Isolation, Cloning and High- Level Expression of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Lipocalin2 by Baculovirus Expression System through Gateway Technology.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is a 25-kDa glycoprotein that has initially been extracted from neutrophil granules. Expression of Lcn2 is induced under various pathophysiological conditions. It is also known as an early marker of kidney and heart injury. High-level expression of recombinant Lcn2 neutrophil gelatinase-associated (NGAL) in insect cells was the aim of this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Lcn2 gene was isolated from HepG2 cell line. The PCR product was cloned into TOPO vector to construct TOPO-Lcn2. Then Lcn2 was transferred to Gateway adapted Baculovirus DNA by LR recombination reaction. The recombinant Baculovirus DNA was transfected into insect cell line. Expression of recombinant Lcn2 was detected by RT-PCR, ELISA and western blot analysis. RESULTS:Insertion of Lcn2 into pENTR/D-TOPO vector was confirmed by using PCR. The accuracy of the nucleotides sequence was verified by DNA sequencing. Transfer of the Lcn2 cDNA into the Baculovirus destination vector by LR recombination reaction was confirmed by amplification of a band of about 860 bp length by using forward Lcn2 primer and V5 reverse primer. Next, Lcn2 protein was detected as a prominent band with approximate molecular weight of 30 kDa in SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. ELISA results revealed high-level expression of Lcn2 by Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. CONCLUSION:High-level expression of Lcn2 protein in insect cells is promising for future potential applications. Recombinant Lcn2 might be used for producing monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies and as potential therapeutic agent. Large scale expression and purification are next steps that are on the way.
Project description:Glycosylation is an important attribute of baculovirus-insect cell expression systems, but some insect cell lines produce core ?1,3-fucosylated N-glycans, which are highly immunogenic and render recombinant glycoproteins unsuitable for human use. To address this problem, we exploited a bacterial enzyme, guanosine-5'-diphospho (GDP)-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-d-mannose reductase (Rmd), which consumes the GDP-l-fucose precursor. We expected this enzyme to block glycoprotein fucosylation by blocking the production of GDP-l-fucose, the donor substrate required for this process. Initially, we engineered two different insect cell lines to constitutively express Rmd and isolated subclones with fucosylation-negative phenotypes. However, we found the fucosylation-negative phenotypes induced by Rmd expression were unstable, indicating that this host cell engineering approach is ineffective in insect systems. Thus, we constructed a baculovirus vector designed to express Rmd immediately after infection and facilitate the insertion of genes encoding any glycoprotein of interest for expression later after infection. We used this vector to produce a daughter encoding rituximab and found, in contrast to an Rmd-negative control, that insect cells infected with this virus produced a nonfucosylated form of this therapeutic antibody. These results indicate that our Rmd(+) baculoviral vector can be used to solve the immunogenic core ?1,3-fucosylation problem associated with the baculovirus-insect cell system. In conjunction with existing glycoengineered insect cell lines, this vector extends the utility of the baculovirus-insect cell system to include therapeutic glycoprotein production. This new vector also extends the utility of the baculovirus-insect cell system to include the production of recombinant antibodies with enhanced effector functions, due to its ability to block core ?1,6-fucosylation.
Project description:Here we describe the development of a baculovirus vector expression cassette containing rearranged baculovirus-derived genetic regulatory elements. This newly designed expression cassette conferred significant production improvements to the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), including prolonged cell integrity after infection, improved protein integrity, and around 4-fold increase in recombinant protein production yields in insect cells with respect to a standard baculovirus vector. The expression cassette consisted of a cDNA encoding for the baculovirus transactivation factors IE1 and IE0, expressed under the control of the polyhedrin promoter, and a homologous repeated transcription enhancer sequence operatively cis-linked to the p10 promoter or to chimeric promoters containing p10. The prolonged cell integrity observed in cells infected by baculoviruses harbouring the novel expression cassette reduced the characteristic proteolysis and aberrant forms frequently found in baculovirus-derived recombinant proteins. The new expression cassette developed here has the potential to significantly improve the productivity of the BEVS.
