Impact of baseline BMI on glycemic control and weight change with metformin monotherapy in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients: phase IV open-label trial.
ABSTRACT: Differences exist between treatment recommendations regarding the choice of metformin as first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes patients according to body mass index (BMI). This study compared the efficacy of metformin monotherapy among normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study in China, patients aged 23-77 years were enrolled 1?1:1 according to baseline BMI: normal-weight (BMI 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2); n?=?125); overweight (BMI 24.0-27.9 kg/m(2); n?=?122) or obese (BMI ?28 kg/m(2); n?=?124). Extended-release metformin was administered for 16 weeks (500 mg/day, up-titrated weekly to a maximum 2,000 mg/day). The primary efficacy endpoint was the effect of baseline BMI on glycemic control with metformin monotherapy, measured as the change from baseline in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at week 16 compared among BMI groups using ANCOVA. Other endpoints included comparisons of metformin's effects on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid levels and body weight.Mean HbA1c decreases at week 16, adjusted for baseline values, were -1.84%, -1.78% and -1.78% in normal-weight, overweight and obese patients, (P?=?0.664); body weight decreased by 2.4%, 3.9% and 3.5%, respectively. FPG levels decreased similarly over time in all BMI groups (P?=?0.461) and changes from baseline in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) did not differ significantly among BMI groups at week 16 (P?=?0.143 and 0.451, respectively).Baseline BMI had no impact on glycemic control, weight change or other efficacy measures with metformin monotherapy. These data suggest that normal-weight type 2 diabetes patients would derive the same benefits from first-line treatment with metformin as overweight and obese patients, and are not at increased risk of excess weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00778622.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The weight-reducing effect of exenatide has been proved, but too much weight loss in normal-weight patients may concern physicians. This study evaluated the effects of exenatide monotherapy on glycemic control and weight change in normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS:In this multicenter prospective study, 29 normal-weight, 54 overweight, and 27 obese newly diagnosed and drug-naïve patients with T2D were treated with exenatide for 48 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the effect of baseline body mass index (BMI) on glycemic control, measured as the change in HbA1c from baseline to Week 48 compared among different BMI groups. Other endpoints included comparisons of the effects of exenatide on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), body weight, and other metabolic indices. RESULTS:After 48-week treatment, the estimated mean changes in HbA1c in normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients were -1.9%, -1.8%, and -1.5%, respectively (P?=?0.290 among groups after adjustment for baseline values). There were similar declines in FPG and 0.5- and 2-hour PPG among groups. There were non-significant trends from normal-weight to overweight to obese patients for increased weight reduction (decreases of 2.2, 3.9, and 4.0 kg, respectively; P?=?0.104) and changes in waist circumference (decreases of 2.2, 3.2, and 5.6 cm, respectively; P?=?0.078). CONCLUSIONS:Baseline BMI had no effect on glycemic control, weight change, or other metabolic indices with exenatide monotherapy. Normal-weight patients with T2D would benefit from exenatide as much as overweight or obese patients on glucose control, without increased risk of excess weight loss.
Project description:Aims:The present study assessed the therapeutic effect of exenatide and metformin as the initial therapy on overweight/obese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods:The prospective, nonrandomized, interventional study enrolled a total of 230 overweight or obese patients with newly diagnosed T2D who were administrated exenatide or metformin hydrochloride for 12 weeks. Results:224/230 patients, including 106 in the exenatide group and 118 in the metformin group, completed the 12-week treatment. Both exenatide and metformin significantly decreased the HbA1c levels in overweight/obese patients with newly diagnosed T2D (all P < 0.05). The reduction in HbA1c and the proportion of patients with HbA1c?<?7.0% (53?mmol/mol) were higher in the exenatide group than in the metformin group (all P < 0.05). The exenatide treatment caused a greater decline in the body weight and BMI as compared to the metformin treatment (all P < 0.01). The exenatide treatment (??=?0.41, P < 0.01) and baseline HbA1c level (??=?-0.84, P < 0.01) were independent influencing factors for the decrease in HbA1c level. Conclusions:For an initial therapy in overweight/obese patients with newly diagnosed T2D, exenatide causes a better glycemic control than metformin. This trial is registered with NCT03297879.
