Vps factors are required for efficient transcription elongation in budding yeast.
ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that certain Vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) proteins, factors that mediate vesicular protein trafficking, have additional roles in regulating transcription factors at the endosome. We found that yeast mutants lacking the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] kinase Vps34 or its associated protein kinase Vps15 display multiple phenotypes indicating impaired transcription elongation. These phenotypes include reduced mRNA production from long or G+C-rich coding sequences (CDS) without affecting the associated GAL1 promoter activity, and a reduced rate of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) progression through lacZ CDS in vivo. Consistent with reported genetic interactions with mutations affecting the histone acetyltransferase complex NuA4, vps15? and vps34? mutations reduce NuA4 occupancy in certain transcribed CDS. vps15? and vps34? mutants also exhibit impaired localization of the induced GAL1 gene to the nuclear periphery. We found unexpectedly that, similar to known transcription elongation factors, these and several other Vps factors can be cross-linked to the CDS of genes induced by Gcn4 or Gal4 in a manner dependent on transcriptional induction and stimulated by Cdk7/Kin28-dependent phosphorylation of the Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD). We also observed colocalization of a fraction of Vps15-GFP and Vps34-GFP with nuclear pores at nucleus-vacuole (NV) junctions in live cells. These findings suggest that Vps factors enhance the efficiency of transcription elongation in a manner involving their physical proximity to nuclear pores and transcribed chromatin.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Vps34 complexes regulate intracellular membrane trafficking in endocytic sorting, cytokinesis, and autophagy. We present the 4.4 angstrom crystal structure of the 385-kilodalton endosomal complex II (PIK3C3-CII), consisting of Vps34, Vps15 (p150), Vps30/Atg6 (Beclin 1), and Vps38 (UVRAG). The subunits form a Y-shaped complex, centered on the Vps34 C2 domain. Vps34 and Vps15 intertwine in one arm, where the Vps15 kinase domain engages the Vps34 activation loop to regulate its activity. Vps30 and Vps38 form the other arm that brackets the Vps15/Vps34 heterodimer, suggesting a path for complex assembly. We used hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to reveal conformational changes accompanying membrane binding and identify a Vps30 loop that is critical for the ability of complex II to phosphorylate giant liposomes on which complex I is inactive.
2015-01-01 | S-EPMC4601532 | BioStudies
Project description:Autophagy is a process through which intracellular cargoes are catabolised inside lysosomes. It involves formation of autophagosomes initiated by the serine/threonine kinase ULK and by VPS34 class-III PI3 kinase complexes. Here, unbiased phosphoproteomics screens in mouse embryonic fibroblasts deleted for Ulk1/2 reveal that ULK loss significantly alters the phosphoproteome , with high-confidence substrates including VPS34 complex member VPS15 and AMPK complex subunit PRKAG2. We identify six ULK-dependent phosphorylation sites on VPS15, mutation of which reduces autophagosome formation in cells and VPS34 activity in vitro. Mutation of serine 861, the major VPS15 phosphosite, decreases both autophagy initiation and autophagic flux. Analysis of VPS15 knockout cells reveals two novel ULK-dependent phenotypes downstream of VPS15 removal that can be partially recapitulated by chronic VPS34 inhibition; starvation-independent accumulation of ULK substrates, and kinase activity-regulated recruitment of autophagy proteins to ubiquitin-positive structures.
Project description:The complex of Vacuolar Protein Sorting 34 and 15 (Vps34 and Vps15) has Class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and putative roles in nutrient sensing, mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR) activation by amino acids, cell growth, vesicular trafficking and autophagy. Contrary to expectations, here we show that Vps15-deficient mouse tissues are competent for LC3-positive autophagosome formation and maintain mTOR activation. However, an impaired lysosomal function in mutant cells is traced by accumulation of adaptor protein p62, LC3 and Lamp2 positive vesicles, which can be reverted to normal levels after ectopic overexpression of Vps15. Mice lacking Vps15 in skeletal muscles, develop a severe myopathy. Distinct from the autophagy deficient Atg7(-/-) mutants, pathognomonic morphological hallmarks of autophagic vacuolar myopathy (AVM) are observed in Vps15(-/-) mutants, including elevated creatine kinase plasma levels, accumulation of autophagosomes, glycogen and sarcolemmal features within the fibres. Importantly, Vps34/Vps15 overexpression in myoblasts of Danon AVM disease patients alleviates the glycogen accumulation. Thus, the activity of the Vps34/Vps15 complex is critical in disease conditions such as AVMs, and possibly a variety of other lysosomal storage diseases.
Project description:The class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex I (PI3KC3-C1) that functions in early autophagy consists of the lipid kinase VPS34, the scaffolding protein VPS15, the tumor suppressor BECN1, and the autophagy-specific subunit ATG14. The structure of the ATG14-containing PI3KC3-C1 was determined by single-particle EM, revealing a V-shaped architecture. All of the ordered domains of VPS34, VPS15, and BECN1 were mapped by MBP tagging. The dynamics of the complex were defined using hydrogen-deuterium exchange, revealing a novel 20-residue ordered region C-terminal to the VPS34 C2 domain. VPS15 organizes the complex and serves as a bridge between VPS34 and the ATG14:BECN1 subcomplex. Dynamic transitions occur in which the lipid kinase domain is ejected from the complex and VPS15 pivots at the base of the V. The N-terminus of BECN1, the target for signaling inputs, resides near the pivot point. These observations provide a framework for understanding the allosteric regulation of lipid kinase activity.
