IL-6 production by dendritic cells is dispensable for CD8+ memory T-cell generation.
ABSTRACT: Following activation, naïve CD8(+) T cells will differentiate into effectors that differ in their ability to survive: some will persist as memory cells while the majority will die by apoptosis. Signals given by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) at the time of priming modulate this differential outcome. We have recently shown that, in opposition to dendritic cell (DC), CD40-activated B-(CD40-B) cell vaccination fails to efficiently produce CD8(+) memory T cells. Understanding why CD40-B-cell vaccination does not lead to the generation of functional long-lived memory cells is essential to define the signals that should be provided to naïve T cells by APCs. Here we show that CD40-B cells produce very low amount of IL-6 when compared to DCs. However, supplementation with IL-6 during CD40-B-cell vaccination did not improve memory generation. Furthermore, IL-6-deficient DCs maintained the capacity to promote the formation of functional CD8(+) effectors and memory cells. Our results suggest that in APC vaccination models, IL-6 provided by the APCs is dispensable for proper CD8(+) T-cell memory generation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The identification of the signals that should be provided by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to induce a CD8(+) T cell response in vivo is essential to improve vaccination strategies using antigen-loaded APCs. Although dendritic cells have been extensively studied, the ability of other APC types, such as B cells, to induce a CD8(+) T cell response have not been thoroughly evaluated.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>In this manuscript, we have characterized the ability of CD40-activated B cells, stimulated or not with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (CpG or lipopolysaccharide) to induce the response of mouse naïve CD8(+) T cells in vivo. Our results show that CD40-activated B cells can directly present antigen to naïve CD8(+) T cells to induce the generation of potent effectors able to secrete cytokines, kill target cells and control a Listeria monocytogenes infection. However, CD40-activated B cell immunization did not lead to the proper formation of CD8(+) memory T cells and further maturation of CD40-activated B cells with TLR agonists did not promote the development of CD8(+) memory T cells. Our results also suggest that inefficient generation of CD8(+) memory T cells with CD40-activated B cell immunization is a consequence of reduced Bcl-6 expression by effectors and enhanced contraction of the CD8(+) T cell response.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Understanding why CD40-activated B cell immunization is defective for the generation of memory T cells and gaining new insights about signals that should be provided by APCs are key steps before translating the use of CD40-B cell for therapeutic vaccination.
Project description:Adjuvants are commonly used in vaccines to augment immune response, but how the inflammatory cytokines elicited by adjuvants directly influence effector and memory CD8 T cell differentiation remains poorly characterized. Here, we used a peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination model to examine the role of primary cytokines, IL-12 and IFNgamma, elicited by CpG-B adjuvant on CD8 T cell priming and memory CD8 T cell development. During DC vaccination, simultaneous exposure to antigen and a heterologous Listeria infection, CpG-B or IL-12 enhanced a portion of the effector CD8 T cells to expand and differentiate to a larger extent. Simultaneously, this also decreased their ability to become long-lived memory CD8 T cells. However, development of memory CD8 T cells and their precursors was largely unaffected by the additional inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, IL-12 production by the antigen-presenting cell (APC) was not required during DC+CpG vaccination or Listeria infection, but rather 'bystander' macrophages and DCs appeared to be the physiologically relevant cellular sources of this cytokine. Furthermore, IFNgamma induced by CpG was required in vivo for optimal production of IL-12, which in turn, influenced effector CD8 T cell longevity. Together, these findings demonstrate the importance of an interconnected multicellular network between APCs, naïve T cells and bystander cells of the innate immune system that regulate effector and memory CD8 T cell development during vaccination.
Project description:Despite the crucial role of tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells in protective immunity, their priming remains poorly understood. Here, we have shown differential priming requirements for Trm versus circulating memory CD8+ T cells. In vaccinia cutaneous-infected mice, DNGR-1-mediated crosspresentation was required for optimal Trm cell priming but not for their skin differentiation or for circulating memory T cell generation. DNGR-1+ dendritic cells (DCs) promoted T-bet transcription-factor induction and retention of CD8+ T cells in the lymph nodes (LNs). Inhibition of LN egress enhanced Trm cell generation, whereas genetic or antibody blockade of DNGR-1 or specific signals provided during priming by DNGR-1+ DCs, such as interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-15, or CD24, impaired Trm cell priming. DNGR-1 also regulated Trm cell generation during influenza infection. Moreover, protective immunity depended on optimal Trm cell induction by DNGR-1+ DCs. Our results reveal specific priming requirements for CD8+ Trm cells during viral infection and vaccination.