Project description:Background:Weight loss, especially fat mass reduction, helps to improve blood glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and ?-cell function. This study aimed to compare the effect of exenatide and glargine on body composition in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who do not achieve adequate glycemic control with metformin. Methods:We performed a prospective, randomized study of 37 overweight or obese patients with T2DM who had inadequate glycemic control with metformin. The patients were treated with either exenatide or glargine for 16 weeks. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition. Results:Post-intervention weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body mass, and fat mass were lower in patients treated with exenatide, while weight and BMI significantly increased with glargine. Reductions in weight, BMI, body fat mass, and percent fat mass (except for gynoid) were greater with exenatide than with glargine, and percent lean tissue (other than the limbs) increased with exenatide. In all body regions except for the limbs, fat mass decreased with exenatide to a greater extent than lean tissue. Glucose control, insulin resistance, and ?-cell function were not different between the treatment groups. Conclusions:For overweight and obese patients whose T2DM was inadequately controlled with metformin, exenatide and glargine achieved similar improvements in glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and ?-cell function.However, exenatide produced better weight and fat mass reduction, which were beneficial for blood glucose control. Our findings may guide the selection of appropriate drugs for glycemic and weight control. Trial registration:NCT02325960, registered 25 December 2014.
Project description:Background. The effect of metformin in combination with insulin in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is controversial. Methods and Results. The PubMed and EMBASE online databases were searched. Five double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included 301 adolescents with T1DM were identified. Metformin plus insulin was associated with reduced hemoglobin A1C levels, total daily insulin dosage, body mass index (BMI), and body weight. However, the subgroup analysis demonstrated that HbA1c levels were not significantly changed in overweight/obese adolescents and were significantly reduced in the general patients. On the contrary, BMI and body weight were significantly reduced in overweight/obese adolescents but not in the general patients. Metformin was associated with higher incidence of adverse events. Conclusions. Among adolescents with T1DM, administering adjunctive metformin therapy in addition to insulin was associated with improved HbA1c levels, total daily insulin dosage, BMI, and body weight. However, there may be differences in the effects of this regimen between overweight/obese and nonobese adolescents. The risk of an adverse event may be increased with metformin treatment. These results provide strong evidence supporting future high-quality, large-sample trials.
Project description:Insulin resistance has been proposed as one of the causes of poor glycemic control in overweight/obese youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the role of adjunctive metformin, an insulin sensitizer, on glycemic control in these patients is unclear.To compare the effect of metformin vs. placebo on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), total daily dose (TDD) of insulin, and other parameters in overweight/obese youth with T1D.Adjunctive metformin therapy will improve glycemic control in overweight/obese youth with T1D.A 9-mo randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of metformin and placebo in 28 subjects (13m/15f) of ages 10-20years (y), with HbA1c >8% (64 mmol/mol), BMI >85%, and T1D > 12 months was conducted at a university outpatient facility. The metformin group consisted of 15 subjects (8 m/ 7f), of age 15.0 ± 2.5 y; while the control group was made up of 13 subjects (5m/ 8f), of age 14.5 ± 3.1y. All participants employed a self-directed treat-to-target insulin regimen based on a titration algorithm of (-2)-0-(+2) units to adjust their long-acting insulin dose every 3rd day from -3 mo through +9 mo to maintain fasting plasma glucose (FPG) between 90-120 mg/dL (5.0-6.7 mmol/L). Pubertal maturation was determined by Tanner stage.Over the course of the 9 months of observation, the between-treatment differences in HbA1c of 0.4% (9.85% [8.82 to 10.88] for placebo versus 9.46% [8.47 to 10.46] for metformin) was not significant (p = 0.903). There were non-significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (189.4 mg/dL [133.2 to 245.6] for placebo versus 170.5 mg/dL [114.3 to 226.7] for metformin), (p = 0.927); total daily dose (TDD) of short-acting insulin per kg body weight/day(p = 0.936); and the TDD of long-acting insulin per kg body weight per day (1.15 units/kg/day [0.89 to 1.41] for placebo versus 0.90 units/kg/day [0.64 to 1.16] for metformin) (p = 0.221). There was no difference in the occurrence of hypoglycemia between the groups.This 9-month RCT of adjunctive metformin therapy in overweight and obese youth with T1D resulted in a 0.4% lower HbA1c value in the metformin group compared to the placebo group.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01334125.
