Increased levels of IAA are required for system 2 ethylene synthesis causing fruit softening in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch).
ABSTRACT: The fruit of melting-flesh peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars produce high levels of ethylene caused by high expression of PpACS1 (an isogene of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase), resulting in rapid fruit softening at the late-ripening stage. In contrast, the fruit of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to low expression of PpACS1. To elucidate the mechanism for suppressing PpACS1 expression in stony hard peaches, a microarray analysis was performed. Several genes that displayed similar expression patterns as PpACS1 were identified and shown to be indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-inducible genes (Aux/IAA, SAUR). That is, expression of IAA-inducible genes increased at the late-ripening stage in melting flesh peaches; however, these transcripts were low in mature fruit of stony hard peaches. The IAA concentration increased suddenly just before harvest time in melting flesh peaches exactly coinciding with system 2 ethylene production. In contrast, the IAA concentration did not increase in stony hard peaches. Application of 1-naphthalene acetic acid, a synthetic auxin, to stony hard peaches induced a high level of PpACS1 expression, a large amount of ethylene production and softening. Application of an anti-auxin, ?-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA, to melting flesh peaches reduced levels of PpACS1 expression and ethylene production. These observations indicate that suppression of PpACS1 expression at the late-ripening stage of stony hard peach may result from a low level of IAA and that a high concentration of IAA is required to generate a large amount of system 2 ethylene in peaches.
Project description:High concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are required for climacteric ethylene biosynthesis to cause fruit softening in melting flesh peaches at the late ripening stage. By contrast, the fruits of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to the low IAA concentrations. To investigate the regulation of IAA accumulation during peach ripening [the transition from stage S3 to stage S4 III (climacteric)], a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed. The expression patterns of auxin-homeostasis-related genes were compared in fruits of the melting flesh peach 'Goldhoney 3' and the stony hard flesh peach 'Yumyeong' during the ripening stage. It is revealed here that a YUCCA flavin mono-oxygenase gene (PpYUC11, ppa008176m), a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, displayed an identical differential expression profile to the profiles of IAA accumulation and PpACS1 transcription: the mRNA transcripts increased at the late ripening stage in melting flesh peaches but were below the limit of detection in mature fruits of stony hard peaches. In addition, the strong association between intron TC microsatellite genotypes of PpYUC11 and the flesh texture (normal or stony hard) is described in 43 peach varieties, indicating that this locus may be responsible for the stony hard phenotype in peach. These findings support the hypothesis that PpYUC11 may play an essential role in auxin biosynthesis during peach fruit ripening and is a candidate gene for the control of the stony hard phenotype in peach.
Project description:The fruit of melting-flesh peach cultivars produce high levels of ethylene caused by high expression of PpACS1, resulting in rapid fruit softening at the late-ripening stage. In contrast, the fruit of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to low expression of PpACS1. To elucidate the mechanism for suppressing PpACS1 expression in stony hard peaches, a microarray analysis was performed. Several genes that displayed similar expression patterns as PpACS1 were identified and shown to be IAA-inducible genes. Change in gene expression according to growth of fruits in 'melting peach ‘Akatsuki’ fruit sampled at 92, 98, 104 and 106 day after full bloom (DAB). Propylene induced gene expression stony peach ‘Manami’ and ‘Odoroki’ harvested at commercial maturity (Tatsuki et al., 2006).
Project description:In melting flesh peaches, auxin is necessary for system-2 ethylene synthesis and a cross-talk between ethylene and auxin occurs during the ripening process. To elucidate this interaction at the transition from maturation to ripening and the accompanying switch from system-1 to system-2 ethylene biosynthesis, fruits of melting flesh and stony hard genotypes, the latter unable to produce system-2 ethylene because of insufficient amount of auxin at ripening, were treated with auxin, ethylene and with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), known to block ethylene receptors. The effects of the treatments on the different genotypes were monitored by hormone quantifications and transcription profiling.In melting flesh fruit, 1-MCP responses differed according to the ripening stage. Unexpectedly, 1-MCP induced genes also up-regulated by ripening, ethylene and auxin, as CTG134, similar to GOLVEN (GLV) peptides, and repressed genes also down-regulated by ripening, ethylene and auxin, as CTG85, a calcineurin B-like protein. The nature and transcriptional response of CTG134 led to discover a rise in free auxin in 1-MCP treated fruit. This increase was supported by the induced transcription of CTG475, an IAA-amino acid hydrolase. A melting flesh and a stony hard genotype, differing for their ability to synthetize auxin and ethylene amounts at ripening, were used to study the fine temporal regulation and auxin responsiveness of genes involved in the process. Transcriptional waves showed a tight interdependence between auxin and ethylene actions with the former possibly enhanced by the GLV CTG134. The expression of genes involved in the regulation of ripening, among which are several transcription factors, was similar in the two genotypes or could be rescued by auxin application in the stony hard. Only GLV CTG134 expression could not be rescued by exogenous auxin.1-MCP treatment of peach fruit is ineffective in delaying ripening because it stimulates an increase in free auxin. As a consequence, a burst in ethylene production speeding up ripening occurs. Based on a network of gene transcriptional regulations, a model in which appropriate level of CTG134 peptide hormone might be necessary to allow the correct balance between auxin and ethylene for peach ripening to occur is proposed.