Project description:CD40 stimulation has produced impressive results in early-stage clinical trials of patients with cancer. Further progress will be facilitated by a better understanding of how the CD40 receptor becomes activated and the subsequent functions of CD40-stimulated immune cells. This review focuses on two aspects of this subject. The first is the recent recognition that signaling by CD40 is initiated when the receptors are induced to cluster within the membrane of responding cells. This requirement for CD40 clustering explains the stimulatory effects of certain anti-CD40 antibodies and the activity of many-trimer, but not one-trimer, forms of CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154). The second topic is the use of these CD40 activators to expand B cells ("CD40-B cells"). As antigen-presenting cells (APCs), CD40-B cells are as effective as dendritic cells, with the important difference that CD40 B cells can be induced to proliferate in vitro, whereas DCs proliferate poorly if at all. As a result, the use of CD40-B cells as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) promises to streamline the generation of anti-tumor CD8(+) T cells for the adoptive cell therapy (ACT) of cancer.
Project description:Transfer of antigen between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is potentially a physiologically relevant mechanism to spread antigen to cells with specialized stimulatory functions. Here we show that specific CD8+ T cell responses induced in response to intravenous administration of antigen-loaded bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs), were ablated in mice selectively depleted of endogenous lymphoid-resident langerin+ CD8?+ dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that the antigen is transferred from the injected cells to resident APCs. In contrast, antigen-specific CD4+ T cells were primed predominantly by the injected BM-DCs, with only very weak contribution of resident APCs. Crucially, resident langerin+ CD8?+ DCs only contributed to the priming of CD8+ T cells in the presence of maturation stimuli such as intravenous injection of TLR ligands, or by loading the BM-DCs with the glycolipid ?-galactosylceramide (?-GalCer) to recruit the adjuvant activity of activated invariant natural killer-like T (iNKT) cells. In fact, injection of ?-GalCer-loaded CD1d-/- BM-DCs resulted in potent iNKT cell activation, suggesting that this glycolipid antigen can also be transferred to resident CD1d+ APCs. While iNKT cell activation per se was independent of langerin+ CD8?+ DCs, some iNKT cell-mediated activities were reduced, notably release of IL-12p70 and transactivation of NK cells. We conclude that both protein and glycolipid antigens can be exchanged between distinct DC species. These data suggest that the efficacy of DC-based vaccination strategies may be improved by the incorporation of a systemic maturation signal aimed to engage resident APCs in CD8+ T cell priming, and ?-GalCer may be particularly well suited to this purpose.
Project description:While the need for CD4 T cells in the generation of CD8 T cell memory has been well documented, the mechanism underlying their requirement remains unknown. Here, we detail an immunization method capable of generating CD8 memory T cells that are indifferent to CD4 T cell help. Using a subunit vaccination that combines polyIC and an agonistic CD40 antibody, we program protective CD4-independent CD8 T cell memory. When cells generated by combined polyIC/CD40 immunization are compared to cells produced following a CD4-dependent vaccination, Listeria monocytogenes, they display dramatic differences, both phenotypically and functionally. The memory cells generated in a CD4-deficient host by polyIC/CD40 immunization provide protection against secondary infectious challenge, whereas cells generated by LM immunization in the same environment do not. Interestingly, combined polyIC/CD40 immunization generates long-term memory cells with low Blimp-1 and elevated Eomes expression despite high expression of Blimp-1 during the primary response. The potency of combined polyIC/CD40 to elicit CD8+ T cell memory in the absence of CD4 T cells suggests that it could be considered as a vaccine adjuvant in clinical situations where CD4 responses/numbers are compromised.
