Injury and differentiation following inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV in rat oligodendrocytes.
ABSTRACT: Oligodendrocyte lineage cells are susceptible to a variety of insults including hypoxia, excitotoxicity, and reactive oxygen species. Demyelination is a well-recognized feature of several CNS disorders including multiple sclerosis, white matter strokes, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and disorders due to mitochondrial DNA mutations. Although mitochondria have been implicated in the demise of oligodendrocyte lineage cells, the consequences of mitochondrial respiratory chain defects have not been examined. We determine the in vitro impact of established inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV or cytochrome c oxidase on oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and mature oligodendrocytes as well as on differentiation capacity of OPCs from P0 rat. Injury to mature oligodendrocytes following complex IV inhibition was significantly greater than to OPCs, judged by cell detachment and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) changes, although viability of cells that remained attached was not compromised. Active mitochondria were abundant in processes of differentiated oligodendrocytes and MMP was significantly greater in differentiated oligodendrocytes than OPCs. MMP dissipated following complex IV inhibition in oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, complex IV inhibition impaired process formation within oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Injury to and impaired process formation of oligodendrocytes following complex IV inhibition has potentially important implications for the pathogenesis and repair of CNS myelin disorders.
Project description:Although the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an essential regulator of developmental oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, oligodendrocyte-specific deletion of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a major upstream inhibitor of mTOR, surprisingly also leads to hypomyelination during CNS development. However, the function of TSC has not been studied in the context of remyelination. Here, we used the inducible Cre-lox system to study the function of TSC in the remyelination of a focal, lysolecithin-demyelinated lesion in adult male mice. Using two different mouse models in which Tsc1 is deleted by Cre expression in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) or in premyelinating oligodendrocytes, we reveal that deletion of Tsc1 affects oligodendroglia differently depending on the stage of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Tsc1 deletion from NG2+ OPCs accelerated remyelination. Conversely, Tsc1 deletion from proteolipid protein (PLP)-positive oligodendrocytes slowed remyelination. Contrary to developmental myelination, there were no changes in OPC or oligodendrocyte numbers in either model. Our findings reveal a complex role for TSC in oligodendrocytes during remyelination in which the timing of Tsc1 deletion is a critical determinant of its effect on remyelination. Moreover, our findings suggest that TSC has different functions in developmental myelination and remyelination.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Myelin loss in demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis results in disability due to loss of axon conductance and axon damage. Encouragingly, the nervous system is capable of spontaneous remyelination, but this regenerative process often fails. Many chronically demyelinated lesions have oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) within their borders. It is thus of great interest to elucidate mechanisms by which we might enhance endogenous remyelination. Here, we provide evidence that deletion of Tsc1 from OPCs, but not differentiating oligodendrocytes, is beneficial to remyelination. This finding contrasts with the loss of oligodendroglia and hypomyelination seen with Tsc1 or Tsc2 deletion in the oligodendrocyte lineage during CNS development and points to important differences in the regulation of developmental myelination and remyelination.
Project description:Oligodendrocytes have been considered as a functionally homogeneous population in the central nervous system (CNS). We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on 5072 cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage from 10 regions of the mouse juvenile and adult CNS. Thirteen distinct populations were identified, 12 of which represent a continuum from Pdgfra(+) oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to distinct mature oligodendrocytes. Initial stages of differentiation were similar across the juvenile CNS, whereas subsets of mature oligodendrocytes were enriched in specific regions in the adult brain. Newly formed oligodendrocytes were detected in the adult CNS and were responsive to complex motor learning. A second Pdgfra(+) population, distinct from OPCs, was found along vessels. Our study reveals the dynamics of oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation, uncoupling them at a transcriptional level and highlighting oligodendrocyte heterogeneity in the CNS.
Project description:During development, multipotent neural precursors give rise to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), which migrate and divide to produce additional OPCs. Near the end of embryogenesis and during postnatal stages, many OPCs stop dividing and differentiate as myelinating oligodendrocytes, whereas others persist as nonmyelinating cells. Investigations of oligodendrocyte development in mice indicated that the Nkx2.2 transcription factor both limits the number of OPCs that are formed and subsequently promotes their differentiation, raising the possibility that Nkx2.2 plays a key role in determining myelinating versus nonmyelinating fate. We used in vivo time-lapse imaging and loss-of-function experiments in zebrafish to further explore formation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Our data show that newly specified OPCs are heterogeneous with respect to gene expression and fate. Whereas some OPCs express the nkx2.2a gene and differentiate as oligodendrocytes, others that do not express nkx2.2a mostly remain as nonmyelinating OPCs. Similarly to mouse, loss of nkx2.2a function results in excess OPCs and delayed oligodendrocyte differentiation. Notably, excess OPCs are formed as a consequence of prolonged OPC production from neural precursor cells. We conclude that Nkx2.2 promotes timely specification and differentiation of myelinating oligodendrocyte lineage cells from species representing different vertebrate taxa.