Project description:Auxin response factors (ARFs) are important transcription factors to relay auxin signaling. From the Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR), we identified 17 peach ARF genes (PpARFs) encoding the proteins with three conserved domains. Their gene structure and functional domains were analyzed. Their transcriptional response to exogenous auxin treatment was tested and confirmed. We also expressed PpARF-GFP fusion reporters in tobacco leaves and observed their nuclear localization by fluorescence microscopy. It has been known that ARFs are widely involved in fruit development. We compared the expression pattern of all PpARFs in different tissues including the fruits at different developmental stages of two peach cultivars, "melting" and "stony hard". We found eight PpARFs were more highly expressed in the "melting" peaches compared to "stony hard" peaches, while three PpARFs were more highly expressed in "stony hard" peaches. Among them, the expression difference of PpARF4, PpARF7 and PpARF12 was large, and their function in regulating fruit development and fruit quality was discussed. Our work provides a basis for further exploring the mechanisms underlying auxin regulated peach fruit ripening.
Project description:Peach (Prunus persica) is a typical climacteric fruit that produces ethylene rapidly during ripening, and its fruit softens quickly. Stony hard peach cultivars, however, do not produce large amounts of ethylene, and the fruit remains firm until fully ripe, thus differing from melting flesh peach cultivars. To identify the key proteins involved in peach fruit ripening, an antibody-based proteomic analysis was conducted. A mega-monoclonal antibody (mAb) library was generated and arrayed on a chip (mAbArray) at a high density, covering ~4950 different proteins of peach. Through the screening of peach fruit proteins with the mAbArray chip, differentially expressed proteins recognized by 1587 mAbs were identified, and 33 corresponding antigens were ultimately identified by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. These proteins included not only important enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, such as ACO1, SAHH, SAMS, and MetE, but also novel factors such as NUDT2. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction analysis identified a metabolon containing SAHH and MetE. By combining the antibody-based proteomic data with the transcriptomic and metabolic data, a mathematical model of ethylene biosynthesis in peach was constructed. Simulation results showed that MetE is an important regulator during peach ripening, partially through interaction with SAHH.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ubiquitin ligases (E3) are the enzymes in the ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway responsible for targeting proteins to the degradation pathway and play major roles in multiple biological activities. However, the E3 family and their functions are yet to be identified in the fruit of peach. RESULTS:In this study, genome-wide identification, classification and characterization of the E3 ligase genes within the genome of peach (Prunus persica) was carried out. In total, 765 E3 (PpE3) ligase genes were identified in the peach genome. The PpE3 ligase genes were divided into eight subfamilies according to the presence of known functional domains. The RBX subfamily was not detected in peach. The PpE3 ligase genes were not randomly distributed among the 8 chromosomes, with a greater concentration on the longer chromosomes. The primary mode of gene duplication of the PpE3 ligase genes was dispersed gene duplication (DSD). Four subgroups of the BTB subfamily never characterized before were newly identified in peach, namely BTBAND, BTBBL, BTBP and BTBAN. The expression patterns of the identified E3 ligase genes in two peach varieties that display different types of fruit softening (melting flesh, MF, and stony hard, SH) were analyzed at 4 different stages of ripening using Illumina technology. Among the 765 PpE3 ligase genes, 515 (67.3%) were expressed (FPKM >?1) in the fruit of either MF or SH during fruit ripening. In same-stage comparisons, 231 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the two peach cultivars. The number of DEGs in each subfamily varied. Most DEGs were members of the BTB, F-box, U-box and RING subfamilies. PpE3 ligase genes predicted to be involved in ethylene, auxin, or ABA synthesis or signaling and DNA methylation were differentially regulated. Eight PpE3 ligase genes with possible roles in peach flesh texture and fruit ripening were discussed. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study provide useful information for further understanding the functional roles of the ubiquitin ligase genes in peach. The findings also provide the first clues that E3 ligase genes may function in the regulation of peach ripening.
Project description:Peach (Prunus persica) is an important fruit crop that generally softens rapidly after harvest resulting in a short shelf-life. By contrast, stony hard (SH) peach fruit does not soften and hardly produces ethylene. To explore the candidate genes responsible for the SH phenotype, a high-density genetic map was constructed by restriction-site associated DNA sequencing technology.In the present study, the linkage map consisted of 1310 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, spanning 454.2 cM, with an average marker distance of 0.347 cM. The single nucleotide polymorphisms were able to anchor eight linkage groups to their corresponding chromosomes. Based on this high-density integrated peach linkage map and two years of fruit phenotyping, two potential quantitative trait loci for the SH trait were identified and positioned on the genetic map. Additionally, Prupe.6G150900.1, a key gene in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, displayed a differential expression profile identical to the ABA accumulation pattern: mRNA transcripts were maintained at a high level during storage of SH peaches but occurred at low levels in melting fruit.Thus Prupe.6G150900.1 might play a crucial role in the SH phenotype of peach in which ABA negatively regulates ethylene production. Also, this high-density linkage map of peach will contribute to the mapping of important fruit traits and quantitative trait loci identification.