Project description:Memory CD8(+) T cells are programmed during the primary response for robust secondary responsiveness. Here we show that CD8(+) T cells responding to different epitopes of influenza virus received qualitatively different signals during the primary response that altered their secondary responsiveness. Nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8(+) T cells encountered antigen on CD40-licensed, CD70-expressing, CD103(-)CD11b(hi) dendritic cells (DCs) at later times in the primary response. As a consequence, they maintained CD25 expression and responded to interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD27, which together programmed their robust secondary proliferative capacity and interferon-? (IFN-?)-producing ability. In contrast, polymerase (PA)-specific CD8(+) T cells did not encounter antigen-bearing, CD40-activated DCs at later times in the primary response, did not receive CD27 and CD25 signals, and were not programmed to become memory CD8(+) T cells with strong proliferative and cytokine-producing ability. As a result, CD8(+) T cells responding to abundant antigens, like NP, dominated the secondary response.
Project description:CD40 and CD40 ligand (CD40L) are costimulatory molecules that play a pivotal role in the proinflammatory immune response. Primarily expressed by activated CD4+ T cells, CD40L binds to CD40 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), thereby inducing APC activation. APCs, in turn, prime cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here, two tumor-associated antigen (TAA) animal models, p53-based and GP100-based, were utilized to examine the ability of CD40-CD40L to improve antigen-specific CTL-mediated antitumor immune responses. Although p53 and GP100 are self-antigens that generate low affinity antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, studies have shown that their functional avidity can be improved with CD40L-expressing APCs. Therefore, in the current study, we immunized mice with a DNA construct encoding a TAA in conjunction with another construct encoding CD40L via intramuscular injection followed by electroporation. We observed a significant increase in the antigen-specific CTL-mediated immune responses as well as the potent antitumor effects in both models. Antibody depletion experiments demonstrated that CD8+ T cells play a crucial role in eliciting antitumor effects in vaccinated mice. Furthermore, we showed that in vitro stimulation with irradiated tumor cells expressing both TAA and CD40L improved the functional avidity of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Thus, our data show that vaccination with TAA/CD40L DNA can induce potent antitumor effects against TAA-expressing tumors through the generation of better functioning antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Our study serves as an important foundation for future clinical translation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Agonistic CD40 antibodies have been demonstrated to activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and enhance antitumour T cell responses, thereby providing a new therapeutic option in cancer immunotherapy. In agonistic CD40 antibody-mediated inflammatory responses, a novel subset of E-cadherin + dendritic cells (DCs) has been identified, and little is known about the role of these DCs in tumour immunity. This study investigated the effect of anti-CD40-mediated inflammatory E-cadherin + DCs in murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC).<h4>Methods</h4>The phenotype and characteristics of anti-CD40-mediated inflammatory E-cadherin + DCs isolated from the anti-CD40 model were assessed in vitro. The antitumour activity of E-cadherin + DCs were evaluated in vivo by promoting the differentiation of effector CD4+ T cells, CEA-specific CD8+ T cells and CD103+ CD8+ T cells and assessing their resistance to tumour challenge, including variations in tumour volume and survival curves.<h4>Results</h4>Here, we demonstrated that anti-CD40-mediated E-cadherin + inflammatory DCs accumulate in the lungs of Rag1 KO mice and were able to stimulate naïve CD4+ T cells to induce Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and polarisation and to inhibit regulatory T cell and Th2 responses. Importantly, with the adoptive transfer of E-cadherin + DCs into the Lewis lung cancer model, the inflammatory DCs increased the Th1 and Th17 cell responses and reduced the Treg cell and Th2 responses. Interestingly, following the injection of inflammatory E-cadherin + DCs, the CD103+ CD8+ T cell and CEA-specific CD8+ T cell responses increased and exhibited potent antitumour immunity.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings indicate that anti-CD40-induced E-cadherin + DCs enhance T cell responses and antitumour activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-bearing mice and may be used to enhance the efficacy of DC-based peptide vaccines against NSCLC.
Project description:CD8(+) T cell responses have been shown to be regulated by dendritic cells (DCs) and CD4(+) T cells, leading to the tenet that CD8(+) T cells play a passive role in their own differentiation. In contrast, by using a DNA vaccination model, to separate the events of vaccination from those of CD8(+) T cell priming, we demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells, themselves, actively limit their own memory potential through CD8(+) T cell-derived IFN-?-dependent modification of the IL-12/IL-15R? axis on DCs. Such CD8(+) T cell-driven cytokine alterations result in increased T-bet and decreased Bcl-2 expression, and thus decreased memory progenitor formation. These results identify an unrecognized role for CD8(+) T cells in the regulation of their own effector differentiation fate and a previously uncharacterized relationship between the balance of inflammation and memory formation.