Hirsutella sinensis mycelium suppresses interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 secretion by inhibiting both canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes.
ABSTRACT: Cordyceps sinensis is a medicinal mushroom used for centuries in Asian countries as a health supplement and tonic. Hirsutella sinensis-the anamorphic, mycelial form of C. sinensis-possesses similar properties, and is increasingly used as a health supplement. Recently, C. sinensis extracts were shown to inhibit the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process has remained unclear. In addition, whether H. sinensis mycelium (HSM) extracts also inhibit the production of IL-1β has not been investigated. In the present study, the HSM extract suppresses IL-1β and IL-18 secretion, and ATP-induced activation of caspase-1. Notably, we observed that HSM not only reduced expression of the inflammasome component NLRP1 and the P2X7R but also reduced the activation of caspase-4, and ATP-induced ROS production. These findings reveal that the HSM extract has anti-inflammatory properties attributed to its ability to inhibit both canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes.
Project description:Hirsutella sinensis mycelium (HSM), the anamorph of Cordyceps sinensis, is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties. We previously reported that this fungus suppresses interleukin-1? and IL-18 secretion by inhibiting both canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes in human macrophages. However, whether HSM may be used to prevent lung fibrosis and the mechanism underlying this activity remain unclear. Our results show that pretreatment with HSM inhibits TGF-?1-induced expression of fibronectin and ?-SMA in lung fibroblasts. HSM also restores superoxide dismutase expression in TGF-?1-treated lung fibroblasts and inhibits reactive oxygen species production in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, HSM pretreatment markedly reduces bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis in mice. Accordingly, HSM reduces inflammatory cell accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and proinflammatory cytokines levels in lung tissues. The HSM extract also significantly reduces TGF-?1 in lung tissues, and this effect is accompanied by decreased collagen 3?1 and ?-SMA levels. Moreover, HSM reduces expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome and P2X7R in lung tissues, whereas it enhances expression of superoxide dismutase. These findings suggest that HSM may be used for the treatment of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis.
Project description:The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (previously called Cordyceps sinensis) has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to improve health and longevity. Recent studies show that O. sinensis produces a wide range of biological effects on cells, laboratory animals and humans, including anti-fatigue, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. In view of the rarity of O. sinensis fruiting bodies in nature, cultivation of its anamorph mycelium represents a useful alternative for large-scale production. However, O. sinensis fruiting bodies harvested in nature harbor several fungal contaminants, a phenomenon that led to the isolation and characterization of a large number of incorrect mycelium strains. We report here the isolation of a mycelium from a fruiting body of O. sinensis and we identify the isolate as O. sinensis' anamorph (also called Hirsutella sinensis) based on multi-locus sequence typing of several fungal genes (ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, RPB1, RPB2, MCM7, ?-tubulin, TEF-1?, and ATP6). The main characteristics of the isolated mycelium, including its optimal growth at low temperature (16°C) and its biochemical composition, are similar to that of O. sinensis fruiting bodies, indicating that the mycelium strain characterized here may be used as a substitute for the rare and expensive O. sinensis fruiting bodies found in nature.
