Latent TGF-β binding protein 4 promotes elastic fiber assembly by interacting with fibulin-5.
ABSTRACT: Elastic fiber assembly requires deposition of elastin monomers onto microfibrils, the mechanism of which is incompletely understood. Here we show that latent TGF-β binding protein 4 (LTBP-4) potentiates formation of elastic fibers through interacting with fibulin-5, a tropoelastin-binding protein necessary for elastogenesis. Decreased expression of LTBP-4 in human dermal fibroblast cells by siRNA treatment abolished the linear deposition of fibulin-5 and tropoelastin on microfibrils. It is notable that the addition of recombinant LTBP-4 to cell culture medium promoted elastin deposition on microfibrils without changing the expression of elastic fiber components. This elastogenic property of LTBP-4 is independent of bound TGF-β because TGF-β-free recombinant LTBP-4 was as potent an elastogenic inducer as TGF-β-bound recombinant LTBP-4. Without LTBP-4, fibulin-5 and tropoelastin deposition was discontinuous and punctate in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest a unique function for LTBP-4 during elastic fibrogenesis, making it a potential therapeutic target for elastic fiber regeneration.
Project description:Elastogenesis is a hierarchical process by which cells form functional elastic fibers, providing elasticity and the ability to regulate growth factor bioavailability in tissues, including blood vessels, lung, and skin. This process requires accessory proteins, including fibulin-4 and -5, and latent TGF binding protein (LTBP)-4. Our data demonstrate mechanisms in elastogenesis, focusing on the interaction and functional interdependence between fibulin-4 and LTBP-4L and its impact on matrix deposition and function. We show that LTBP-4L is not secreted in the expected extended structure based on its domain composition, but instead adopts a compact conformation. Interaction with fibulin-4 surprisingly induced a conformational switch from the compact to an elongated LTBP-4L structure. This conversion was only induced by fibulin-4 multimers associated with increased avidity for LTBP-4L; fibulin-4 monomers were inactive. The fibulin-4-induced conformational change caused functional consequences in LTBP-4L in terms of binding to other elastogenic proteins, including fibronectin and fibrillin-1, and of LTBP-4L assembly. A transient exposure of LTBP-4L with fibulin-4 was sufficient to stably induce conformational and functional changes; a stable complex was not required. These data define fibulin-4 as a molecular extracellular chaperone for LTBP-4L. The altered LTBP-4L conformation also promoted elastogenesis, but only in the presence of fibulin-4, which is required to escort tropoelastin onto the extended LTBP-4L molecule. Altogether, this study provides a dual mechanism for fibulin-4 in 1) inducing a stable conformational and functional change in LTBP-4L, and 2) promoting deposition of tropoelastin onto the elongated LTBP-4L.
Project description:Elastic system fibers consist of microfibrils and tropoelastin. During development, microfibrils act as a template on which tropoelastin is deposited. Fibrillin-1 is the major component of microfibrils. It is not clear whether elastic fiber-associated molecules, such as fibulins, contribute to tropoelastin deposition. Among the fibulin family, fibulin-2, -4 and -5 are capable of binding to tropoelastin and fibrillin-1. In the present study, we used the RNA interference (RNAi) technique to establish individual gene-specific knockdown of fibulin-2, -4 and -5 in elastin-producing cells (human gingival fibroblasts; HGF). We then examined the extracellular deposition of tropoelastin using immunofluorescence. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of fibulin-4 and -5 was responsible for the diminution of tropoelastin deposition. Suppression of fibulin-5 appeared to inhibit the formation of fibrillin-1 microfibrils, while that of fibulin-4 did not. Similar results to those for HGF were obtained with human dermal fibroblasts. These results suggest that fibulin-4 and -5 may be associated in different ways with the extracellular deposition of tropoelastin during elastic fiber formation in elastin-producing cells in culture.
Project description:Elastic fibers play the principal roles in providing elasticity and integrity to various types of human organs, such as the arteries, lung, and skin. However, the molecular mechanism of elastic fiber assembly that leads to deposition and crosslinking of elastin along microfibrils remains largely unknown. We have previously shown that developing arteries and neural crest EGF-like protein (DANCE) (also designated fibulin-5) is essential for elastogenesis by studying DANCE-deficient mice. Here, we report the identification of latent transforming growth factor-beta-binding protein 2 (LTBP-2), an elastic fiber-associating protein whose function in elastogenesis is not clear, as a DANCE-binding protein. Elastogenesis assays using human skin fibroblasts reveal that fibrillar deposition of DANCE and elastin is largely dependent on fibrillin-1 microfibrils. However, downregulation of LTBP-2 induces fibrillin-1-independent fibrillar deposition of DANCE and elastin. Moreover, recombinant LTBP-2 promotes deposition of DANCE onto fibrillin-1 microfibrils. These results suggest a novel regulatory mechanism of elastic fiber assembly in which LTBP-2 regulates targeting of DANCE on suitable microfibrils to form elastic fibers.
