tumor antigen transgene in Ad-immune hosts. Indeed, multiple homologous immunizations with Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA(6D), encoding the tumor antigen carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), induced CEA-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses with antitumor activity in mice despite the presence of preexisting or induced Ad5-neutralizing antibody. In the present phase I/II study, cohorts of patients with advanced colorectal cancer were immunized with escalating doses of Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA(6D). CEA-specific CMI responses were observed despite the presence of preexisting Ad5 immunity in a majority (61.3 %) of patients. Importantly, there was minimal toxicity, and overall patient survival (48 % at 12 months) was similar regardless of preexisting Ad5 neutralizing antibody titers. The results demonstrate that, in cancer patients, the novel Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] gene delivery platform generates significant CMI responses to the tumor antigen CEA in the setting of both naturally acquired and immunization-induced Ad5-specific immunity.
Project description:The recent 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus infection in humans has resulted in nearly 5,000 deaths worldwide. Early epidemiological findings indicated a low level of infection in the older population (>65 years) with the pandemic virus, and a greater susceptibility in people younger than 35 years of age, a phenomenon correlated with the presence of cross-reactive immunity in the older population. It is unclear what virus(es) might be responsible for this apparent cross-protection against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus. We describe a mouse lethal challenge model for the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain, used together with a panel of inactivated H1N1 virus vaccines and hemagglutinin (HA) monoclonal antibodies to dissect the possible humoral antigenic determinants of pre-existing immunity against this virus in the human population. By hemagglutinination inhibition (HI) assays and vaccination/challenge studies, we demonstrate that the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus is antigenically similar to human H1N1 viruses that circulated from 1918-1943 and to classical swine H1N1 viruses. Antibodies elicited against 1918-like or classical swine H1N1 vaccines completely protect C57B/6 mice from lethal challenge with the influenza A/Netherlands/602/2009 virus isolate. In contrast, contemporary H1N1 vaccines afforded only partial protection. Passive immunization with cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against either 1918 or A/California/04/2009 HA proteins offered full protection from death. Analysis of mAb antibody escape mutants, generated by selection of 2009 H1N1 virus with these mAbs, indicate that antigenic site Sa is one of the conserved cross-protective epitopes. Our findings in mice agree with serological data showing high prevalence of 2009 H1N1 cross-reactive antibodies only in the older population, indicating that prior infection with 1918-like viruses or vaccination against the 1976 swine H1N1 virus in the USA are likely to provide protection against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus. This data provides a mechanistic basis for the protection seen in the older population, and emphasizes a rationale for including vaccination of the younger, naïve population. Our results also support the notion that pigs can act as an animal reservoir where influenza virus HAs become antigenically frozen for long periods of time, facilitating the generation of human pandemic viruses.
Project description:Lassa virus (LASV), the causative agent of Lassa fever (LF), was first identified in 1969. Since then, outbreaks in the endemic countries of Nigeria, Liberia, and Sierra Leone occur on an annual basis resulting in a case-fatality rate of 15-70% in hospitalized patients. There is currently no licensed vaccine and there are limited animal models to test vaccine efficacy. An estimated 37.7 million people are at risk of contracting LASV; therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of a safe, effective vaccine against LASV infection. The LF endemic countries are also inflicted with HIV, Ebola, and malaria infections. The safety in immunocompromised populations must be considered in LASV vaccine development. The novel adenovirus vector-based platform, Ad5 (E1-,E2b-) has been used in clinical trial protocols for treatment of immunocompromised individuals, has been shown to exhibit high stability, low safety risk in humans, and induces a strong cell-mediated and pro-inflammatory immune response even in the presence of pre-existing adenovirus immunity. To this nature, our lab has developed an Ad5 (E1-,E2b-) vector-based vaccine expressing the LASV-NP or LASV-GPC. We found that guinea pigs vaccinated with two doses of Ad5 (E1-,E2b-) LASV-NP and Ad5 (E1-,E2b-) LASV-GPC were protected against lethal LASV challenge. The Ad5 (E1-,E2b-) LASV-NP and LASV-GPC vaccine represents a potential vaccine candidate against LF.
Project description:The 1918 influenza A virus caused the most devastating pandemic, killing approximately 50 million people worldwide. Immunization with 1918-like and classical swine H1N1 virus vaccines results in cross-protective antibodies against the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza, indicating antigenic similarities among these viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that vaccination with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 vaccine elicits 1918 virus cross-protective antibodies in mice and humans, and that vaccination or passive transfer of human-positive sera reduced morbidity and conferred full protection from lethal challenge with the 1918 virus in mice. The spread of the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus in the population worldwide, in addition to the large number of individuals already vaccinated, suggests that a large proportion of the population now have cross-protective antibodies against the 1918 virus, greatly alleviating concerns and fears regarding the accidental exposure/release of the 1918 virus from the laboratory and the use of the virus as a bioterrorist agent.