Project description:The aim of this study is to compare the effects of hypoglycemic treatments in groups of patients categorized according to the mean baseline body mass indexes (BMIs).Studies were identified by a literature search and all the studies were double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trials in type 2 diabetes patients; study length of ?12 weeks with the efficacy evaluated by changes in HbA1c from baseline in groups. The electronic search was first conducted in January 2015 and repeated in June 2015.227 studies were included. Treatment with sulfonylureas was compared with placebo in overweight patients and resulted in a significantly greater change in the HbA1c levels (weighted mean difference (WMD), -1.39%) compared to obese patients (WMD, -0.77%)(p<0.05). Treatment with metformin in overweight patients resulted in a comparable change in the HbA1c levels (WMD, -0.99%) compared to obese patients (WMD, -1.06%)(p>0.05). Treatment with alpha glucosidase inhibitors in normal weight patients was associated with a HbA1c change (WMD, -0.94%) that was comparable that in overweight (WMD, -0.72%) and obese patients (WMD, -0.56%)(p>0.05). Treatment with thiazolidinediones in normal weight patients was associated with a HbA1c change (WMD, -1.04%) that was comparable with that in overweight (WMD, -1.02%) and obese patients (WMD, -0.88%)(p>0.05). Treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors in normal weight patients was associated with a HbA1c change (WMD, -0.93%) that was comparable with that in overweight (WMD, -0.66%) and obese patients (WMD, -0.61%)(p>0.05). In total, of the seven hypoglycemic agents, regression analysis indicated that the mean baseline BMI was not associated with the mean HbA1c changes from baseline.In each kind of hypoglycemic therapy in type 2 diabetes, the baseline BMI was not associated with the efficacy of HbA1c changes from baseline.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to determine whether metformin promotes weight loss in overweight outpatients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. METHOD:In a double-blind study, 148 clinically stable, overweight (body mass index [BMI] ?27) outpatients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to receive 16 weeks of metformin or placebo. Metformin was titrated up to 1,000 mg twice daily, as tolerated. All patients continued to receive their prestudy medications, and all received weekly diet and exercise counseling. The primary outcome measure was change in body weight from baseline to week 16. RESULTS:Fifty-eight (77.3%) patients who received metformin and 58 (81.7%) who received placebo completed 16 weeks of treatment. Mean change in body weight was -3.0 kg (95% CI=-4.0 to -2.0) for the metformin group and -1.0 kg (95% CI=-2.0 to 0.0) for the placebo group, with a between-group difference of -2.0 kg (95% CI=-3.4 to -0.6). Metformin also demonstrated a significant between-group advantage for BMI (-0.7; 95% CI=-1.1 to -0.2), triglyceride level (-20.2 mg/dL; 95% CI=-39.2 to -1.3), and hemoglobin A1c level (-0.07%; 95% CI=-0.14 to -0.004). Metformin-associated side effects were mostly gastrointestinal and generally transient, and they rarely led to treatment discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS:Metformin was modestly effective in reducing weight and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in clinically stable, overweight outpatients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder over 16 weeks. A significant time-by-treatment interaction suggests that benefits of metformin may continue to accrue with longer treatment. Metformin may have an important role in diminishing the adverse consequences of obesity and metabolic impairments in patients with schizophrenia.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The effect of metformin on weight reduction in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is often unsatisfactory. In this study, we investigated the potential add-on effect of treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide on weight loss in obese nondiabetic women with PCOS who had lost <5% body weight during pretreatment with metformin. METHODS:A total of 40 obese women with PCOS, who had been pretreated with metformin for at least 6 months, participated in a 12-week open-label, prospective study. They were randomized to one of three treatment arms: metformin (MET) arm 1000 mg BID, liraglutide (LIRA) arm 1.2 mg QD s.c., or combined MET 1000 mg BID and LIRA (COMBI) 1.2 mg QD s.c. Lifestyle intervention was not actively promoted. The primary outcome was change in body weight. RESULTS:Thirty six patients (aged 31.3 ± 7.1 years, BMI 37.1 ± 4.6 kg/m²) completed the study: 14 on MET, 11 on LIRA, and 11 on combined treatment. COMBI therapy was superior to LIRA and MET monotherapy in reducing weight, BMI, and waist circumference. Subjects treated with COMBI lost on average 6.5 ± 2.8 kg compared with a 3.8 ± 3.7 kg loss in the LIRA group and a 1.2 ± 1.4 kg loss in the MET group (P<0.001). The extent of weight loss was stratified: a total of 38% of subjects were high responders who lost ?5% body weight, 22% of them in the COMBI arm compared with 16 and 0% in the LIRA and MET arm respectively. BMI decreased by 2.4 ± 1.0 in the COMBI arm compared with 1.3 ± 1.3 in LIRA and 0.5 ± 0.5 in the MET arm (P<0.001). Waist circumference also decreased by 5.5 ± 3.8 cm in the COMBI arm compared with 3.2 ± 2.9 cm in LIRA and 1.6 ± 2.9 cm in the MET arm (P=0.029). Subjects treated with liraglutide experienced more nausea than those treated with metformin, but severity of nausea decreased over time and did not correlate with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS:Short-term combined treatment with liraglutide and metformin was associated with significant weight loss and decrease in waist circumference in obese women with PCOS who had previously been poor responders regarding weight reduction on metformin monotherapy.
