The biosynthetic origin of irregular monoterpenes in Lavandula: isolation and biochemical characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase gene, lavandulyl diphosphate synthase.
ABSTRACT: Lavender essential oils are constituted predominantly of regular monoterpenes, for example linalool, 1,8-cineole, and camphor. However, they also contain irregular monoterpenes including lavandulol and lavandulyl acetate. Although the majority of genes responsible for the production of regular monoterpenes in lavenders are now known, enzymes (including lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LPPS)) catalyzing the biosynthesis of irregular monoterpenes in these plants have not been described. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase cDNA, termed Lavandula x intermedia lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LiLPPS), through a homology-based cloning strategy. The LiLPPS ORF, encoding for a 305-amino acid long protein, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. The approximately 34.5-kDa bacterially produced protein specifically catalyzed the head-to-middle condensation of two dimethylallyl diphosphate units to LPP in vitro with apparent Km and kcat values of 208 ± 12 ?m and 0.1 s(-1), respectively. LiLPPS is a homodimeric enzyme with a sigmoidal saturation curve and Hill coefficient of 2.7, suggesting a positive co-operative interaction among its catalytic sites. LiLPPS could be used to modulate the production of lavandulol and its derivatives in plants through metabolic engineering.
Project description:We report the first X-ray structure of the unique "head-to-middle" monoterpene synthase, lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LPPS). LPPS catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to form lavandulyl diphosphate, a precursor to the fragrance lavandulol. The structure is similar to that of the bacterial cis-prenyl synthase, undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS), and contains an allylic site (S1) in which DMAPP ionizes and a second site (S2) which houses the DMAPP nucleophile. Both S-thiolo-dimethylallyl diphosphate and S-thiolo-isopentenyl diphosphate bind intact to S2, but are cleaved to (thio)diphosphate, in S1. His78 (Asn in UPPS) is essential for catalysis and is proposed to facilitate diphosphate release in S1, while the P1 phosphate in S2 abstracts a proton from the lavandulyl carbocation to form the LPP product. The results are of interest since they provide the first structure and structure-based mechanism of this unusual prenyl synthase.
Project description:We identified a cis-prenyltransferase gene, neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1), that is expressed in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar M82 type VI glandular trichomes and encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of neryl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. mRNA for a terpene synthase gene, phellandrene synthase 1 (PHS1), was also identified in these glands. It encodes an enzyme that uses neryl diphosphate to produce beta-phellandrene as the major product as well as a variety of other monoterpenes. The profile of monoterpenes produced by PHS1 is identical with the monoterpenes found in type VI glands. PHS1 and NDPS1 map to chromosome 8, and the presence of a segment of chromosome 8 derived from Solanum pennellii LA0716 causes conversion from the M82 gland monoterpene pattern to that characteristic of LA0716 plants. The data indicate that, contrary to the textbook view of geranyl diphosphate as the "universal" substrate of monoterpene synthases, in tomato glands neryl diphosphate serves as a precursor for the synthesis of monoterpenes.
Project description:Plants produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites in response to adverse environmental factors. Z,Z-Farnesyl diphosphate (Z,Z-FPP), synthesized by Z,Z-farnesyl diphosphate synthase (zFPS), supports the formation of phytochemicals in wild tomatoes. Here, the crystal structure of N-terminal truncated zFPS (?zFPS) was determined. Irregular products including lavandulyl diphosphate and an unknown compound were surprisingly found. Apart from the truncated N-terminus as a functional regulator, structure-based analysis and mutagenesis assays revealed a residue H103 in ?zFPS as one of the key elements to this irregular function. A series of substrate-enzyme complex structures were obtained from ?zFPS-H103Y by co-crystallizing with isopentenyl diphosphate, dimethylallyl thiolodiphosphate, or both. Various substrate-binding modes were revealed. The catalytic mechanisms of both the head-to-tail and head-to-middle reactions in ?zFPS were proposed. Functional switch between the two mechanisms in this enzyme and the essential role played by the flexible C-terminus were elucidated as well.
