Structure and function of ribosomal protein S4 genes on the human and mouse sex chromosomes.
ABSTRACT: The human sex-linked genes RPS4X and RPS4Y encode distinct isoforms of ribosomal protein S4. Insufficient expression of S4 may play a role in the development of Turner syndrome, the complex human phenotype associated with monosomy X. In mice, the S4 protein is encoded by an X-linked gene, Rps4, and is identical to human S4X; there is no mouse Y homolog. We report here the organization of the human RPS4X and RPS4Y and mouse Rps4 genes. Each gene comprises seven exons; the positions of introns are conserved. The 5' flanking sequences of human RPS4X and mouse Rps4 are very similar, while RPS4Y diverges shortly upstream of the transcription start site. In chickens, S4 is encoded by a single gene that is not sex linked. The chicken protein differs from human S4X by four amino acid substitutions, all within a region encoded by a single exon. Three of the four substitutions are also present in human S4Y, suggesting that the chicken S4 gene may have arisen by recombination between S4X- and S4Y-like sequences. Using isoform-specific antisera, we determined that human S4X and S4Y are both present in translationally active ribosomes. S4Y is about 10 to 15% as abundant as S4X in ribosomes from normal male placental tissue and 46,XY cultured cells. In 49,XYYYY cells, S4Y is about half as abundant as S4X. In 49,XXXXY cells, S4Y is barely detectable. These results bear on the hypothesized role of S4 deficiency in Turner syndrome.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The RPS4 gene codifies for ribosomal protein S4, a very well-conserved protein present in all kingdoms. In primates, RPS4 is codified by two functional genes located on both sex chromosomes: the RPS4X and RPS4Y genes. In humans, RPS4Y is duplicated and the Y chromosome therefore carries a third functional paralog: RPS4Y2, which presents a testis-specific expression pattern. RESULTS: DNA sequence analysis of the intronic and cDNA regions of RPS4Y genes from species covering the entire primate phylogeny showed that the duplication event leading to the second Y-linked copy occurred after the divergence of New World monkeys, about 35 million years ago. Maximum likelihood analyses of the synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions revealed that positive selection was acting on RPS4Y2 gene in the human lineage, which represents the first evidence of positive selection on a ribosomal protein gene. Putative positive amino acid replacements affected the three domains of the protein: one of these changes is located in the KOW protein domain and affects the unique invariable position of this motif, and might thus have a dramatic effect on the protein function. CONCLUSION: Here, we shed new light on the evolutionary history of RPS4Y gene family, especially on that of RPS4Y2. The results point that the RPS4Y1 gene might be maintained to compensate gene dosage between sexes, while RPS4Y2 might have acquired a new function, at least in the lineage leading to humans.
Project description:X-linked ribosomal protein S4 (RPS4X) has previously been reported to be associated with cisplatin resistance and clinical outcome in bladder and ovarian cancer. However, the value of RPS4X as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) has not yet been investigated. The present study evaluated the expression pattern, and diagnostic and prognostic value of RPS4X in patients with ICC. Retrospective analysis was performed for a total of 201 patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and 8 patients with inflammation of the bile duct. Immunohistochemistry was performed using tissue microarrays to characterize the expression profile of RPS4X. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox regression analysis were applied to evaluate the potential diagnostic and prognostic value of RPS4X in ICC. RPS4X was significantly upregulated in ICC tissues compared with the inflamed bile duct tissues. When differentiating ICC from normal controls, ROC analysis of RPS4X gave an area under the curve value of 0.9030 (sensitivity, 82.59%; specificity, 100%). RPS4X expression was significantly positively correlated with serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Survival analysis demonstrated that RPS4X expression levels were an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Therefore, RPS4X expression levels may serve as a novel diagnostic and prognostic marker in ICC.
Project description:The X-linked ribosomal protein S4 (RPS4X), which is involved in cellular translation and proliferation, has previously been identified as a partner of the overexpressed multifunctional protein YB-1 in several breast cancer cells. Depletion of RPS4X results in consistent resistance to cisplatin in such cell lines.As platinum-based chemotherapy is a standard first line therapy used to treat patients with ovarian cancer, we evaluated the prognostic value of RPS4X and YB-1 at the protein level in specimen from 192 high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer patients.Immunohistochemistry studies indicated that high expression of RPS4X was associated with a lower risk of death and later disease progression (HR?=?0.713, P?=?0.001 and HR?=?0.761, P?=?0.001, respectively) as compared to low expression of RPS4X. In contrast, YB-1 was not significantly associated with either recurrence or survival time in this cohort. Finally, the depletion of RPS4X with different siRNAs in two different ovarian cancer cell lines reduced their proliferative growth rate but more importantly increased their resistance to cisplatin.Altogether, these results suggest that the levels of RPS4X could be a good indicator for resistance to platinum-based therapy and a prognostic marker for ovarian cancer. Our study also showed that RPS4X is an independent prognostic factor in patients with serous epithelial ovarian cancer.
