Mutational and transcriptomic changes involved in the development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.
ABSTRACT: Macrolide antibiotics are important for clinical treatment of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni. Development of resistance to this class of antibiotics in Campylobacter is a complex process, and the dynamic molecular changes involved in this process remain poorly defined. Multiple lineages of macrolide-resistant mutants were selected by stepwise exposure of C. jejuni to escalating doses of erythromycin or tylosin. Mutations in target genes were determined by DNA sequencing, and the dynamic changes in the expression of antibiotic efflux transporters and the transcriptome of C. jejuni were examined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, immunoblotting, and DNA microarray analysis. Multiple types of mutations in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 occurred early during stepwise selection. On the contrary, the mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, mediating high resistance to macrolides, were observed only in the late-stage mutants. Upregulation of antibiotic efflux genes was observed in the intermediately resistant mutants, and the magnitude of upregulation declined with the occurrence of mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. DNA microarray analysis revealed the differential expression of 265 genes, most of which occurred in the intermediate mutant, including the upregulation of genes encoding ribosomal proteins and the downregulation of genes involved in energy metabolism and motility. These results indicate (i) that mutations in L4 and L22 along with temporal overexpression of antibiotic efflux genes precede and may facilitate the development of high-level macrolide resistance and (ii) that the development of macrolide resistance affects the pathways important for physiology and metabolism in C. jejuni, providing an explanation for the reduced fitness of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter.
Project description:A collection of 23 macrolide-resistant Campylobacter isolates from different geographic areas was investigated to determine the mechanism and stability of macrolide resistance. The isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli based on the results of the hippurate biochemical test in addition to five PCR-based genotypic methods. Three point mutations at two positions within the peptidyl transferase region in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene were identified. About 78% of the resistant isolates exhibited an A-->G transition at Escherichia coli equivalent base 2059 of the 23S rRNA gene. The isolates possessing this mutation showed a wide range of erythromycin and clarithromycin MICs. Thus, this mutation may incur a greater probability of treatment failure in populations infected by resistant Campylobacter isolates. Another macrolide-associated mutation (A-->C transversion), at E. coli equivalent base 2058, was detected in about 13% of the isolates. An A-->G transition at a position cognate with E. coli 23S rRNA base 2058, which is homologous to the A2142G mutation commonly described in Helicobacter pylori, was also identified in one of the C. jejuni isolates examined. In the majority of C. jejuni isolates, the mutations in the 23S rRNA gene were homozygous except in two cases where the mutation was found in two of the three copies of the target gene. Natural transformation demonstrated the transfer of the macrolide resistance phenotype from a resistant Campylobacter isolate to a susceptible Campylobacter isolate. Growth rates of the resulting transformants containing A-2058-->C or A-2059-->G mutations were similar to that of the parental isolate. The erythromycin resistance of six of seven representative isolates was found to be stable after successive subculturing in the absence of erythromycin selection pressure regardless of the resistance level, the position of the mutation, or the number of the mutated copies of the target gene. One C. jejuni isolate showing an A-2058-->G mutation, however, reverted to erythromycin and clarithromycin susceptibility after 55 subcultures on erythromycin-free medium. Investigation of ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 by sequence analysis in five representative isolates of C. jejuni and C. coli demonstrated no significant macrolide resistance-associated alterations in either the L4 or the L22 protein that might explain either macrolide resistance or enhancement of the resistance level.
Project description:Macrolide-resistant mutants of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were selected in vitro using erythromycin and tylosin. These mutants exhibited modifications in the ribosomal proteins L4 (G74D) and L22 (insertions at position 86 or 98). A synergy between the CmeABC efflux pump and these modifications in conferring macrolide resistance was observed.
Project description:L4 and L22, proteins of the large ribosomal subunit, contain globular surface domains and elongated 'tentacles' that reach into the core of the large subunit to form part of the lining of the peptide exit tunnel. Mutations in the tentacles of L4 and L22 confer macrolide resistance in a variety of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. In Escherichia coli, a Lys-to-Glu mutation in L4 and a three-amino-acid deletion in the L22 had been reported. To learn more about the roles of the tentacles in ribosome assembly and function, we isolated additional erythromycin-resistant E. coli mutants. Eight new mutations mapped in L4, all within the tentacle. Two new mutations were identified in L22; one mapped outside the tentacle. Insertion mutations were found in both genes. All of the mutants grew slower than the parent, and they all showed reduced in vivo rates of peptide-chain elongation and increased levels of precursor 23S rRNA. Large insertions in L4 and L22 resulted in very slow growth and accumulation of abnormal ribosomal subunits. Our results highlight the important role of L4 and L22 in ribosome function and assembly, and indicate that a variety of changes in these proteins can mediate macrolide resistance.