Project description:Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CPPase) catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate to produce chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP), a monoterpene with a non-head-to-tail or irregular c1'-2-3 linkage between isoprenoid units. Irregular monoterpenes are common in Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and related members of the Asteraceae family. In C. cinerariaefolium, CPP is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the pyrethrin ester insecticides. CPPase was purified from immature chrysanthemum flowers, and the N terminus of the protein was sequenced. A C. cinerariaefolium lambda cDNA library was screened by using degenerate oligonucleotide probes based on the amino acid sequence to identify a CPPase clone that encoded a 45-kDa preprotein. The first 50 aa of the ORF constitute a putative plastidial targeting sequence. Recombinant CPPase bearing an N-terminal polyhistidine affinity tag in place of the targeting sequence was purified to homogeneity from an overproducing Escherichia coli strain by Ni(2+) chromatography. Incubation of recombinant CPPase with dimethylallyl diphosphate produced CPP. The diphosphate ester was hydrolyzed by alkaline phosphatase, and the resulting monoterpene alcohol was analyzed by GC/MS to confirm its structure. The amino acid sequence of CPPase aligns closely with that of the chain elongation prenyltransferase farnesyl diphosphate synthase rather than squalene synthase or phytoene synthase, which catalyze c1'-2-3 cyclopropanation reactions similar to the CPPase reaction.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS) is a key enzyme in biosynthetic pathways producing pyrethrins and irregular monoterpenes. These compounds are confined to plants of the tribe Anthemideae of the Asteraceae, and play an important role in defending the plants against herbivorous insects. It has been proposed that the CDS genes arose from duplication of the farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDS) gene and have different function from FDSs. However, the duplication time toward the origin of CDS and the evolutionary force behind the functional divergence of the CDS gene are still unknown. RESULTS: Two duplication events were detected in the evolutionary history of the FDS gene family in the Asteraceae, and the second duplication led to the origin of CDS. CDS occurred after the divergence of the tribe Mutisieae from other tribes of Asteraceae but before the birth of the Anthemideae tribe. After its origin, CDS accumulated four mutations in sites homologous to the substrate-binding and catalysis sites of FDS. Of these, two sites were involved in the binding of the nucleophilic substrate isopentenyl diphosphate in FDS. Maximum likelihood analyses showed that some sites in CDS were under positive selection and were scattered throughout primary sequences, whereas in the three-dimensional structure model they clustered in the large central cavity. CONCLUSION: Positive selection associated with gene duplication played a major role in the evolution of CDS.
Project description:Incubation of synthetic 2-methylneryl diphosphate (2-MeNPP, 10) with 2-methylisoborneol synthase (MIBS) gave a mixture of products that differed significantly from that derived from the natural substrate (E)-2-methylgeranyl diphosphate (3, 2-MeGPP). The proportion of (-)-2-methylisoborneol (1) decreased from 89 to 17% while that of 2-methylenebornane (4) increased from 10 to 26%, with the relative yields of the isomeric homo-monoterpenes 2-methyl-2-bornene (5) and 1-methylcamphene (6) remaining essentially unchanged (<1% each), as determined by chiral GC-MS analysis. The majority of the product mixture resulting from the MIBS-catalyzed cyclization of 2-MeNPP (10) consisted of the anomalous monocyclic homo-monoterpenes (±)-2-methylllimonene (15, 39%) and 2-methyl-?-terpineol (13, 10%), as well as the acylic derivatives 2-methylnerol (11, 7%) and 2-methyllinalool (14, <1%). The steady-state kinetic parameters of the MIBS-catalyzed reaction, determined using [1-3H]-2-methylneryl diphosphate (2-MeNPP), were kcat 0.0046±0.0003?s-1, Km 18±6??m and kcat/Km 2.55 × 102 M-1?s-1. In comparison, the natural substrate 2-MeGPP had a kcat 0.105±0.007?s-1, Km 95±49??m and kcat/Km 1.11 × 103 M-1?s-1. Taken together with earlier X-ray crystallographic studies of MIBS, as well as previous investigations of the mechanistically related plant monoterpene cyclase, bornyl diphosphate synthase, these results provide important insights into the binding and cyclization of both native substrates and intermediates and their analogs.
