The role of Drosophila heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase in sulfation compensation.
ABSTRACT: The biosynthesis of heparan sulfate proteoglycans is tightly regulated by multiple feedback mechanisms, which support robust developmental systems. One of the regulatory network systems controlling heparan sulfate (HS) biosynthesis is sulfation compensation. A previous study using Drosophila HS 2-O- and 6-O-sulfotransferase (Hs2st and Hs6st) mutants showed that loss of sulfation at one position is compensated by increased sulfation at other positions, supporting normal FGF signaling. Here, we show that HS sulfation compensation rescues both Decapentaplegic and Wingless signaling, suggesting a universal role of this regulatory system in multiple pathways in Drosophila. Furthermore, we identified Sulf1, extracellular HS 6-O-endosulfatase, as a novel component of HS sulfation compensation. Simultaneous loss of Hs2st and Sulf1 led to 6-O-oversulfation, leading to patterning defects, overgrowth, and lethality. These phenotypes are caused at least partly by abnormal up-regulation of Hedgehog signaling. Thus, sulfation compensation depends on the coordinated activities of Hs2st, Hs6st, and Sulf1.
Project description:Specific sulfation sequence of heparan sulfate (HS) contributes to the selective interaction between HS and various proteins in vitro. To clarify the in vivo importance of HS fine structures, we characterized the functions of the Drosophila HS 2-O and 6-O sulfotransferase (Hs2st and Hs6st) genes in FGF-mediated tracheal formation. We found that mutations in Hs2st or Hs6st had unexpectedly little effect on tracheal morphogenesis. Structural analysis of mutant HS revealed not only a loss of corresponding sulfation, but also a compensatory increase of sulfation at other positions, which maintains the level of HS total charge. The restricted phenotypes of Hsst mutants are ascribed to this compensation because FGF signaling is strongly disrupted by Hs2st; Hs6st double mutation, or by overexpression of 6-O sulfatase, an extracellular enzyme which removes 6-O sulfate groups without increasing 2-O sulfation. These findings suggest that the overall sulfation level is more important than strictly defined HS fine structures for FGF signaling in some developmental contexts.
Project description:Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play critical roles in the distribution and signaling of growth factors, but the molecular mechanisms regulating HSPG function are poorly understood. Here, we characterized Sulf1, which is a Drosophila member of the HS 6-O endosulfatase class of HS modifying enzymes. Our genetic and biochemical analyses show that Sulf1 acts as a novel regulator of the Wg morphogen gradient by modulating the sulfation status of HS on the cell surface in the developing wing. Sulf1 affects gradient formation by influencing the stability and distribution of Wg. We also demonstrate that expression of Sulf1 is induced by Wg signaling itself. Thus, Sulf1 participates in a feedback loop, potentially stabilizing the shape of the Wg gradient. Our study shows that the modification of HS fine structure provides a novel mechanism for the regulation of morphogen gradients.
Project description:A Drosophila transgenic RNAi screen targeting the glycan genome, including all N/O/GAG-glycan biosynthesis/modification enzymes and glycan-binding lectins, was conducted to discover novel glycan functions in synaptogenesis. As proof-of-product, we characterized functionally paired heparan sulfate (HS) 6-O-sulfotransferase (hs6st) and sulfatase (sulf1), which bidirectionally control HS proteoglycan (HSPG) sulfation. RNAi knockdown of hs6st and sulf1 causes opposite effects on functional synapse development, with decreased (hs6st) and increased (sulf1) neurotransmission strength confirmed in null mutants. HSPG co-receptors for WNT and BMP intercellular signaling, Dally-like Protein and Syndecan, are differentially misregulated in the synaptomatrix of these mutants. Consistently, hs6st and sulf1 nulls differentially elevate both WNT (Wingless; Wg) and BMP (Glass Bottom Boat; Gbb) ligand abundance in the synaptomatrix. Anterograde Wg signaling via Wg receptor dFrizzled2 C-terminus nuclear import and retrograde Gbb signaling via synaptic MAD phosphorylation and nuclear import are differentially activated in hs6st and sulf1 mutants. Consequently, transcriptional control of presynaptic glutamate release machinery and postsynaptic glutamate receptors is bidirectionally altered in hs6st and sulf1 mutants, explaining the bidirectional change in synaptic functional strength. Genetic correction of the altered WNT/BMP signaling restores normal synaptic development in both mutant conditions, proving that altered trans-synaptic signaling causes functional differentiation defects.