Project description:Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a small secreted protein and its elevated expression has been observed in pancreatic as well as other cancer types. LCN2 has been reported to promote resistance to drug-induced apoptosis, enhance invasion through its physical association with matrix metalloproteinase-9, and promote in vivo tumor growth. LCN2 was found to be commonly expressed in patient PDAC samples and its pattern of immunohistochemical staining intensified with increasing severity in high-grade precursor lesions. Downregulation of LCN2 in two pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines (BxPC3 and HPAF-II) with high LCN2 expression significantly reduced attachment, invasion, and tumour growth in vivo, but not proliferation or motility. Downregulation of LCN2 in two pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines (BxPC3 and HPAF-II) with high expression significantly reduced attachment, invasion, and tumour growth in vivo. In contrast, LCN2 overexpression in PANC1, with low endogenous expression, significantly increased invasion, attachment, and enhanced tumor growth. Suppression of LCN2 in BxPC3 and HPAF-II cells increased their sensitivity to gemcitabine in vitro, and in vivo when BxPC3 was tested. Furthermore, LCN2 promotes expression of VEGF and HIF1A which contribute to enhanced vascularity. These overall results demonstrate that LCN2 plays an important role in the malignant progression of pancreatic ductal carcinoma and is a potential therapeutic target for this disease.
Project description:Hypoxic tumors have been identified as appropriate indicators of tumor malignancy. However, no convenient plasma marker for hypoxic tumors has been described. Therefore, to identify a novel, convenient plasma marker for hypoxic tumors, we used microarray analysis to compare gene expression profiles of normoxic and hypoxic tumor tissues of mice bearing melanomas. Among the upregulated genes detected in hypoxic tumors, we chose to study the secretory protein lipocalin2 (LCN2) as a marker for hypoxic tumors. LCN2 protein levels in the plasma of mice bearing hypoxic tumors were significantly increased compared with those in mice bearing normoxic tumors. Interestingly, LCN2 mRNA levels were 17-fold higher in HIF-1?-positive hypoxic tumors than in HIF-1?-negative normoxic tumors. Furthermore, LCN2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in the B16-F1 cells and various human tumor cells cultured under hypoxic conditions than in cells cultured under normoxic conditions, while no changes in mRNA expression were observed in nontumor NIH-3T3 cells, even under hypoxic conditions. In cultured cells, the expression pattern of LCN2 was mostly consistent with that of HIF-1?, whereas that of a conventional hypoxic marker, carbonic anhydrase IX, was not. Collectively, our data suggested that LCN2 was a useful plasma marker for hypoxic tumors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Factor VII (FVII) is a plasma glycoprotein that participates in the coagulation process leading to the generation of fibrin. The aim of this study was to construct, express and purify recombinant FVII fused to a polyhistidine (his) tag using Gateway technology. METHODS:To construct the entry clone, blunt-end FVII cDNA and subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product isolated from a HepG2 cell line was TOPO-cloned into a pENTR TOPO vector. To construct the expression clone, a LR recombination reaction was carried out between the entry clone and destination vector, pDEST26. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were transfected with 1 microg of DNA of PDEST26-FVII using the FuGENE HD transfection reagent. Two cell lines that permanently expressed recombinant FVII were established. The expression of recombinant FVII was confirmed by reverse transcriptase PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Culture medium containing his-tagged FVII was added to the nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid resin column and bound protein was eluted. The purified protein was detected by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot analysis. The biological activity of the recombinant FVII was determined by a prothrombin time assay using FVII-depleted plasma. RESULTS:The results showed that human recombinant FVII was successfully cloned and the accuracy of the nucleotide sequence of the gene and its frame in the vector were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Stable clones transfected with the construct expressed FVII mRNA and related protein but no expression was detected in the CHO cells containing an empty vector. A protein of about 52 KDa was detected in SDS-PAGE and was further confirmed by western blot analysis. A three-fold decrease in clotting time was observed using this recombinant FVII. CONCLUSION:As far as we are aware, this is the first report of expression of recombinant FVII fused with a his-tag through Gateway technology. The next steps, including large scale expression, purification, activation and stabilisation, are underway.