Project description:Ophiocordyceps sinensis has been used as a traditional medicine or healthy food in China for thousands of years. Hirsutella sinensis was reported as the only correct anamorph of O. sinensis. It is reported that the laboratory-grown H. sinensis mycelium has similar clinical efficacy and less associated toxicity compared to the wild O. sinensis. The research of the H. sinensis is becoming more and more important and urgent. To gain deeper insight into the biological and pharmacological mechanisms, we sequenced the genome of H. sinensis. The genome of H. sinensis (102.72 Mb) was obtained for the first time, with?>?99% coverage. 10,200 protein-encoding genes were predicted based on the genome sequence. A detailed secondary metabolism analysis and structure verification of the main ingredients were performed, and the biosynthesis pathways of seven ingredients (mannitol, cordycepin, purine nucleotides, pyrimidine nucleotides, unsaturated fatty acid, cordyceps polysaccharide and sphingolipid) were predicted and drawn. Furthermore, infection process and mechanism of H. sinensis were studied and elaborated in this article. The enzymes involved in the infection mechanism were also predicted, cloned and expressed to verify the mechanism. The genes and proteins were predicted and annotated based on the genome sequence. The pathways of several active components in H. sinensis were predicted and key enzymes were confirmed. The work presented here would improve the understanding of the genetic basis of this organism, and contribute to further research, production and application of H. sinensis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hirsutella Pat genus, the asexual morphs of the Ophiocordyceps Sung, is globally distributed entomopathogenic fungi, which infect a variety of arthropods, mites and nematodes. The fungal species also have shown potential application in the field of biological control, bio-medicine and food development. Although these fungi are synonymized under Ophiocordyceps, formal taxonomic assignments remain necessary for classification of species in Hirsutella. However, due to the heterogeneity and complexity of Hirsutella genus, more detailed taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses are required to address the following subjects: (1) the relationships between the phialide morphological characteristics and phylogenetic information of Hirsutella with asexual morphs, (2) the origin and evolution of the phialide structure, and (3) host specificity and fungal pathogenicity. RESULTS:Five typical phialide structures are summarized, in which the variation in phialide characteristics overlaps well with phylogenetic information. A new member of the special twisted neck clade in the Hirsutella-like group, Ophiocordyceps retorta, was reported based on these analyses. The molecular clock calibration analysis based on one fossil record revealed that Hirsutella (asexual morph) species originated from a common ancestor approximately 102 million years ago (Mya) (Early Cretaceous, Lower Albian) and then resolved into two major lineages. One lineage was typically phialidic, which was a larger shape, including H. guyana, H. nodulosa and H. sinensis clades (86.9 Mya, 95% highest posterior density (HPD): 69.1-101.4 Mya). Another main lineage of the phialides was more diversified and smaller than the former, which included H. citriformis and H. thompsonii clades (71.9 Mya, 95% HPD: 41.8-99.6 Mya). CONCLUSIONS:Our results showed that certain phialide characteristics of Hirsutella were phylogenetically informative for two groups of taxa. The differentiation of the phialides structures in the major clades demonstrated a clear evolutionary path of Hirsutella (asexual morph) species, which exhibited two trends depending on the host size. Fungi in one of the groups displayed elongated conidiogenous cells with increased complexity of auxiliary structures from the mycelia. The species in another group reduced the volume of phialides and spores, which might be due to an energy-efficient strategy. These results suggested that a common origin allowed for diversification of given clades into separate niches. The distinct parallel evolutionary path combined with the specific phialides structure might result in the host specificity of Hirsutella (asexual morphs). A direct relationship between Hirsutella (asexual morphs) and the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction was not found, which suggested that the diversity of phialides is more likely to be caused by long-term environmental adaptation and evolution rather than dramatic extinction events. This evolutionary result might correspond to the background of important biological and geological events in the late Cretaceous occurring near the divergence times of Hirsutella (asexual morphs).
Project description:Hirsutella (Ophiocordycipitaceae: Hypocreales) is a genus of insect, mite, and nematode pathogens with an asexual morph, which generally produce a mucilaginous cluster of one or several conidia on phialides that are basally subulate and taper to a fine neck. The generic name Hirsutella has been proposed for suppression in favour of Ophiocordyceps as a consequence of the ending of dual nomenclature for different morphs of pleomorphic fungi in 2011. Though the generic name is well established, geographically dispersed, and speciose, exceptionally few sequences are available in online databases. We examined 46 isolates of 23 Hirsutella species from the USA, curated by the USDA-ARS Collection of Entomopathogenic Fungal Cultures (ARSEF Culture Collection), that previously had not been molecularly characterized and produced a phylogeny of these organisms; we included previously published Hirsutella and Ophiocordyceps taxa. In producing the largest phylogeny of Hirsutella isolates so far, we provide: (1) context for discussing previously-hypothesized relationships; (2) evidence for revisions as taxonomic transitions move forward; and (3) available molecular data to be incorporated into further evolutionary studies of Ophiocordycipitaceae.