Project description:Sulfation of carbohydrate residues occurs on a variety of glycans destined for secretion, and this modification is essential for efficient matrix-based signal transduction. Heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans control physiological functions ranging from blood coagulation to cell proliferation. HS biosynthesis involves membrane-bound Golgi sulfotransferases, including HS 2-O-sulfotransferase (HS2ST), which transfers sulfate from the cofactor PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate) to the 2-O position of α-l-iduronate in the maturing polysaccharide chain. The current lack of simple non-radioactive enzyme assays that can be used to quantify the levels of carbohydrate sulfation hampers kinetic analysis of this process and the discovery of HS2ST inhibitors. In the present paper, we describe a new procedure for thermal shift analysis of purified HS2ST. Using this approach, we quantify HS2ST-catalysed oligosaccharide sulfation using a novel synthetic fluorescent substrate and screen the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set, to evaluate compounds that inhibit catalysis. We report the susceptibility of HS2ST to a variety of cell-permeable compounds in vitro, including polyanionic polar molecules, the protein kinase inhibitor rottlerin and oxindole-based RAF kinase inhibitors. In a related study, published back-to-back with the present study, we demonstrated that tyrosyl protein sulfotranferases are also inhibited by a variety of protein kinase inhibitors. We propose that appropriately validated small-molecule compounds could become new tools for rapid inhibition of glycan (and protein) sulfation in cells, and that protein kinase inhibitors might be repurposed or redesigned for the specific inhibition of HS2ST.
Project description:Heparan sulfate endosulfatases Sulf1 and Sulf2 hydrolyze 6-O-sulfate in heparan sulfate, thereby regulating cellular signaling. Previous studies have revealed that Sulfs act predominantly on UA2S-GlcNS6S disaccharides and weakly on UA-GlcNS6S disaccharides. However, the specificity of Sulfs and their role in sulfation patterning of heparan sulfate in vivo remained unknown. Here, we performed disaccharide analysis of heparan sulfate in Sulf1 and Sulf2 knock-out mice. Significant increases in ΔUA2S-GlcNS6S were observed in the brain, small intestine, lung, spleen, testis, and skeletal muscle of adult Sulf1(-/-) mice and in the brain, liver, kidney, spleen, and testis of adult Sulf2(-/-) mice. In addition, increases in ΔUA-GlcNS6S were seen in the Sulf1(-/-) lung and small intestine. In contrast, the disaccharide compositions of chondroitin sulfate were not primarily altered, indicating specificity of Sulfs for heparan sulfate. For Sulf1, but not for Sulf2, mRNA expression levels in eight organs of wild-type mice were highly correlated with increases in ΔUA2S-GlcNS6S in the corresponding organs of knock-out mice. Moreover, overall changes in heparan sulfate compositions were greater in Sulf1(-/-) mice than in Sulf2(-/-) mice despite lower levels of Sulf1 mRNA expression, suggesting predominant roles of Sulf1 in heparan sulfate desulfation and distinct regulation of Sulf activities in vivo. Sulf1 and Sulf2 mRNAs were differentially expressed in restricted types of cells in organs, and consequently, the sulfation patterns of heparan sulfate were locally and distinctly altered in Sulf1 and Sulf2 knock-out mice. These findings indicate that Sulf1 and Sulf2 differentially contribute to the generation of organ-specific sulfation patterns of heparan sulfate.
Project description:Recently, we showed that endothelial heparan sulfate facilitates entry of a bacterial pathogen into the central nervous system. Here, we show that normal bactericidal activity of neutrophils is influenced by the sulfation pattern of heparan sulfate. Inactivation of heparan sulfate uronyl 2-O-sulfotransferase (Hs2st) in neutrophils substantially reduced their bactericidal activity, and Hs2st deficiency rendered mice more susceptible to systemic infection with the pathogenic bacterium group B Streptococcus. Specifically, altered sulfation of heparan sulfate in mutant neutrophils affected formation of neutrophil extracellular traps while not influencing phagocytosis, production of reactive oxygen species, or secretion of granular proteases. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan(s) is present in neutrophil extracellular traps, modulates histone affinity, and modulates their microbial activity. Hs2st-deficient brain endothelial cells show enhanced binding to group B Streptococcus and are more susceptible to apoptosis, likely contributing to the observed increase in dissemination of group B Streptococcus into the brain of Hs2st-deficient mice following intravenous challenge. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence that heparan sulfate from both neutrophils and the endothelium plays important roles in modulating innate immunity.