Project description:Fibulin-4 and -5 are extracellular glycoproteins with essential non-compensatory roles in elastic fiber assembly. We have determined how they interact with tropoelastin, lysyl oxidase, and fibrillin-1, thereby revealing how they differentially regulate assembly. Strong binding between fibulin-4 and lysyl oxidase enhanced the interaction of fibulin-4 with tropoelastin, forming ternary complexes that may direct elastin cross-linking. In contrast, fibulin-5 did not bind lysyl oxidase strongly but bound tropoelastin in terminal and central regions and could concurrently bind fibulin-4. Both fibulins differentially bound N-terminal fibrillin-1, which strongly inhibited their binding to lysyl oxidase and tropoelastin. Knockdown experiments revealed that fibulin-5 controlled elastin deposition on microfibrils, although fibulin-4 can also bind fibrillin-1. These experiments provide a molecular account of the distinct roles of fibulin-4 and -5 in elastic fiber assembly and how they act in concert to chaperone cross-linked elastin onto microfibrils.
Project description:Evolution of elastic fibers is associated with establishment of the closed circulation system. Primary roles of elastic fibers are to provide elasticity and recoiling to tissues and organs and to maintain the structural integrity against mechanical strain over a lifetime. Elastic fibers are comprised of an insoluble elastin core and surrounding mantle of microfibrils. Elastic fibers are formed in a regulated, stepwise manner, which includes the formation of a microfibrillar scaffold, deposition and integration of tropoelastin monomers into the scaffold, and cross-linking of the monomers to form an insoluble, functional polymer. In recent years, an increasing number of glycoproteins have been identified and shown to be located on or surrounding elastic fibers. Among them, the short fibulins-3, -4 and -5 particularly drew attention because of their potent elastogenic activity. Fibulins-3, -4 and -5 are characterized by tandem repeats of calcium binding EGF-like motifs and a C-terminal fibulin module, which is conserved throughout fibulin family members. Initial biochemical characterization and gene expression studies predicted that fibulins might be involved in structural support and/or matrix-cell interactions. Recent analyses of short fibulin knockout mice have revealed their critical roles in elastic fiber development in vivo. We review recent findings on the elastogenic functions of short fibulins and discuss the molecular mechanism underlying their activity in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Elastic fibers are required for the elasticity and integrity of various organs. We and others previously showed that fibulin-5 (also called developing arteries and neural crest EGF-like [DANCE] or embryonic vascular EGF-like repeat-containing protein [EVEC]) is indispensable for elastogenesis by studying fibulin-5-deficient mice, which recapitulate human aging phenotypes caused by disorganized elastic fibers (Nakamura, T., P.R. Lozano, Y. Ikeda, Y. Iwanaga, A. Hinek, S. Minamisawa, C.F. Cheng, K. Kobuke, N. Dalton, Y. Takada, et al. 2002. Nature. 415:171-175; Yanagisawa, H., E.C. Davis, B.C. Starcher, T. Ouchi, M. Yanagisawa, J.A. Richardson, and E.N. Olson. 2002. Nature. 415:168-171). However, the molecular mechanism by which fiblin-5 contributes to elastogenesis remains unknown. We report that fibulin-5 protein potently induces elastic fiber assembly and maturation by organizing tropoelastin and cross-linking enzymes onto microfibrils. Deposition of fibulin-5 on microfibrils promotes coacervation and alignment of tropoelastins on microfibrils, and also facilitates cross-linking of tropoelastin by tethering lysyl oxidase-like 1, 2, and 4 enzymes. Notably, recombinant fibulin-5 protein induced elastogenesis even in serum-free conditions, although elastogenesis in cell culture has been believed to be serum-dependent. Moreover, the amount of full-length fibulin-5 diminishes with age, while truncated fibulin-5, which cannot promote elastogenesis, increases. These data suggest that fibulin-5 could be a novel therapeutic target for elastic fiber regeneration.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) are multifunctional growth factors that are secreted as inactive (latent) precursors in large protein complexes. These complexes include the latency-associated propeptide (LAP) and a latent transforming growth factor-beta binding protein (LTBP). Four isoforms of LTBPs (LTBP-1-LTBP-4) have been cloned and are believed to be structural components of connective tissue microfibrils and local regulators of TGF-beta tissue deposition and signaling. By using a gene trap strategy that selects for integrations into genes induced transiently during early mouse development, we have disrupted the mouse homolog of the human LTBP-4 gene. Mice homozygous for the disrupted allele develop severe pulmonary emphysema, cardiomyopathy, and colorectal cancer. These highly tissue-specific abnormalities are associated with profound defects in the elastic fiber structure and with a reduced deposition of TGF-beta in the extracellular space. As a consequence, epithelial cells have reduced levels of phosphorylated Smad2 proteins, overexpress c-myc, and undergo uncontrolled proliferation. This phenotype supports the predicted dual role of LTBP-4 as a structural component of the extracellular matrix and as a local regulator of TGF-beta tissue deposition and signaling.