Project description:Ophiocordyceps sinensis, a worm and fungus combined mixture which Hirsutella sinensis is parasitic on the caterpillar body, has been used as a traditional medicine or healthy food in China for thousands of years. H. sinensis is reported as the only correct anamorph of O. sinensis and its main active ingredients are similar to the natural O. sinensis.H. sinensis L0106, asexual strain of O. sinensis, was isolated and identified in this study. Three transcriptomes of H. sinensis at different cultivation periods (growth period 3d, pre-stable period 6d and stable period 9d) were sequenced for the first time by RNA-Seq method, and 25,511 unigenes (3d), 25,214 unigenes (6d) and 16,245 unigenes (9d) were assembled and obtained, respectively. These unigenes of the three samples were further assembled into 20,822 unigenes (All), and 62.3 percent of unigenes (All) could be annotated based on protein databases. Subsequently, the genes and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the active ingredients according to the sequencing and annotation results were predicted. Based on the predictions, we further investigated the interaction of different pathway networks and the corresponding enzymes. Furthermore, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of H. sinensis grown during different developmental stages (3d-VS-6d, 3d-VS-9d and 6d-VS-9d) were globally detected and analyzed based on the data from RNA-Seq, and 764 DEGs between 3d and 6d, 1,869 DEGs between 3d and 9d, and 770 DEGs between 6d and 9d were found, respectively.This work presented here would aid in understanding and carrying out future studies on the genetic basis of H. sinensis and contribute to the further artificial production and application of this organism. This study provided a substantial contribution and basis to further characterize the gene expression profiles of H. sinensis in the metabolic pathways of active ingredients.
Project description:A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential.
Project description:To enhance nucleoside production in Hirsutella sinensis, the biosynthetic pathways of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides were constructed and verified. The differential expression analysis showed that purine nucleoside phosphorylase, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, and guanosine monophosphate synthase genes involved in purine nucleotide biosynthesis were significantly upregulated 16.56-fold, 8-fold, and 5.43-fold, respectively. Moreover, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, uridine nucleosidase, uridine/cytidine monophosphate kinase, and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase genes participating in pyrimidine nucleoside biosynthesis were upregulated 4.53-fold, 10.63-fold, 4.26-fold, and 5.98-fold, respectively. To enhance the nucleoside production, precursors for synthesis of nucleosides were added based on the analysis of biosynthetic pathways. Uridine and cytidine contents, respectively, reached 5.04?mg/g and 3.54?mg/g when adding 2?mg/mL of ribose, resulting in an increase of 28.6% and 296% compared with the control, respectively. Meanwhile, uridine and cytidine contents, respectively, reached 10.83?mg/g 2.12?mg/g when adding 0.3?mg/mL of uracil, leading to an increase of 176.3% and 137.1%, respectively. This report indicated that fermentation regulation was an effective way to enhance the nucleoside production in H. sinensis based on biosynthetic pathway analysis.
Project description:Hirsutella thompsonii (Ht) is a fungal pathogen of acarines and the primary cause of epizootics among mites. The draft genomes of two isolates of Ht (MTCC 3556: Ht3, 34.6 Mb and MTCC 6686: Ht6, 34.7 Mb) are presented and compared with the genomes of Beauveria bassiana (Bb) ARSEF 2860 and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Os) CO18. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes, pathogen-host interaction genes, metabolism-associated genes, and genes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in the four genomes was carried out. Reduction in gene family sizes in Ht3 and Os as compared with Ht6 and Bb is observed. Analysis of the mating type genes in Ht reveals the presence of MAT idiomorphs which is suggestive of cryptic sexual traits in Ht. We further identify and classify putative chitinases that may function as virulence factors in fungal entomopathogens due to their role in degradation of arthropod cuticle.
Project description:Hirsutella sinensis (HS) is the anamorph of the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis. Although the renal protective effect of HS has been reported, its effect on diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains unclear. In this study, db/db mice were used as the DN model, and the renal protective effect was evaluated after oral administration of HS for 6 and 12 weeks. Plasma, urine, and kidney samples were collected, and biochemical indicator measurements, pathological analysis, and metabolomics studies were performed. Biochemical assays showed that HS reduced the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and increased the creatinine clearance (Ccr). HS alleviated glomerular and tubular glycogen accumulation and fibrosis and normalized the disordered ultrastructure of the glomerular filtration barrier. Metabolomics analysis of metabolites in the plasma, urine, and kidney indicated that HS modulated the perturbed glycolipid metabolism and amino acid turnover. HS reduced the elevated levels of metabolites involved in energy metabolism (TCA cycle, glycolysis, and pentose phosphate pathway) and nucleotide metabolism (pyrimidine metabolism and purine metabolism) in the kidneys of db/db mice. These results suggest that HS can protect against renal injury and that its efficacy involved metabolic modulation of the disturbed metabolome in db/db mice.