Project description:Obesity induces insulin resistance (IR), the key etiologic defect of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, an incidence of obesity-induced diabetes is expected to decrease if obesity is controlled. Although Metformin is currently one of the main treatment options for T2DM in obese patients, resulting in an average of 5% weight loss, adequate weight control in all patients cannot be achieved with Metformin alone. Thus, additional therapies with a weight loss effect, such as acupuncture, may improve the effectiveness of Metformin.Subjective:We designed this randomized clinical trial (RCT) to compare the effects of Metformin monotherapy with that of Metformin and acupuncture combined therapy on weight loss and insulin sensitivity among overweight/obese T2DM patients, to understand whether acupuncture plus Metformin is a better approach than Metformin only on treating diabetes. To understand whether acupuncture can be an insulin sensitizer and, if so, its therapeutic mechanism.Our results show that Metformin and acupuncture combined therapy significantly improves body weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), leptin, adiponectin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), resistin, serotonin, free fatty acids (FFAs), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and ceramides.Consequently, Metformin and acupuncture combined therapy is more effective than Metformin only, proving that acupuncture is an insulin sensitizer and is able to improve insulin sensitivity possibly by reducing body weight and inflammation, while improving lipid metabolism and adipokines. As a result, electro-acupuncture (EA) might be useful in controlling the ongoing epidemics in obesity and T2DM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Currently, there are no valid clinical or biological markers to personalize the treatment of depression. Recent evidence suggests that body mass index (BMI) may guide the selection of antidepressant medications with different mechanisms of action. METHODS:Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial participants with BMI measurement (n = 662) were categorized as normal- or underweight (<25), overweight (25-<30), obese I (30-<35), and obese II+ (?35). Logistic regression analysis with remission as the dependent variable and treatment arm-by-BMI category interaction as the primary independent variable was used to evaluate if BMI differentially predicted response to escitalopram (SSRI) monotherapy, bupropion-escitalopram combination, or venlafaxine-mirtazapine combination, after controlling for gender and baseline depression severity. RESULTS:Remission rates among the three treatment arms differed on the basis of pre-treatment BMI (chi-square=12.80, degrees of freedom=6, p = .046). Normal- or under-weight participants were less likely to remit with the bupropion-SSRI combination (26.8%) than SSRI monotherapy (37.3%, number needed to treat or NNT = 9.5) or venlafaxine-mirtazapine combination (44.4%, NNT = 5.7). Conversely, obese II+ participants were more likely to remit with bupropion-SSRI (47.4%) than SSRI monotherapy (28.6%, NNT = 5.3) or venlafaxine-mirtazapine combination (37.7%, NNT = 10.3). Remission rates did not differ among overweight and obese I participants. LIMITATIONS:Secondary analysis, higher rates of obesity than the general population. CONCLUSIONS:Antidepressant selection in clinical practice can be personalized with BMI measurements. Bupropion-SSRI combination should be avoided in normal- or under-weight depressed outpatients as compared to SSRI monotherapy and venlafaxine-mirtazapine combination and preferred in those with BMI?35.