Project description:The Y chromosome of mammals is particularly prone to accumulate genes related to male fertility. However, the high rate of molecular evolution on this chromosome predicts reduced power to the across-species comparative approach in identifying male-specific genes that are essential for sperm production in humans. We performed a comprehensive analysis of expression of Y-linked transcripts and their X homologues in several human tissues, and in biopsies of infertile patients, in an attempt to identify new testis-specific genes involved in human spermatogenesis.We present evidence that one of the primate-specific Y-linked ribosomal protein genes, RPS4Y2, has restricted expression in testis and prostate, in contrast with its X-linked homologue, which is ubiquitously expressed. Moreover, we have determined by highly specific quantitative real time PCR that RPS4Y2 is more highly expressed in testis biopsies containing germ cells. The in silico analysis of the promoter region of RPS4Y2 revealed several differences relative to RPS4Y1, the more widely expressed paralogue from which Y2 has originated through duplication. Finally, through comparative modelling we obtained the three dimensional models of the human S4 proteins, revealing a conserved structure. Interestingly, RPS4Y2 shows different inter-domain contacts and the potential to establish specific interactions.These results suggest that one of the Y-linked copies of the ribosomal protein S4 is preferentially expressed during spermatogenesis and might be important for germ cell development. Even though RPS4Y2 has accumulated several amino acid changes following its duplication from RPS4Y1, approximately 35 million years ago, the evolution of the Y-encoded RPS4 proteins is structurally constrained. However, the exclusive expression pattern of RPS4Y2 and the novelties acquired at the C-terminus of the protein may indicate some degree of functional specialisation of this protein in spermatogenesis.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains one of the most refractory malignancies worldwide. Schlafen family member 11 (SLFN11) has been reported to play an important role in inhibiting the production of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). However, whether SLFN11 also inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV), and affects HBV-induced HCC remain to be systematically investigated. Methods: qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were conducted to investigate the potential role and prognostic value of SLFN11 in HCC. Then SLFN11 was stably overexpressed or knocked down in HCC cell lines. To further explore the potential biological function of SLFN11 in HCC, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays, colony formation assays, wound healing assays and transwell cell migration and invasion assays were performed in vitro. Meanwhile, HCC subcutaneous xenograft tumor models were established for in vivo assays. Subsequently, immunoprecipitation (IP) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses were applied to understand the molecular mechanisms of SLFN11 in HCC. Co-IP, immunofluorescence and IHC staining were used to analyze the relationship between ribosomal protein S4 X-linked (RPS4X) and SLFN11. Finally, the therapeutic potential of SLFN11 with mTOR pathway inhibitor INK128 on inhibiting HCC growth and metastasis was evaluated in vitro and in vivo orthotopic xenograft mouse models. Results: We demonstrate that SLFN11 expression is decreased in HCC, which is associated with shorter overall survival and higher recurrence rates in patients. In addition, we show that low SLFN11 expression is associated with aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics. Moreover, overexpression of SLFN11 inhibits HCC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, facilitates apoptosis in vitro, and impedes HCC growth and metastasis in vivo, all of which are attenuated by SLFN11 knockdown. Mechanistically, SLFN11 physically associates with RPS4X and blocks the mTOR signaling pathway. In orthotopic mouse models, overexpression of SLFN11 or inhibition of mTOR pathway inhibitor by INK128 reverses HCC progression and metastasis. Conclusions: SLFN11 may serve as a powerful prognostic biomarker and putative tumor suppressor by suppressing the mTOR signaling pathway via RPS4X in HCC. Our study may therefore offer a novel therapeutic strategy for treating HCC patients with the mTOR pathway inhibitor INK128.
Project description:The accurate synthesis of proteins is crucial to the existence of a cell. In yeast, several genes that affect the fidelity of translation have been identified (e.g., omnipotent suppressors, antisuppressors and allosuppressors). We have found that the dominant omnipotent suppressor SUP46 encodes the yeast ribosomal protein S13. S13 is encoded by two similar genes, but only the sup46 copy of the gene is able to fully complement the recessive phenotypes of SUP46 mutations. Both copies of the S13 genes contain introns. Unlike the introns of other duplicated ribosomal protein genes which are highly diverged, the duplicated S13 genes have two nearly identical DNA sequences of 25 and 31 bp in length within their introns. The SUP46 protein has significant homology to the S4 ribosomal protein in prokaryotic-type ribosomes. S4 is encoded by one of the ram (ribosomal ambiguity) genes in Escherichia coli which are the functional equivalent of omnipotent suppressors in yeast. Thus, SUP46 and S4 demonstrate functional as well as sequence conservation between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomal proteins. SUP46 and S4 are most similar in their central amino acid sequences. Interestingly, the alterations resulting from the SUP46 mutations and the segment of the S4 protein involved in binding to the 16S rRNA are within this most conserved region.