Project description:Heparan Sulfate (HS) is a cell signaling molecule linked to pathological processes ranging from cancer to viral entry, yet fundamental aspects of its biosynthesis remain incompletely understood. Here, the binding preferences of the uronyl 2-O-sulfotransferase (HS2ST) are examined with variably-sulfated hexasaccharides. Surprisingly, heavily sulfated oligosaccharides formed by later-acting sulfotransferases bind more tightly to HS2ST than those corresponding to its natural substrate or product. Inhibition assays also indicate that the IC50 values correlate simply with degree of oligosaccharide sulfation. Structural analysis predicts a mode of inhibition in which 6-O-sulfate groups located on glucosamine residues present in highly-sulfated oligosaccharides occupy the canonical binding site of the nucleotide cofactor. The unexpected finding that oligosaccharides associated with later stages in HS biosynthesis inhibit HS2ST indicates that the enzyme must be separated temporally and/or spatially from downstream products during biosynthesis in vivo, and highlights a challenge for the enzymatic synthesis of lengthy HS chains in vitro.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165)) are potent pro-angiogenic growth factors that play a pivotal role in tumor angiogenesis. The activity of these growth factors is regulated by heparan sulfate (HS), which is essential for the formation of FGF2/FGF receptor (FGFR) and VEGF(165)/VEGF receptor signaling complexes. However, the structural characteristics of HS that determine activation or inhibition of such complexes are only partially defined. Here we show that ovarian tumor endothelium displays high levels of HS sequences that harbor glucosamine 6-O-sulfates when compared with normal ovarian vasculature where these sequences are also detected in perivascular area. Reduced HS 6-O-sulfotransferase 1 (HS6ST-1) or 6-O-sulfotransferase 2 (HS6ST-2) expression in endothelial cells impacts upon the prevalence of HS 6-O-sulfate moieties in HS sequences, which consist of repeating short, highly sulfated S domains interspersed by transitional N-acetylated/N-sulfated domains. 1-40% reduction in 6-O-sulfates significantly compromises FGF2- and VEGF(165)-induced endothelial cell sprouting and tube formation in vitro and FGF2-dependent angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, HS on wild-type neighboring endothelial or smooth muscle cells fails to restore endothelial cell sprouting and tube formation. The affinity of FGF2 for HS with reduced 6-O-sulfation is preserved, although FGFR1 activation is inhibited correlating with reduced receptor internalization. These data show that 6-O-sulfate moieties in endothelial HS are of major importance in regulating FGF2- and VEGF(165)-dependent endothelial cell functions in vitro and in vivo and highlight HS6ST-1 and HS6ST-2 as potential targets of novel antiangiogenic agents.
Project description:Sulf1 and Sulf2 are cell surface sulfatases, which remove specific 6-O-sulfate groups from heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans, resulting in modulation of various HS-dependent signaling pathways. Both Sulf1 and Sulf2 knockout mice show impairments in brain development and neurite outgrowth deficits in neurons.To analyze the molecular mechanisms behind these impairments we focused on the postnatal cerebellum, whose development is mainly characterized by proliferation, migration, and neurite outgrowth processes of precursor neurons. Primary cerebellar granule cells isolated from Sulf1 or Sulf2 deficient newborns are characterized by a reduction in neurite length and cell survival. Furthermore, Sulf1 deficiency leads to a reduced migration capacity. The observed impairments in cell survival and neurite outgrowth could be correlated to Sulf-specific interference with signaling pathways, as shown for FGF2, GDNF and NGF. In contrast, signaling of Shh, which determines the laminar organization of the cerebellar cortex, was not influenced in either Sulf1 or Sulf2 knockouts. Biochemical analysis of cerebellar HS demonstrated, for the first time in vivo, Sulf-specific changes of 6-O-, 2-O- and N-sulfation in the knockouts. Changes of a particular HS epitope were found on the surface of Sulf2-deficient cerebellar neurons. This epitope showed a restricted localization to the inner half of the external granular layer of the postnatal cerebellum, where precursor cells undergo final maturation to form synaptic contacts.Sulfs introduce dynamic changes in HS proteoglycan sulfation patterns of the postnatal cerebellum, thereby orchestrating fundamental mechanisms underlying brain development.
Project description:Heparan sulfate (HS) is a glycosaminoglycan found mainly in its protein-conjugated form at the cell surface and the extracellular matrix. Its high sulfation degree mediates functional interactions with positively charged amino acids in proteins. 2-O sulfation of iduronic acid and 3-O sulfation of glucosamine in HS are mediated by the sulfotransferases HS2ST and HS3ST, respectively, which are dysregulated in several cancers. Both sulfotransferases regulate breast cancer cell viability and invasion, but their role in cancer stem cells (CSCs) is unknown. Breast CSCs express characteristic markers such as CD44+/CD24-/low , CD133 and ALDH1 and are involved in tumor initiation, formation, and recurrence. We studied the influence of HS2ST1 and HS3ST2 overexpression on the CSC phenotype in breast cancer cell lines representative of the triple-negative (MDA-MB-231) and hormone-receptor positive subtype (MCF-7). The CD44+/CD24-/low phenotype was significantly reduced in MDA-MB-231 cells after overexpression of both enzymes, remaining unaltered in MCF-7 cells. ALDH1 activity was increased after HS2ST1 and HS3ST2 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 cells and reduced after HS2ST1 overexpression in MCF-7 cells. Colony and spheroid formation were increased after HS2ST1 and HS3ST2 overexpression in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, MDA-MB-231 cells overexpressing HS2ST1 formed more colonies and could not generate spheres. The phenotypic changes were associated with complex changes in the expression of the stemness-associated notch and Wnt-signaling pathways constituents, syndecans, heparanase and Sulf1. The results improve our understanding of breast CSC function and mark a subtype-specific impact of HS modifications on the CSC phenotype of triple-negative and hormone receptor positive breast cancer model cell lines.