Project description:The majority of oligodendrocytes in the neocortex originate from neural progenitors that reside in the dorsal forebrain. We recently showed that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling in these dorsal progenitors is required to produce normal numbers of neocortical oligodendrocytes during embryonic development. Conditional deletion of the Shh signaling effector, Smo, in dorsal progenitors caused a dramatic reduction in oligodendrocyte numbers in the embryonic neocortex. In the current study, we show that the depleted oligodendrocyte lineage in Smo conditional mutants is able to recover to control numbers over time. This eventual recovery is achieved in part by expansion of the ventrally-derived wild-type lineage that normally makes up a minority of the total oligodendrocyte population. However, we find that the remaining dorsally-derived mutant cells also increase in numbers over time to contribute equally to the recovery of the total population. Additionally, we found that the ways in which the dorsal and ventral sources cooperate to achieve recovery is different for distinct populations of oligodendrocyte-lineage cells. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in the neocortical white matter recover completely by expansion of the remaining dorsally-derived Smo mutant cells. On the other hand, mature oligodendrocytes in the white and gray matter recover through an equal contribution from dorsal mutant and ventral wild-type lineages. Interestingly, the only population that did not make a full recovery was OPCs in the gray matter. We find that gray matter OPCs are less proliferative in Smo cKO mutants compared to controls, which may explain their inability to fully recover. Our data indicate that certain populations of the dorsal oligodendrocyte lineage are more affected by loss of Shh signaling than others. Furthermore, these studies shed new light on the complex relationship between dorsal and ventral sources of oligodendrocytes in the developing neocortex.
Project description:Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are lineage-restricted progenitors generally limited in vivo to producing oligodendrocytes. Mechanisms controlling genesis of OPCs are of interest because of their importance in myelin development and their potential for regenerative therapies in multiple sclerosis and dysmyelinating syndromes. We show here that the SoxE transcription factors (comprising Sox8, 9, and 10) induce multipotent neural precursor cells (NPCs) from the early postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) to become OPCs in an autonomous manner. We performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation-based bioinformatic screen and identified Suppressor of Fused (Sufu) as a direct target of repression by Sox10. In vitro, overexpression of Sufu blocked OPC production, whereas RNAi-mediated inhibition augmented OPC production. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for Sufu have increased numbers of OPCs in the telencephalon during development. We conclude that Sox10 acts to restrict the potential of NPCs toward the oligodendrocyte lineage in part by regulating the expression of Sufu.
Project description:Oligodendrocytes are specialized cells that myelinate axons in the central nervous system. Defects in oligodendrocyte function and failure to form or maintain myelin sheaths can cause a number of neurological disorders. Oligodendrocytes are differentiated from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), which extend several processes that contact, elaborate, and eventually wrap axonal segments to form multilayered myelin sheaths. These processes require extensive changes in the cytoarchitecture and must be regulated by reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Here, we established a simple protocol to isolate and differentiate mouse OPCs, and by using this method, we investigated a role of microtubules (MTs) in oligodendrocyte differentiation. Oligodendrocytes developed a complex network of MTs during differentiation, and treatment of differentiating oligodendrocytes with nanomolar concentrations of MT-targeting agents (MTAs) markedly affected oligodendrocyte survival and differentiation. We found that acute exposure to vincristine and nocodazole at early stages of oligodendrocyte differentiation markedly increased MT arborization and enhanced differentiation, whereas taxol and epothilone B treatment produced opposing outcomes. Furthermore, treatment of myelinating co-cultures of oligodendrocytes and neurons with nanomolar concentrations of MTAs at late stages of oligodendrocyte differentiation induced dysmyelination. Together, these results suggest that MTs play an important role in the survival, differentiation, and myelination of oligodendrocytes.