Project description:Autophagy is a catabolic process used to deliver cellular material to the lysosome for degradation. The core Vps34/class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) complex, consisting of Atg6, Vps15, and Vps34, is highly conserved throughout evolution, critical for recruiting autophagy-related proteins to the preautophagosomal structure and for other vesicular trafficking processes, including vacuolar protein sorting. Atg6 and Vps34 have been well characterized, but the Vps15 kinase remains poorly characterized with most studies focusing on nutrient deprivation-induced autophagy. Here, we investigate the function of Vps15 in different cellular contexts and find that it is necessary for both stress-induced and developmentally programmed autophagy in various tissues in Drosophila melanogaster. Vps15 is required for autophagy that is induced by multiple forms of stress, including nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, autophagy that is triggered by physiological stimuli during development in the fat body, intestine, and salivary gland also require the function of Vps15. In addition, we show that Vps15 is necessary for efficient salivary gland protein secretion. These data illustrate the broad importance of Vps15 in multiple forms of autophagy in different animal cells, and also highlight the pleiotropic function of this kinase in multiple vesicle-trafficking pathways.
Project description:Autophagy induction by starvation and stress involves the enzymatic activation of the class III phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase complex I (PI3KC3-C1). The inactive basal state of PI3KC3-C1 is maintained by inhibitory contacts between the VPS15 protein kinase and VPS34 lipid kinase domains that restrict the conformation of the VPS34 activation loop. Here, the proautophagic MIT domain-containing protein NRBF2 was used to map the structural changes leading to activation. Cryoelectron microscopy was used to visualize a 2-step PI3KC3-C1 activation pathway driven by NRFB2 MIT domain binding. Binding of a single NRBF2 MIT domain bends the helical solenoid of the VPS15 scaffold, displaces the protein kinase domain of VPS15, and releases the VPS34 kinase domain from the inhibited conformation. Binding of a second MIT stabilizes the VPS34 lipid kinase domain in an active conformation that has an unrestricted activation loop and is poised for access to membranes.
Project description:Class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) regulates multiple membrane trafficking. In yeast, two distinct PI3-kinase complexes are known: complex I (Vps34, Vps15, Vps30/Atg6, and Atg14) is involved in autophagy, and complex II (Vps34, Vps15, Vps30/Atg6, and Vps38) functions in the vacuolar protein sorting pathway. Atg14 and Vps38 are important in inducing both complexes to exert distinct functions. In mammals, the counterparts of Vps34, Vps15, and Vps30/Atg6 have been identified as Vps34, p150, and Beclin 1, respectively. However, orthologues of Atg14 and Vps38 remain unknown. We identified putative mammalian homologues of Atg14 and Vps38. The Vps38 candidate is identical to UV irradiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), which has been reported as a Beclin 1-interacting protein. Although both human Atg14 and UVRAG interact with Beclin 1 and Vps34, Atg14, and UVRAG are not present in the same complex. Although Atg14 is present on autophagic isolation membranes, UVRAG primarily associates with Rab9-positive endosomes. Silencing of human Atg14 in HeLa cells suppresses autophagosome formation. The coiled-coil region of Atg14 required for binding with Vps34 and Beclin 1 is essential for autophagy. These results suggest that mammalian cells have at least two distinct class III PI3-kinase complexes, which may function in different membrane trafficking pathways.
Project description:The class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex I (PI3KC3-C1) is required for the initiation of essentially all macroautophagic processes. PI3KC3-C1 consists of the lipid kinase catalytic subunit VPS34, the VPS15 scaffold, and the regulatory BECN1 and ATG14 subunits. The VPS34 catalytic domain and BECN1:ATG14 subcomplex do not touch, and it is unclear how allosteric signals are transmitted to VPS34. We used EM and crosslinking mass spectrometry to dissect five conformational substates of the complex, including one in which the VPS34 catalytic domain is dislodged from the complex but remains tethered by an intrinsically disordered linker. A "leashed" construct prevented dislodging without interfering with the other conformations, blocked enzyme activity in vitro, and blocked autophagy induction in yeast cells. This pinpoints the dislodging and tethering of the VPS34 catalytic domain, and its regulation by VPS15, as a master allosteric switch in autophagy induction.
Project description:Autophagy is a conserved eukaryotic process of protein and organelle self-degradation within the vacuole/lysosome. Autophagy is characterized by the formation of an autophagosome, for which Vps34-dervied phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) is essential. In yeast, Vps34 forms two distinct protein complexes: complex I, which functions in autophagy, and complex II, which is involved in protein sorting to the vacuole. Here we identify and characterize Atg38 as a stably associated subunit of complex I. In atg38? cells, autophagic activity was significantly reduced and PI3-kinase complex I dissociated into the Vps15-Vps34 and Atg14-Vps30 subcomplexes. We find that Atg38 physically interacted with Atg14 and Vps34 via its N terminus. Further biochemical analyses revealed that Atg38 homodimerizes through its C terminus and that this homodimer formation is indispensable for the integrity of complex I. These data suggest that the homodimer of Atg38 functions as a physical linkage between the Vps15-Vps34 and Atg14-Vps30 subcomplexes to facilitate complex I formation.
Project description:Multiple factors are involved in the elongation stage of transcription regulation to ensure the passing of RNA polymerases while preserving appropriate nucleosome structure thereafter. The recently reported trimeric sub-module of NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex involved in this process provides more insight into the sophisticated modulation of transcription elongation.