Project description:Myrcene, which accounts for 30-50% of the essential oil in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) trichomes, derives from geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the common precursor of monoterpenes. Full-length sequences of heterodimeric GPP synthase small subunit (GPPS.SSU, belonging to the SSU I subfamily) and large subunit (LSU) cDNAs were mined from a hop trichome cDNA library. The SSU was inactive, whereas the LSU produced GPP, farnesyl diphosphate, and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) from dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate in vitro. Coexpression of both subunits in Escherichia coli yielded a heterodimeric enzyme exhibiting altered ratios of GPP and GGPP synthase activities and greatly enhanced catalytic efficiency. Transcript analysis suggested that the heterodimeric geranyl(geranyl)diphosphate synthase [G(G)PPS] is involved in myrcene biosynthesis in hop trichomes. The critical role of the conserved CxxxC motif (where "x" can be any hydrophobic amino acid residue) in physical interactions between the 2 subunits was demonstrated by using site-directed mutagenesis, and this motif was used in informatic searches to reveal a previously undescribed SSU subfamily (SSU II) present in both angiosperms and gymnosperms. The evolution and physiological roles of SSUs are discussed.
Project description:Geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS) catalyzes the condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate to form geranyl diphosphate. Geranyl diphosphate is the precursor of monoterpenes, a large family of natural occurring C(10) compounds predominantly found in plants. Similar to plants but unique to animals, some bark beetle genera (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) produce monoterpenes that function in intraspecific chemical communication as aggregation and dispersion pheromones. The release of monoterpene aggregation pheromone mediates host colonization and mating. It has been debated whether these monoterpene pheromone components are derived de novo through the mevalonate pathway or result from simple modifications of dietary precursors. The data reported here provide conclusive evidence for de novo biosynthesis of monoterpene pheromone components from bark beetles. We describe GPPS in the midgut tissue of pheromone-producing male Ips pini. GPPS expression levels are regulated by juvenile hormone III, similar to other mevalonate pathway genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis. In addition, GPPS transcript is almost exclusively expressed in the anterior midgut of male I. pini, the site of aggregation pheromone biosynthesis. The recombinant enzyme was functionally expressed and produced geranyl diphosphate as its major product. The three-dimensional model structure of GPPS shows that the insect enzyme has the sequence structural motifs common to E-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases.
Project description:Geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS) is a plastid localized enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of Geranyl diphosphate (GPP), which is a universal precursor of monoterpenes. Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox L.), a famous deciduous flowering shrub with a strong floral scent character, could have GPPS-like homologs that are involved in monoterpenes biosynthesis, but it remains unclear. In the present study, five full-length GPPS and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS) genes were identified in the wintersweet transcriptome database. The isolated cDNAs showed high protein sequence similarity with the other plants GPPS and GGPPS. The phylogenetic analysis further classified these cDNAs into four distinct clades, representing heterodimeric GPPS small subunits (SSU1 and SSU2), homodimeric GPPS, and GGPPS. Analysis of temporal expression revealed that all genes have the highest transcript level at the full-open flower stage. From tissue-specific expression analysis, CpGPPS.SSU1 and CpGGPPS1 were predominantly expressed in petal and flower, whereas CpGPPS.SSU2, GPPS, and GGPPS2 showed a constitutive expression. Additionally, the subcellular localization assay identified the chloroplast localization of SSUs and GGPPSs proteins, and the yeast two-hybrid assay showed that both CpGPPS.SSU1 and CpGPPS.SSU2 can interact with the GGPPS proteins. Taken together, these preliminary results suggest that the heterodimeric GPPS can regulate floral scent biosynthesis in wintersweet flower.
Project description:Norway spruce (Picea abies) defends itself against herbivores and pathogens by formation of traumatic resin ducts filled with terpenoid-based oleoresin. An important group of enzymes in terpenoid biosynthesis are the short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases which produce geranyl diphosphate (C(10)), farnesyl diphosphate (C(15)), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (C(20)) as precursors of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpene resin acids, respectively. After treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) we investigated the expression of all isoprenyl diphosphate synthase genes characterized to date from Norway spruce and correlated this with formation of traumatic resin ducts and terpene accumulation. Formation of traumatic resin ducts correlated with higher amounts of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpene resin acids and an upregulation of isoprenyl diphosphate synthase genes producing geranyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate. Among defense hormones, jasmonate and jasmonate-isoleucine conjugate accumulated to higher levels in trees with extensive traumatic resin duct formation, whereas salicylate did not. Jasmonate and ethylene are likely to both be involved in formation of traumatic resin ducts based on elevated transcripts of genes encoding lipoxygenase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase associated with resin duct formation. Other genes involved in defense signalling in other systems, mitogen-activated protein kinase3 and nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene1, were also associated with traumatic resin duct formation. These responses were detected not only at the site of MJ treatment, but also systemically up to 60 cm above the site of treatment on the trunk.