Project description:Recent studies have suggested that Nkx6.2/Gtx and Nkx2.2 homeodomain transcription factors are involved in the regulation of oligodendrocyte maturation and/or myelination which occur predominantly in postnatal stages. However, their cellular specificity in postnatal central nervous system has not been characterized and their dynamic expressional relationship during oligodendrocyte lineage progression has not been determined. Here we report that both Nkx2.2 and Nkx6.2 are selectively expressed in Olig2+ cells of oligodendrocyte lineage in postnatal spinal cords. Although Nkx6.2 is specifically expressed in the APC+ mature oligodendrocytes, Nkx2.2 is initially expressed in differentiating oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) but quickly down-regulated as OPCs undergo terminal differentiation. Intriguingly, Nkx2.2 expression is up-regulated in mature myelinating oligodendrocytes at later stages. The co-expression of Nkx2.2 and Nkx6.2 transcription factors in myelinating oligodendrocytes suggests their functional interactions in the regulation of myelin sheath formation and/or maintenance.
Project description:Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) has been reported to play important roles in neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the injured brain. The present study characterizes a novel role for TGF? in oligodendrocyte lineage cell survival and white matter integrity after ischemic stroke. Three days after transient (60?min) middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), TGF? expression was significantly increased in microglia/macrophages and neurons. Expression of the receptor of TGF?-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-was increased in glial cells after ischemia, including in oligodendrocyte lineage cells. TGF? knockout enlarged brain infarct volumes and exacerbated cell death in oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and oligodendrocytes three days after tMCAO. TGF?-deficient mice displayed long-term exacerbation of sensorimotor deficits after tMCAO, and these functional impairments were accompanied by loss of white matter integrity and impaired oligodendrocyte replacement. In vitro studies confirmed that 5 or 10?ng/mL TGF? directly protected OPCs and oligodendrocytes against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death, but exerted no effects on OPC differentiation. Further studies identified STAT3 as a key transcription factor mediating the effects of TGF? on OPCs and oligodendrocytes. In conclusion, TGF? provides potent oligodendrocyte protection against cerebral ischemia, thereby maintaining white matter integrity and improving neurological recovery after stroke.
Project description:Cell-based therapies for myelin disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, require technologies to generate functional oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Here we describe direct conversion of mouse embryonic and lung fibroblasts to ‘induced’ oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (iOPCs) using sets of either eight or three defined transcription factors. iOPCs exhibit a bipolar morphologyical and global gene expression profile molecular features consistent with bona fide OPCs. They can be expanded in vitro for at least five passages while retaining the ability to differentiate into induced multiprocessed oligodendrocytes. When transplanted to hypomyelinated mice, iOPCs are capable of ensheathing host axons and generating compact myelinmyelinating axons both in vitro and in vivo. Lineage conversion of somatic cells to expandable iOPCs provides a strategy to study the molecular control of oligodendrocyte lineage identity and may facilitate neurological disease modeling and autologous remyelinating therapies. 6 total samples were analyzed. MEFs were either untreated or infected with inducible lentiviral vectors containing the open reading frames of transcription factors. Samples were compared to bona fide OPCs.
Project description:Oligodendrocytes, which are the main cell type in cerebral white matter, are generated from their precursor cells (oligodendrocyte precursor cells: OPCs). However, the differentiation from OPCs to oligodendrocytes is disturbed under stressed conditions. Therefore, drugs that can improve oligodendrocyte regeneration may be effective for white matter-related diseases. Here we show that a vasoactive peptide adrenomedullin (AM) promotes the in vitro differentiation of OPCs under pathological conditions. Primary OPCs were prepared from neonatal rat brains, and differentiated into myelin-basic-protein expressing oligodendrocytes over time. This in vitro OPC differentiation was inhibited by prolonged chemical hypoxic stress induced by non-lethal CoCl(2) treatment. However, AM promoted the OPC differentiation under the hypoxic stress conditions, and the AM receptor antagonist AM(22-52) canceled the AM-induced OPC differentiation. In addition, AM treatment increased the phosphorylation level of Akt in OPC cultures, and correspondingly, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 blocked the AM-induced OPC differentiation. Taken together, AM treatment rescued OPC maturation under pathological conditions via an AM-receptor-PI3K/Akt pathway. Oligodendrocytes play critical roles in white matter by forming myelin sheath. Therefore, AM signaling may be a promising therapeutic target to boost oligodendrocyte regeneration in CNS disorders.