Project description:Resistance of soybean against the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae is conferred by a series of Rps genes. We have characterized a disease resistance gene-like sequence NBSRps4/6 that was introgressed into soybean lines along with Rps4 or Rps6. High-resolution genetic mapping established that NBSRps4/6 cosegregates with Rps4. Two mutants, M1 and M2, showing rearrangements in the NBSRps4/6 region were identified from analyses of 82 F(1)'s and 201 selfed HARO4272 plants containing Rps4. Fingerprints of these mutants are identical to those of HARO4272 for 176 SSR markers representing the whole genome except the NBSRps4/6 region. Both mutants showed a gain of race specificities, distinct from the one encoded by Rps4. To investigate the possible mechanism of gain of Phytophthora resistance in M1, the novel race specificity was mapped. Surprisingly, the gene encoding this resistance mapped to the Rps3 region, indicating that this gene could be either allelic or linked to Rps3. Recombinant analyses have shown that deletion of NBSRps4/6 in M1 is associated with the loss of Rps4 function. The NBSRps4/6 sequence is highly transcribed in etiolated hypocotyls expressing the Phytophthora resistance. It is most likely that a copy of the NBSRps4/6 sequence is the Rps4 gene. Possible mechanisms of the deletion in the NBSRps4/6 region and introgression of two unlinked Rps genes into Harosoy are discussed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Disruption of mitochondrial genes may become a powerful tool for elucidating precisely the functions of individual mitochondrial genes. However, it is generally difficult to manipulate genetically mitochondrial genes, because 1) a mitochondrion is surrounded by inner and outer membranes, and 2) there are a large number of mtDNA copies in a single cell. This is the reason why we tried to establish a novel method for disrupting a certain mitochondrial gene (rps4), using Dictyostelium cells. RESULTS: Here, we have developed a new method for specifically disrupting a mitochondrial gene (rps4 ; ribosomal protein subunit S4), by a combination of homologous recombination and delivery of an appropriate restriction endonuclease (SfoI) into mitochondria. First, mitochondrially targeted SfoI whose expression is under control of the tetracycline (Tet)-regulated gene expression system was introduced into cells heteroplasmic with respect to the rps4 gene. Then, the heteroplasmic cells were produced by homologous recombination by use of the construct in which the unique SfoI site and the 5'-half of the rps4 coding region were deleted not to be digested by SfoI, and therefore their mitochondria have both the wild-type mtDNA and the mutant mtDNA with the disrupted rps4 gene. In response to removal of Tet from growth medium, SfoI was selectively delivered into mitochondria and digested only the wild-type mtDNA but not the mutated rps4. Thus one can gain rps4-null cells with only the mutated mtDNA, under the Tet-minus condition. CONCLUSION: The mitochondrial gene-disruption method presented here must be widely useful for precisely determining the functions of individual mitochondrial genes. This is the first report to demonstrate complete and specific mitochondrial gene disruption.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Plastome mutants are ideal resources for elucidating the functions of plastid genes. Numerous studies have been conducted for the function of plastid genes in barley and tobacco; however, related information is limited in Chinese cabbage. RESULTS:A chlorophyll-deficient mutant of Chinese cabbage that was derived by ethyl methanesulfonate treatment on isolated microspores showed uniformly pale green inner leaves and slow growth compared with that shown by the wild type "Fukuda 50' ('FT'). Genetic analysis revealed that cdm was cytoplasmically inherited. Physiological and ultrastructural analyses of cdm showed impaired photosynthesis and abnormal chloroplast development. Utilizing next generation sequencing, the complete plastomes of cdm and 'FT' were respectively re-mapped to the reference genome of Chinese cabbage, and an A-to-C base substitution with a mutation ratio higher than 99% was detected. The missense mutation of plastid ribosomal protein S4 led to valine substitution for glycine at residue 193. The expression level of rps4 was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR and found lower in than in 'FT'. RNA gel-blot assays showed that the abundance of mature 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA, 5S rRNA, and 4.5S rRNA significantly decreased and that the processing of 23S, 16S rRNA, and 4.5S rRNA was seriously impaired, affecting the ribosomal function in cdm. CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicated that cdm was a plastome mutant and that chlorophyll deficiency might be due to an A-to-C base substitution of the plastome-encoded rps4 that impaired the rRNA processing and affected the ribosomal function.
Project description:Obtaining reliable gene expression data using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is highly dependent on the choice of normalization method. We tested the expression stability of multiple candidate genes in the salivary glands (SG) and synganglia (SYN) of female Ixodes scapularis (Say) ticks in multiple blood-feeding phases. We found that the amount of total RNA in both the SG and SYN increases dramatically during tick feeding, with 34x and 5.8x increases from 62 and 7.1 ng of unfed tick, respectively. We tested candidate genes that were predicted from I. scapularis genome data to encode glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh), ribosomal protein L13A (l13a), TATA box-binding protein (tbp), ribosomal protein S4 (rps4), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpdh), and beta-glucuronidase (gusb). The geNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to analyze data from different feeding phases (i.e., daily samples from unfed to fully engorged females over a 7-d period in three replicate experiments). We found that the rps4 and l13a genes showed highly stable expression patterns over the feeding duration in both the SG and SYN. Furthermore, the highly expressed rps4 gene makes it useful as a normalization factor when we perform studies using minute amounts of dissected tissue for qPCR. We conclude that rps4 and l13a, whether individually or as a pair, serve as suitable internal reference genes for qRT-PCR studies in the SG and SYN of I. scapularis.