Project description:The fibulin family of extracellular matrix/matricellular proteins is composed of long fibulins (fibulin-1, -2, -6) and short fibulins (fibulin-3, -4, -5, -7) and is involved in protein-protein interaction with the components of basement membrane and extracellular matrix proteins. Fibulin-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 bind the monomeric form of elastin (tropoelastin) in vitro and fibulin-2, -3, -4, and -5 are shown to be involved in various aspects of elastic fiber development in vivo. In particular, fibulin-4 and -5 are critical molecules for elastic fiber assembly and play a non-redundant role during elastic fiber formation. Despite manifestation of systemic elastic fiber defects in all elastogenic tissues, fibulin-5 null (Fbln5(-/-)) mice have a normal lifespan. In contrast, fibulin-4 null (Fbln4(-/-)) mice die during the perinatal period due to rupture of aortic aneurysms, indicating differential functions of fibulin-4 and fibulin-5 in normal development. In this review, we will update biochemical characterization of fibulin-4 and fibulin-5 and discuss their roles in elastogenesis and outside of elastogenesis based on knowledge obtained from loss-of-function studies in mouse and in human patients with FBLN4 or FBLN5 mutations. Finally, we will evaluate therapeutic options for matrix-related diseases.
Project description:Fibulin-5 plays an important role in elastic fibre formation in vivo. We have investigated the molecular interactions between fibulin-5 and components of fibrillin-rich microfibrils which form a template for elastin. Fibulin-5 interacted in a dose-dependent manner with a fibrillin-1 N-terminal sequence and with tropoelastin, but not with MAGP-1 (microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1) or decorin. Fibulin-5 did not inhibit interactions between fibrillin-1 N- and C-terminal fragments, or fibrillin-1 interactions with tropoelastin. Fibulin-5 may provide a link between tropoelastin and microfibrils in the pericellular space during elastic fibre assembly.
Project description:Latent transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-binding proteins (LTBPs) interact with fibrillin-1. This interaction is important for proper sequestration and extracellular control of TGFbeta. Surface plasmon resonance interaction studies show that residues within the first hybrid domain (Hyb1) of fibrillin-1 contribute to interactions with LTBP-1 and LTBP-4. Modulation of binding affinities by fibrillin-1 polypeptides in which residues in the third epidermal growth factor-like domain (EGF3) are mutated demonstrates that the binding sites for LTBP-1 and LTBP-4 are different and suggests that EGF3 may also contribute residues to the binding site for LTBP-4. In addition, fibulin-2, fibulin-4, and fibulin-5 bind to residues contained within EGF3/Hyb1, but mutated polypeptides again indicate differences in their binding sites in fibrillin-1. Results demonstrate that these protein-protein interactions exhibit "exquisite specificities," a phrase commonly used to describe monoclonal antibody interactions. Despite these differences, interactions between LTBP-1 and fibrillin-1 compete for interactions between fibrillin-1 and these fibulins. All of these proteins have been immunolocalized to microfibrils. However, in fibrillin-1 (Fbn1) null fibroblast cultures, LTBP-1 and LTBP-4 are not incorporated into microfibrils. In contrast, in fibulin-2 (Fbln2) null or fibulin-4 (Fbln4) null cultures, fibrillin-1, LTBP-1, and LTBP-4 are incorporated into microfibrils. These data show for the first time that fibrillin-1, but not fibulin-2 or fibulin-4, is required for appropriate matrix assembly of LTBPs. These studies also suggest that the fibulins may affect matrix sequestration of LTBPs, because in vitro interactions between these proteins are competitive.