Spin seebeck effect and thermal colossal magnetoresistance in graphene nanoribbon heterojunction.
ABSTRACT: Spin caloritronics devices are very important for future development of low-power-consumption technology. We propose a new spin caloritronics device based on zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR), which is a heterojunction consisting of single-hydrogen-terminated ZGNR (ZGNR-H) and double-hydrogen-terminated ZGNR (ZGNR-H2). We predict that spin-up and spin-down currents flowing in opposite directions can be induced by temperature difference instead of external electrical bias. The thermal spin-up current is considerably large and greatly improved compared with previous work in graphene. Moreover, the thermal colossal magnetoresistance is obtained in our research, which could be used to fabricate highly-efficient spin caloritronics MR devices.
Project description:Spin-dependent Seebeck effect (SDSE) is one of hot topics in spin caloritronics, which examine the relationships between spin and heat transport in materials. Meanwhile, it is still a huge challenge to obtain thermally induced spin current nearly without thermal electron current. Here, we construct a hydrogen-terminated zigzag silicene nanoribbon heterojunction, and find that by applying a temperature difference between the source and the drain, spin-up and spin-down currents are generated and flow in opposite directions with nearly equal magnitudes, indicating that the thermal spin current dominates the carrier transport while the thermal electron current is much suppressed. By modulating the temperature, a pure thermal spin current can be achieved. Moreover, a thermoelectric rectifier and a negative differential thermoelectric resistance can be obtained in the thermal electron current. Through the analysis of the spin-dependent transport characteristics, a phase diagram containing various spin caloritronic phenomena is provided. In addition, a thermal magnetoresistance, which can reach infinity, is also obtained. Our results put forward an effective route to obtain a spin caloritronic material which can be applied in future low-power-consumption technology.
Project description:Graphene nanoribbons based electronic devices present many interesting physical properties. We designed and investigated the spin-dependent electron transport of a device configuration, which is easy to be fabricated, with an oxygen-terminated ZGNR central scatter region between two hydrogen-terminated ZGNR electrodes. According to the analysis based on non-equilibrium Green's function and density functional theory, the proposed device could maintain its good spin-filter performance (80% to 99%) and have a stable magneto resistance value up to 10(5)%. The spin dependent electron transmission spectrum and space-resolve density of states are employed to investigate the physical origin of the spin-polarized current and magneto resistance.
Project description:On the basis of the density functional theory combined with the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function method, we investigate the spin-dependent transport properties of single-edge phosphorus-doped ZGNR systems with different widths. The results show a perfect spin filtering effect reaching 100% at a wide bias range in both parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) spin configurations for all systems, especially for 6-ZGNR-P system. Instructively, for the AP spin configuration, the spin down current of the 4-ZGNR-P system exhibits a negative differential effect. By analyzing the transmission spectrum and the spin-resolved band structures of the electrodes, we elucidate the mechanism for these peculiar properties. Our findings provide a new way to produce multifunctional spintronic devices based on phosphorus-doped zigzag graphene nanoribbons.
Project description:Electronic devices lose efficacy due to quantum effect when the line-width of gate decreases to sub-10 nm. Spintronics overcome this bottleneck and logic gates are building blocks of integrated circuits. Thus, it is essential to control electronic transport of opposite spins for designing a spintronic logic gate, and spin-selective semiconductors are natural candidates such as zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNR) whose edges are ferromagnetically ordered and antiferromagnetically coupled with each other. Moreover, it is necessary to sandwich ZGNR between two ferromagnetic electrodes for making a spintronic logic gate and also necessary to apply magnetic field to change the spin orientation for modulating the spin transport. By first principle calculations, we propose a method to manipulate the spin transport in graphene nanoribbons with electric field only, instead of magnetic field. We find that metal gates with specific bias nearby edges of ZGNR build up an in-plane inhomogeneous electric field which modulates the spin transport by localizing the spin density in device. The specific manipulation of spin transport we have proposed doesn't need spin-charge conversion for output and suggests a possible base for designing spintronic integrated circuit in atomic scale.
Project description:Spin caloritronics studies the interplay between charge-, heat- and spin-currents, which are initiated by temperature gradients in magnetic nanostructures. A plethora of new phenomena has been discovered that promises, e.g., to make wasted heat in electronic devices useable or to provide new read-out mechanisms for information. However, only few materials have been studied so far with Seebeck voltages of only some microvolt, which hampers applications. Here, we demonstrate that half-metallic Heusler compounds are hot candidates for enhancing spin-dependent thermoelectric effects. This becomes evident when considering the asymmetry of the spin-split density of electronic states around the Fermi level that determines the spin-dependent thermoelectric transport in magnetic tunnel junctions. We identify Co2FeAl and Co2FeSi Heusler compounds as ideal due to their energy gaps in the minority density of states, and demonstrate devices with substantially larger Seebeck voltages and tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect ratios than the commonly used Co-Fe-B-based junctions.
