ABSTRACT: Ridaforolimus (AP23573; MK 8669) is an analog of sirolimus and a small molecule inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin for the treatment of cancer. Both intravenous and oral formulations of the compound are being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of soft-tissue and bone sarcomas. It is in phase III development for sarcoma in the EU and US, and phase II for breast cancer, endometrial cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and prostate cancer in the US and other markets in the world. This review discusses the key development milestones and therapeutic trials of this drug.
Project description:Although the prognosis for clinically localized prostate cancer is now favorable, there are still no curative treatments for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and, therefore, it remains fatal. In this study, we investigate a new therapeutic approach for treatment of CRPC, which involves dual targeting of a major signaling pathway that is frequently deregulated in the disease. We found that dual targeting of the Akt and mTOR signaling pathways with their respective inhibitors, MK-2206 and ridaforolimus (MK-8669), is highly effective for inhibiting CRPC in preclinical studies in vivo using a refined genetically engineered mouse model of the disease. The efficacy of the combination treatment contrasts with their limited efficacy as single agents, since delivery of MK-2206 or MK-8669 individually had a modest impact in vivo on the overall tumor phenotype. In human prostate cancer cell lines, although not in the mouse model, the synergistic actions of MK-2206 and ridaforolimus (MK-8669) are due in part to limiting the mTORC2 feedback activation of Akt. Moreover, the effects of these drugs are mediated by inhibition of cellular proliferation via the retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway. Our findings suggest that dual targeting of the Akt and mTOR signaling pathways using MK-2206 and ridaforolimus (MK-8669) may be effective for treatment of CRPC, particularly for patients with deregulated Rb pathway activity.
Project description:Ridaforolimus (AP23573, MK-8669 or deforolimus) is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an important regulator in the cell survival pathway. This open-label, single center phase I study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety profiles of ridaforolimus in Chinese patients with treatment-refractory advanced or relapsed solid tumors. The PK data generated from these Chinese patients were further compared with those previously reported in Caucasian and Japanese patient populations.The patients were given an oral dose of 40 mg of ridaforolimus on Day 1 of the study. On Day 8, patients were initiated on a treatment regimen that comprised a once daily dose of 40 mg of ridaforolimus for five consecutive days, followed by a 2-day off-drug interval. Patients repeated this regimen until disease progression or intolerance. Blood samples were collected at specific times pre- and post-treatment to establish the PK profile of ridaforolimus in all patients.Fifteen patients were given at least one dose of 40 mg of ridaforolimus. The median absorption lag-time was 2 hours, the median Tmax was 4 hours and the mean elimination half-life was 53 hours. The accumulation ratio for AUC(0-24hr) was 1.3 on day 19 (steady state)/day 1 (after a single dose). The most common drug-related adverse events (AEs) that occurred in ≥40% of patients were stomatitis, proteinuria, leukopenia, hyperglycemia, and pyrexia. Grade 3/4 drug-related AEs were anemia, stomatitis, fatigue, thrombocytopenia, constipation, gamma glutamyltransferase increase, and proteinuria. All 11 evaluable patients achieved stable disease.Oral ridaforolimus at a daily dose of 40 mg were generally well tolerated in Chinese patients with advanced or refractory solid tumors. Adverse events and PK profiles of ridaforolimus in this study were similar to those from Caucasian and Japanese patients reported previously.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase-B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-AKT-mTOR) signalling pathway is aberrantly activated in several cancers. Notch signalling maintains cell proliferation, growth and metabolism in part by driving the PI3K pathway. Combining the mTOR inhibitor ridaforolimus with the Notch inhibitor MK-0752 may increase blockade of the PI3K pathway. METHODS:This phase I dose-escalation study (NCT01295632) aimed to define the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of combination oral ridaforolimus (rising doses starting at 20 mg, 5 days/week) and oral MK-0752 (1800 mg once weekly) in patients with solid tumours. No intrapatient dose escalation was permitted. RESULTS:Twenty eight patients were treated on study. Ridaforolimus doses were escalated from 20 to 30 mg/day. Among 14 evaluable patients receiving ridaforolimus 20 mg, one DLT (grade 2 stomatitis, second episode) was reported. Among eight evaluable patients receiving ridaforolimus 30 mg, three DLTs were reported (one each grade 3 stomatitis, grade 3 diarrhoea, and grade 3 asthenia). The MTD was 20 mg daily ridaforolimus 5 days/week+1800 mg weekly MK-0752. The most common drug-related adverse events included stomatitis, diarrhoea, decreased appetite, hyperglycaemia, thrombocytopenia, asthenia and rash. Two of 15 (13%) patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) had responses: one with complete response and one with partial response. In addition, one patient experienced stable disease ?6 months. CONCLUSIONS:Combined ridaforolimus and MK-0752 showed activity in HNSCC. However, a high number of adverse events were reported at the MTD, which would require careful management during future clinical development.
