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The DNA repair protein XRCC1 functions in the plant DNA demethylation pathway by stimulating cytosine methylation (5-meC) excision, gap tailoring, and DNA ligation.


ABSTRACT: DNA methylation patterns are the dynamic outcome of antagonist methylation and demethylation mechanisms, but the latter are still poorly understood. Active DNA demethylation in plants is mediated by a family of DNA glycosylases typified by Arabidopsis ROS1 (repressor of silencing 1). ROS1 and its homologs remove 5-methylcytosine and incise the sugar backbone at the abasic site, thus initiating a base excision repair pathway that finally inserts an unmethylated cytosine. The DNA 3'-phosphatase ZDP processes some of the incision products generated by ROS1, allowing subsequent DNA polymerization and ligation steps. In this work, we examined the possible role of plant XRCC1 (x-ray cross-complementing group protein 1) in DNA demethylation. We found that XRCC1 interacts in vitro with ROS1 and ZDP and stimulates the enzymatic activity of both proteins. Furthermore, extracts from xrcc1 mutant plants exhibit a reduced capacity to complete DNA demethylation initiated by ROS1. An anti-XRCC1 antibody inhibits removal of the blocking 3'-phosphate in the single-nucleotide gap generated during demethylation and reduces the capacity of Arabidopsis cell extracts to ligate a nicked DNA intermediate. Our results suggest that XRCC1 is a component of plant base excision repair and functions at several stages during active DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3581409 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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