Project description:The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) repressor genes down-regulate the auxin response pathway during many stages of plant and fruit development. In order to determine if and how Aux/IAAs participate in governing texture and hardness in stone fruit maturation, we identified 23 Aux/IAA genes in peach, confirmed by the presence of four conserved domains. In this work, we used fluorescence microscopy with PpIAA-GFP fusion reporters to observe their nuclear localization. We then conducted PCR-based differential expression analysis in "melting" and "stony hard" varieties of peach, and found that in the "melting" variety, nine PpIAAs exhibited peak expression in the S4-3 stage of fruit maturation, with PpIAA33 showing the highest (>120-fold) induction. The expression of six PpIAAs peaked in the S4-2 stage, with PpIAA14 expressed the most highly. Only PpIAA15/16 showed higher expression in the "stony hard" variety than in the "melting" variety, both peaking in the S3 stage. In contrast, PpIAA32 had the highest relative expression in buds, flowers, young and mature leaves, and roots. Our study provides insights into the expression patterns of Aux/IAA developmental regulators in response to auxin during fruit maturation, thus providing insight into their potential development as useful markers for quantitative traits associated with fruit phenotype.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is one of the most economically important fruit crops that, due to its genetic and biological characteristics (small genome size, taxonomic proximity to other important species and short juvenile period), has become a model plant in genomic studies of fruit trees. Our aim was an in-depth study of the extent, distribution and structure of peach genetic variation in North American and European commercial varieties as well as old Spanish varieties and several founders used in the early USA peach breeding programmes. For this we genotyped 224 peach cultivars using 50 SSRs evenly distributed along the 8 linkage groups of the Prunus reference map. RESULTS: Genetic distance analysis based on SSRs divided the peach cultivars in three main groups based mainly on their fruit characteristics: melting flesh peaches, melting flesh nectarines and non-melting varieties. Whereas non-melting flesh peaches had a higher number of alleles than melting peaches and nectarines, they were more homozygous. With some exceptions ('Admiral Dewey', 'Early Crawford' and 'Chinese Cling'), the founder US cultivars clustered together with the commercial melting peaches, indicating that their germplasm is well represented in modern cultivars. Population structure analysis showed a similar subdivision of the sample into subpopulations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis in three unstructured, or barely structured, subpopulations revealed a high level of LD conservation in peach extending up to 13-15 cM. CONCLUSIONS: Using a much larger set of SSRs, our results confirm previous observations on peach variability and population structure and provide additional tools for breeding and breeders' rights enforcement. SSR data are also used for the estimation of marker mutation rates and allow pedigree inferences, particularly with founder genotypes of the currently grown cultivars, which are useful to understand the evolution of peach as a crop. Results on LD conservation can be explained by the self-pollinating nature of peach cultivated germplasm and by a bottleneck that occurred at the beginning of modern breeding practices. High LD suggests that the development of whole-genome scanning approaches is suitable for genetic studies of agronomically important traits in peach.
Project description:Texture is one of the most important fruit quality attributes. In peach, stony hard (SH) is a recessive monogenic trait (hd/hd) that confers exceptionally prolonged firm flesh to fully ripe fruit. Previous studies have shown that the SH mutation affects the fruit ability to synthesize appropriate amounts of indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), which orchestrates the ripening processes through the activation of system 2 ethylene pathway. Allelic variation in a TC microsatellite located within the first intron of PpYUC11-like (a YUCCA-like auxin-biosynthesis gene) has been recently proposed as the causal mutation of the SH phenotype.The simple genetic determinism of the SH trait has been clarified through genome-wide association and LD analyses in a diverse set of accessions, restricting the hd locus to an interval of about 1.8 Mbp in chromosome 6. The comparison of fruit transcriptome data from non-SH (melting flesh) and SH accessions provided an expression patterns overview of the annotated transcripts within the hd locus, confirming the absence of PpYUC11-like expression in SH fruits. To explore further possible associations between genomic variants at the hd locus and the SH phenotype, re-sequencing data of the SH accession 'D41-62' were compared with several SH and non-SH accessions with different genetic backgrounds. A further step of validation was provided through the evaluation of variant-trait association in two bi-parental F2 populations issued from the SH accession 'D41-62' and a panel of advanced breeding selections, showing perfect co-segregation of the PpYUC11-like intron TC20 allele and the SH phenotype.In this study, we provide a multi-level validation of the genetic control of the SH trait through the integration of genome-wide association mapping, transcriptome analysis and whole-genome resequencing data for SH and non-SH accessions, and marker-trait association in a panel of advanced breeding selections and segregating progenies. Collectively, our data confirm with high confidence the role of allelic variation at PpYUC11-like locus as the genetic determinant of the SH trait, opening interesting perspectives at both biological and applied research level.