Project description:Introduction: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) represents a key downstream intermediate for a myriad of oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases. In the case of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway, the mTOR complex (mTORC1) mediates IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R)-induced estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) phosphorylation/activation and leads to increased proliferation and growth in breast cancer cells. As a result, the prevalence of mTOR inhibitors combined with hormonal therapy has increased in recent years. Conversely, activated mTORC1 provides negative feedback regulation of IGF signaling via insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/2 serine phosphorylation and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Thus, the IGF pathway may provide escape (e.g. de novo or acquired resistance) from mTORC1 inhibitors. It is therefore plausible that combined inhibition of mTORC1 and IGF-1R for select subsets of ER-positive breast cancer patients presents as a viable therapeutic option. Methods: Using hormone-sensitive breast cancer cells stably transfected with the aromatase gene (MCF-7/AC-1), works presented herein describe the in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficacy of the following compounds: dalotuzumab (DALO; “MK-0646”; anti-IGF-1R antibody), ridaforolimus (RIDA; “MK-8669”; mTORC1 small molecule inhibitor) and letrozole (“LET”, aromatase inhibitor). Results: With the exception of MK-0646, all single agent and combination treatment arms effectively inhibited xenograft tumor growth, albeit to varying degrees. Correlative tissue analyses revealed MK-0646 alone and in combination with LET induced insulin receptor alpha A (InsR-A) isoform upregulation (both mRNA and protein expression), thereby further supporting a triple therapy approach. Conclusion: These data provide preclinical rationalization towards the combined triple therapy of LET plus MK-0646 plus MK-8669 as an efficacious anti-tumor strategy for ER-positive breast tumors. 46 samples, 28 days post treatment
Project description:Two strategies to interrogate the insulin growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) pathway were investigated: vertical inhibition with dalotuzumab and MK-2206 or ridaforolimus to potentiate PI3K pathway targeting and horizontal cross-talk inhibition with dalotuzumab and MK-0752 to exert effects against cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and stem cell propagation.A phase I, multi-cohort dose escalation study was conducted in patients with advanced solid tumours. Patients received dalotuzumab (10?mg?kg(-1)) and escalating doses of MK-2206 (90-200?mg) or escalating doses of dalotuzumab (7.5-10?mg?kg(-1)) and MK-0752 (1800?mg) weekly. Upon maximum tolerated dose determination, patients with low-RAS signature, high-IGF1 expression ovarian cancer were randomised to dalotuzumab/MK-2206 versus dalotuzumab/ridaforolimus, whereas patients with high IGF1/low IGF2 expression colorectal cancer received dalotuzumab/MK-0752.A total of 47 patients were enrolled: 29 in part A (18 in the dalotuzumab/MK-2206 arm and 11 in the dalotuzumab/MK-0752 arm) and 18 in part B (6 in each arm). Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) for dalotuzumab/MK-2206 included grade 4 neutropenia and grade 3 serum sickness-like reaction, maculopapular rash, and gastrointestinal inflammation. For dalotuzumab/MK-0752, DLTs included grade 3 dehydration, rash, and diarrhoea. Seven patients remained on study for >4 cycles.Dalotuzumab/MK-2206 and dalotuzumab/MK-0752 combinations were tolerable. Further developments of prospectively validated predictive biomarkers to aid in patient selection for anti-IGF-1R therapies are needed.
