Pd(II)-catalyzed enantioselective C-H activation/C-O bond formation: synthesis of chiral benzofuranones.
ABSTRACT: Pd(II)-catalyzed enantioselective C-H activation of phenylacetic acids followed by an intramolecular C-O bond formation afforded chiral benzofuranones. This reaction provides the first example of enantioselecctive C-H functionalizations through Pd(II)/Pd(IV) redox catalysis.
Project description:An enantioselective method for Pd(II)-catalyzed cross-coupling of methylene ?-C(sp(3))-H bonds in cyclobutanecarboxylic acid derivatives with arylboron reagents is described. High yields and enantioselectivities were achieved through the development of chiral mono-N-protected ?-amino-O-methylhydroxamic acid (MPAHA) ligands, which form a chiral complex with the Pd(II) center. This reaction provides an alternative approach to the enantioselective synthesis of cyclobutanecarboxylates containing ?-chiral quaternary stereocenters. This new class of chiral catalysts also show promises for enantioselective ?-C(sp(3))-H activation of acyclic amides.
Project description:We have designed the first chiral diene-based metal-organic framework (MOF), E2-MOF, and postsynthetically metalated E2-MOF with Rh(i) complexes to afford highly active and enantioselective single-site solid catalysts for C-C bond formation reactions. Treatment of E2-MOF with [RhCl(C2H4)2]2 led to a highly enantioselective catalyst for 1,4-additions of arylboronic acids to ?,?-unsaturated ketones, whereas treatment of E2-MOF with Rh(acac)(C2H4)2 afforded a highly efficient catalyst for the asymmetric 1,2-additions of arylboronic acids to aldimines. Interestingly, E2-MOF·Rh(acac) showed higher activity and enantioselectivity than the homogeneous control catalyst, likely due to the formation of a true single-site catalyst in the MOF. E2-MOF·Rh(acac) was also successfully recycled and reused at least seven times without loss of yield and enantioselectivity.
Project description:When Boc-L-Val-OH was used as a ligand for the enantioselective Pd(II)-catalyzed annulation of N,N-substituted aminomethyl ferrocene derivatives with diarylethynes, ferrocenes with planar chirality could be achieved with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee).
Project description:An efficient Cu-catalyzed protocol for enantioselective addition of a dimethylphenylsilanyl group to a wide range of cyclic and acyclic unsaturated ketones, esters, acrylonitriles, and alpha,beta,gamma,delta-dienones is disclosed. Reactions are performed in the presence of 1-2 mol % of commercially available and inexpensive CuCl, a readily accessible monodentate imidazolinium salt, and commercially available (dimethylphenylsilyl)pinacolatoboron. Cu-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate additions proceed to completion within only 2 h to afford the desired silanes in 87-97% yield and 90:10-99:1 enantiomeric ratio (er). Use of a proton source (e.g., MeOH) is not required; accordingly, synthetically versatile alpha-silyl boron enolates can be obtained. The special utility of the present protocol, in comparison with the related catalytic enantioselective aldol and boronate conjugate additions, is discussed and illustrated through various functionalizations of the enantiomerically enriched beta-silylcarbonyls.
Project description:Piperidines are the most prevalent heterocycle found in medicines. Yet, while they are often chiral, there remain no robust methods for their asymmetric syntheses. To solve this challenge, we have interrupted the century-old Hofmann-Löffler-Freytag (HLF) reaction to afford this privileged heterocycle. The catalytic, regio- and enantio- selective ? C-H cyanation of acyclic amines described herein, incorporates a carbonyl equivalent selectively at the ? position. This ? C-H cyanation is enabled by a chiral Cu catalyst, which both initiates and terminates intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) by an N-centered radical relay mechanism. The broad scope and utility of this highly enantioselective method for ? C-C formation is presented, as well as conversion of the resulting enantioenriched ? amino nitriles to a family of chiral piperidines. Experiments probing the chemo-, regio-, and enantio- selectivity of this HAT mechanism are also included to enable extension to other stereoselective ? C-H functionalizations.
Project description:The enantioselective addition of phenylethynylzinc to aldehydes catalyzed by a series of cyclopropane-based amino alcohol ligands 7 was investigated. The reactions afforded chiral propargylic alcohols in high yields (up to 96%) and with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee) under mild conditions. Furthermore, studies on the structural relationship show that the matching of the chiral center configuration is crucial to obtain the high enantioselectivity.
Project description:An F10BINOL-derived chiral phosphoric acid was shown to be an effective catalyst for an enantioselective carbonyl-ene reaction of 1,1-disubstituted olefins with ethyl glyoxylate as the common enophile. The perfluoro-binaphthyl skeleton is beneficial not only for adopting high catalytic activity but also for creating an effective chiral environment for enantioselective transformations. Indeed, the reaction afforded enantio-enriched homoallylic alcohols in high yields with high enantioselectivities. Theoretical studies identified that the multi-point C-H···O hydrogen bonds and the π interactions between the substrates and the 6-methoxy-2-naphthyl substituents at the 3,3'-positions of the F10BINOL skeleton play a crucial role in determining the stereochemical outcomes. The significance of the perfluoro-binaphthyl skeleton in achieving the high enantioselectivity was also evaluated through a structural analysis of the catalysts.
Project description:C-H arylation via a Pd(II)/Pd(IV) catalytic cycle has been one of the most extensively studied C-H activation reactions since the 1990s. Despite the rapid development of this reaction in the past two decades, an enantioselective version has not been reported to date. Herein, we report a Pd(II)-catalyzed highly enantioselective (up to 99.5% ee) arylation of cyclopropyl C-H bonds with aryl iodides using mono-N-protected amino acid (MPAA) ligands, providing a new route for the preparation of chiral cis-aryl-cyclopropylmethylamines. The enantiocontrol is also shown to override the diastereoselectivity of chiral substrates.
Project description:Cyclopentadienyl ruthenium(ii) complexes with a large number of available coordination sites are frequently used catalysts for a broad range of transformations. To be able to render these transformations enantioselective, we have designed a chiral neutral Cp<sup>x</sup>Ru(ii)Cl complex basing on an atropchiral cyclopentadienyl (Cp<sup>x</sup>) ligand which is accessed in a streamlined C-H functionalisation approach. The catalyst displays excellent levels of reactivity and enantioselectivity for enantioselective [2+2]-cycloadditions leading to strained chiral cyclobutenes, allowing for catalyst loadings as low as 1 mol%. A very strong counterion effect of a bound chloride anion transforms the corresponding unselective cationic complex into a highly enantioselective neutral version. Moreover, by adding norbornadiene at the end of the reaction the catalyst can be recovered and subsequently reused.
Project description:For nearly two decades, synthetic chemists have been fascinated by the structural complexity and synthetic challenges afforded by the guanacastepene and heptemerone diterpenoids.Numerous synthetic approaches to these compounds have been reported, but to date the application of enantioselective catalysis to this problem has not been realized. Herein we report an enantioselective synthesis of an advanced intermediate corresponding to the tricyclic core common to the guanacastepenes and heptemerones. Highlights of this work include sequential Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative allylic alkylation reactions to generate the two all carbon quaternary stereocenters, the use of ring-closing metathesis to close the A ring in the presence of a distal allyl sidechain, and a region and diastereoselective oxidation of an trienol ether to introduce oxygenation on the A ring.