Project description:Using first-principles calculations, we investigate an atomic impurity at the interface of a van der Waals heterostructure (vdW heterostructure) consisting of a zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) and a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) sheet. To find effects of atomic intercalation on geometrical and electronic properties of the ZGNR on the h-BN sheet, various types of impurity atoms are considered. The embedded atoms are initially placed at the edge or the middle of the ZGNR located on the h-BN sheet. Our results demonstrate that most of the impurity atoms are more stable at the edge than at the middle in all cases we consider. Especially, a nickel atom has the smallest energy difference (~0.15 eV) between the two embedding positions, which means that the Ni atom is relatively easy to intercalate in the structure. Finally, we discuss magnetic properties for the vdW heterostructure with an intercalated atom.
Project description:Energy loss due to ohmic heating is a major bottleneck limiting down-scaling and speed of nano-electronic devices, and harvesting ohmic heat for signal processing is a major challenge in modern electronics. Here, we demonstrate that thermal gradients arising from ohmic heating can be utilized for excitation of coherent auto-oscillations of magnetization and for generation of tunable microwave signals. The heat-driven dynamics is observed in Y3Fe5O12/Pt bilayer nanowires where ohmic heating of the Pt layer results in injection of pure spin current into the Y3Fe5O12 layer. This leads to excitation of auto-oscillations of the Y3Fe5O12 magnetization and generation of coherent microwave radiation. Our work paves the way towards spin caloritronic devices for microwave and magnonic applications.Harvesting ohmic heat for signal processing is one of major challenges in modern electronics and spin caloritronics, but not yet well accomplished. Here the authors demonstrate a spin torque oscillator device driven by pure spin current arising from thermal gradient across an Y3Fe5O12/Pt interface.
Project description:Spin caloritronics has recently emerged from the combination of spintronics and thermoelectricity. Here, we show that flexible, macroscopic spin caloritronic devices based on large-area interconnected magnetic nanowire networks can be used to enable controlled Peltier cooling of macroscopic electronic components with an external magnetic field. We experimentally demonstrate that three-dimensional CoNi/Cu multilayered nanowire networks exhibit an extremely high, magnetically modulated thermoelectric power factor up to 7.5 mW/K2m and large spin-dependent Seebeck and Peltier coefficients of -11.5 μV/K and -3.45 mV at room temperature, respectively. Our investigation reveals the possibility of performing efficient magnetic control of heat flux for thermal management of electronic devices and constitutes a simple and cost-effective pathway for fabrication of large-scale flexible and shapeable thermoelectric coolers exploiting the spin degree of freedom.
Project description:Active control of heat flow is crucial for the thermal management of increasingly complex electronic and spintronic devices. In addition to conventional heat transport engineering, spin caloritronics has received extensive attention as a heat control principle owing to its high controllability and unique thermal energy conversion symmetry. Here we demonstrate that the direction of heat currents generated by spin-caloritronic phenomena can be changed simply by illuminating magnetic materials with visible light. The optical control of heat currents is realized through a combination of the spin-driven thermoelectric conversion called an anomalous Ettingshausen effect and all-optical helicity-dependent switching of magnetization. This approach enables not only pinpoint manipulation and flexible design of the heat current distribution by patterning the illuminating light but also on/off control of the resulting temperature modulation by tuning the light polarization. These versatile heat control functionalities will open up a pathway for nanoscale thermal energy engineering.
Project description:We study two-terminal devices for DNA sequencing that consist of a metallic graphene nanoribbon with zigzag edges (ZGNR) and a nanopore in its interior through which the DNA molecule is translocated. Using the nonequilibrium Green functions combined with density functional theory, we demonstrate that each of the four DNA nucleobases inserted into the nanopore, whose edge carbon atoms are passivated by either hydrogen or nitrogen, will lead to a unique change in the device conductance. Unlike other recent biosensors based on transverse electronic transport through translocated DNA, which utilize small (of the order of pA) tunneling current across a nanogap or a nanopore yielding a poor signal-to-noise ratio, our device concept relies on the fact that in ZGNRs local current density is peaked around the edges so that drilling a nanopore away from the edges will not diminish the conductance. Inserting a nucleobase into the nanopore affects the charge density in the surrounding area, thereby modulating edge conduction currents whose magnitude is of the order of microampere at bias voltage 0.1 V. The proposed biosensors are not limited to ZGNRs and they could be realized with other nanowires supporting transverse edge currents, such as chiral GNRs or wires made of two-dimensional topological insulators.