Project description:Ridaforolimus is a non-prodrug mTOR inhibitor. The safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and antitumor activity of oral ridaforolimus were assessed in Japanese patients with refractory solid tumors.Ridaforolimus (20 or 40 mg) was administered as a single dose on Day 1, followed by once daily dosing five times a week for a 3-week cycle beginning on Day 8. Full PK sampling was performed on Days 1 and 26.Thirteen patients (7 at 20 mg and 6 at 40 mg) were enrolled. The median treatment duration was 82 days. The most common drug-related adverse events were stomatitis, hypertriglyceridemia, and proteinuria. Two patients had dose-limiting toxicities (grade 3 stomatitis at 20 mg, and grade 3 anorexia and vomiting at 40 mg). Four patients had grade 1 interstitial pneumonitis. Ridaforolimus in the whole blood was rapidly absorbed and slowly eliminated with a half-life of approximately 56-58 h after a single dose. Two patients (with non-small cell lung cancer and angiosarcoma, respectively) achieved a partial response, and five patients (one with thymic cancer and four with soft tissue sarcomas) had a stable disease for ? 16 weeks.Ridaforolimus was well tolerated up to a dose of 40 mg in Japanese patients. Preliminary evidence of antitumor activity was observed for patients with solid tumors. Further investigation at this dose is warranted.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate whether adding humanized monoclonal insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) antibody (dalotuzumab) to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor (ridaforolimus) plus aromatase inhibitor (exemestane) improves outcomes in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive advanced/metastatic breast cancer. METHODS:This randomized, open-label, phase II trial enrolled 80 postmenopausal women with high-proliferation (Ki67 index staining ≥15%), ER-positive breast cancer that progressed after a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor (NCT01605396). Randomly assigned patients were given oral ridaforolimus 10 mg QD 5 ×/week, intravenous dalotuzumab 10 mg/kg/week, and oral exemestane 25 mg/day (R/D/E, n = 40), or ridaforolimus 30 mg QD 5 ×/week and exemestane 25 mg/day (R/E; n = 40). Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS:Median PFS was 23.3 weeks for R/D/E versus 31.9 weeks for R/E (hazard ratio 1.18; 80% CI 0.81-1.72; P = 0.565). Grade 3-5 adverse events were reported in 67.5% of patients in the R/E arm and 59.0% in the R/D/E arm. Stomatitis (95.0 vs. 76.9%; P = 0.021) and pneumonitis (22.5 vs. 5.1%; P = 0.027) occurred more frequently in the R/E than the R/D/E arm; hyperglycemia (27.5 vs. 28.2%) occurred at a similar rate. CONCLUSIONS:R/D/E did not improve PFS compared with R/E. Because the PFS reported for R/E was similar to that reported for everolimus plus exemestane in patients with advanced breast cancer, it is possible that lower-dose ridaforolimus in the R/D/E arm (from overlapping toxicities with IGF1R inhibitor) contributed to lack of improved PFS.
Project description:Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive disease for which targeted therapies are lacking. Recent studies showed that basal-like breast cancer is frequently associated with an increased activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, which is critical for cell growth, survival, and angiogenesis. To investigate the therapeutic potential of PI3K pathway inhibition in the treatment of basal-like breast cancer, we evaluated the antitumor effect of the mTOR inhibitor MK-8669 and AKT inhibitor MK-2206 in WU-BC4 and WU-BC5, two patient-derived xenograft models of basal-like breast cancer. Both models showed high levels of AKT phosphorylation and loss of PTEN expression. We observed a synergistic effect of MK-8669 and MK-2206 on tumor growth and cell proliferation in vivo. In addition, MK-8669 and MK-2206 inhibited angiogenesis as determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Biomarker studies indicated that treatment with MK-2206 inhibited AKT activation induced by MK-8669. To evaluate the effect of loss of PTEN on tumor cell sensitivity to PI3K pathway inhibition, we knocked down PTEN in WU-BC3, a basal-like breast cancer cell line with intact PTEN. Compared with control (GFP) knockdown, PTEN knockdown led to a more dramatic reduction in cell proliferation and tumor growth inhibition in response to MK-8669 and MK-2206 both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a synergistic effect of these two agents on tumor volume was observed in WU-BC3 with PTEN knockdown. Our results provide a preclinical rationale for future clinical investigation of this combination in basal-like breast cancer with loss of PTEN.
Project description:Activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway is commonly observed in human prostate cancer. Loss of function of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is associated with the activation of AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in many cancer cell lines as well as in other model systems. However, activation of mTOR is also dependent of kinases other than AKT. Here, we show that activation of mTOR is not dependent on AKT in a prostate-specific PTEN-deficient mouse model of prostate cancer. Pathway bifurcation of AKT and mTOR was noted in both mouse and human prostate tumors. We demonstrated for the first time that cotargeting mTOR and AKT with ridaforolimus/MK-8669 and M1K-2206, respectively, delivers additive antitumor effects in vivo when compared to single agents. Our preclinical data suggest that the combination of AKT and mTOR inhibitors might be more effective in treating prostate cancer patients than current treatment regimens or either treatment alone.
Project description:This open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor ridaforolimus in women with advanced endometrial cancer.Women with measurable recurrent or persistent endometrial cancer and documented disease progression were treated with ridaforolimus 12.5?mg intravenously once daily for 5 consecutive days every 2 weeks in a 4-week cycle. The primary end point was clinical benefit response, defined as an objective response or prolonged stable disease of 16 weeks or more.In all, 45 patients were treated with single-agent ridaforolimus. Clinical benefit was achieved by 13 patients (29%), including 5 (11%) with confirmed partial responses and 8 (18%) with prolonged stable disease. All patients with clinical benefit response received ridaforolimus for more than 4 months. In this heavily pretreated population, the 6-month progression-free survival was 18%. Ridaforolimus was generally well tolerated: adverse events were predictable and manageable, consistent with prior studies in other malignancies. Overall, the most common adverse events were diarrhoea (58%) and mouth sores (56%); most common grade 3 or higher adverse events were anaemia (27%) and hyperglycaemia (11%).Single-agent ridaforolimus has antitumor activity and acceptable tolerability in advanced endometrial cancer patients. Further clinical evaluation of ridaforolimus is warranted.