Project description:Insect-derived baculoviruses have emerged as versatile and safe workhorses of biotechnology. Baculovirus expression vectors (BEVs) have been applied widely for crop and forest protection, as well as safe tools for recombinant protein production in insect cells. However, BEVs ability to efficiently transduce noninsect cells is still relatively poorly recognized despite the fact that efficient baculovirus-mediated in vitro and ex vivo gene delivery into dormant and dividing vertebrate cells of diverse origin has been described convincingly by many authors. Preliminary proof of therapeutic potential has also been established in preclinical studies. This review summarizes the advantages and current status of baculovirus-mediated gene delivery. Stem cell transduction, preclinical animal studies, tissue engineering, vaccination, cancer gene therapy, viral vector production, and drug discovery are covered.
Project description:The gag and env genes of the feline immunodeficiency virus strain UT113 were cloned into a baculovirus transfer vector. The recombinant plasmids were used to create recombinant baculoviruses that expressed either the gag or the env precursor protein in insect cells (Sf9 cells). Leader sequence cleavage occurred in Sf9 cells expressing the envelope precursor, but further processing was not observed. Crude lysates of insect cells infected with the wild-type baculovirus or with the recombinant viruses were used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of feline immunodeficiency virus-specific antibodies in cat sera. The assay showed a higher sensitivity and specificity than immunofluorescence and Western blotting (immunoblotting).
Project description:The PFD1235w Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) antigen is associated with severe malaria in children and can be expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IE) adhering to ICAM1. However, the exact three-dimensional structure of this PfEMP1 and its surface-exposed epitopes are unknown. An insect cell and Escherichia coli based system was used to express single and double domains encoded by the pfd1235w var gene. The resulting recombinant proteins have been evaluated for yield and purity and their ability to induce rat antibodies, which react with the native PFD1235w PfEMP1 antigen expressed on 3D7PFD1235w-IE. Their recognition by human anti-malaria antibodies from previously infected Tanzanian donors was also analysed.The recombinant proteins were run on SDS-PAGE and Western blots for quantification and size estimation. Insect cell and E. coli-produced recombinant proteins were coupled to a bead-based Luminex assay to measure the plasma antibody reactivity of 180 samples collected from Tanzanian individuals. The recombinant proteins used for immunization of rats and antisera were also tested by flow cytometry for their ability to surface label 3D7PFD1235w-IE.All seven pAcGP67A constructs were successfully expressed as recombinant protein in baculovirus-infected insect cells and subsequently produced to a purity of 60-97% and a yield of 2-15 mg/L. By comparison, only three of seven pET101/D-TOPO constructs expressed in the E. coli system could be produced at all with purity and yield ranging from 3-95% and 6-11 mg/L. All seven insect cell, but only two of the E. coli produced proteins induced antibodies reactive with native PFD1235w expressed on 3D7PFD1235w-IE. The recombinant proteins were recognized in an age- and transmission intensity-dependent manner by antibodies from 180 Tanzanian individuals in a bead-based Luminex assay.The baculovirus based insect cell system was distinctly superior to the E. coli expression system in producing a larger number of different recombinant PFD1235w protein domains and these were significantly easier to purify at a useful yield. However, proteins produced in both systems were able to induce antibodies in rats, which can recognize the native PFD1235w on the surface of IE.
Project description:The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) has been widely used to produce a large number of recombinant proteins, and is becoming one of the most powerful, robust, and cost-effective systems for the production of eukaryotic proteins. Nevertheless, as in any other protein expression system, it is important to improve the production capabilities of this vector. The orf46 viral gene was identified among the most highly abundant sequences in the transcriptome of Spodoptera exigua larvae infected with its native baculovirus, the S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). Different sequences upstream of the orf46 gene were cloned, and their promoter activities were tested by the expression of the GFP reporter gene using the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) vector system in different insect cell lines (Sf21, Se301, and Hi5) and in larvae from S. exigua and Trichoplusia ni. The strongest promoter activity was defined by a 120 nt sequence upstream of the ATG start codon for the orf46 gene. On average, GFP expression under this new promoter was more than two fold higher than the expression obtained with the standard polyhedrin (polh) promoter. Additionally, the orf46 promoter was also tested in combination with the polh promoter, revealing an additive effect over the polh promoter activity. In conclusion, this new characterized promoter represents an excellent alternative to the most commonly used baculovirus promoters for the efficient expression of recombinant proteins using the BEVS.