Project description:Monitoring the emergence of antibiotic resistance is a recent issue in the treatment of Legionnaires' disease. Macrolides are recommended as first-line therapy, but resistance mechanisms have not been studied in Legionella species. Our aim was to determine the molecular basis of macrolide resistance in L. pneumophila Twelve independent lineages from a common susceptible L. pneumophila ancestral strain were propagated under conditions of erythromycin or azithromycin pressure to produce high-level macrolide resistance. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 12 selected clones, and we investigated mutations common to all lineages. We reconstructed the dynamics of mutation for each lineage and demonstrated their involvement in decreased susceptibility to macrolides. The resistant mutants were produced in a limited number of passages to obtain a 4,096-fold increase in erythromycin MICs. Mutations affected highly conserved 5-amino-acid regions of L4 and L22 ribosomal proteins and of domain V of 23S rRNA (G2057, A2058, A2059, and C2611 nucleotides). The early mechanisms mainly affected L4 and L22 proteins and induced a 32-fold increase in the MICs of the selector drug. Additional mutations related to 23S rRNA mostly occurred later and were responsible for a major increase of macrolide MICs, depending on the mutated nucleotide, the substitution, and the number of mutated genes among the three rrl copies. The major mechanisms of the decreased susceptibility to macrolides in L. pneumophila and their dynamics were determined. The results showed that macrolide resistance could be easily selected in L. pneumophila and warrant further investigations in both clinical and environmental settings.
Project description:Background:High-level macrolide-resistant Moraxella catarrhalis strains have been isolated; however, the underlying mechanism has not been well elucidated. We investigated the role of mutations in the 23S rRNA gene and the L4 and L22 ribosomal proteins using spontaneous erythromycin-resistant mutants and transformants. Materials and methods:The erythromycin-susceptible M. catarrhalis ATCC25238 and clinical isolate Mc19 were used as parental strains. To obtain spontaneous erythromycin-resistant mutants, in vitro stepwise selection was performed using brain-heart infusion agar plates containing various concentrations of erythromycin. The role of the mutations identified in the spontaneous mutants was validated using transformation experiments. Results:We obtained two spontaneous mutants with high-level resistance to erythromycin, S25-32-af10 and S19-256-af10, from ATCC25238 and Mc19, respectively. S25-32-af10 exhibited mutations of Q61R in L4 and Insertion98SRADRIS in L22. S19-256-af10 exhibited three C2611T-mutated alleles in the 23S rRNA gene and G65A in L4. Transformants with single mutations identified in S25-32-af10 or S19-256-af10 showed higher erythromycin and azithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) than those of each parental strain. However, transformants with multiple mutations identified in S25-32-af10 or S19-256-af10 showed macrolide MICs similar to those of each parental strain. Conclusion:Our results provide the first evidence suggesting that Q61R in L4 and Insertion98SRADRIS in L22 are involved in the synergistic acquisition of high-level resistance to both 14- and 15-member macrolides, and that C2611T in the 23S rRNA gene and G65A in L4 also synergistically contribute toward conferring high-level 14-member macrolide resistance to M. catarrhalis.
Project description:Macrolide resistance mechanisms can be target-based with a change in a 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) residue or a mutation in ribosomal protein L4 or L22 affecting the ribosome's interaction with the antibiotic. Alternatively, mono- or dimethylation of A2058 in domain V of the 23S rRNA by an acquired rRNA methyltransferase, the product of an erm (erythromycin ribosome methylation) gene, can interfere with antibiotic binding. Acquired genes encoding efflux pumps, most predominantly mef(A) + msr(D) in pneumococci/streptococci and msr(A/B) in staphylococci, also mediate resistance. Drug-inactivating mechanisms include phosphorylation of the 2'-hydroxyl of the amino sugar found at position C5 by phosphotransferases and hydrolysis of the macrocyclic lactone by esterases. These acquired genes are regulated by either translation or transcription attenuation, largely because cells are less fit when these genes, especially the rRNA methyltransferases, are highly induced or constitutively expressed. The induction of gene expression is cleverly tied to the mechanism of action of macrolides, relying on antibiotic-bound ribosomes stalled at specific sequences of nascent polypeptides to promote transcription or translation of downstream sequences.
Project description:Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus is an under-recognized pathogen and zoonotic agent causing opportunistic infections in humans. Despite increasing recognition of this subspecies as a cause for human infectious diseases, limited information is known about its antibiotic resistance mechanism. In this study, we aim to identify the molecular mechanism underlying the high macrolide resistance of six S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus isolates from dead ducklings collected in several natural outbreaks in China during 2010-2013. All isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance including high macrolide resistance (MIC ? 1024 mg/L for erythromycin, and 512 mg/L for clarithromycin). Efflux-encoding mefA and mefE genes were not detectable in these isolates. The presence of 23S rRNA mutations in specific isolates did not significantly change macrolide MICs. No nucleotide substitutions were found in genes encoding ribosomal proteins L4 or L22. The ermB and ermT genes were found in the genomes of all isolates. These two genes were acquired independently in one highly virulent isolate AL101002, and clustered with Tn916 and IS1216, respectively. The expression of both ermB and ermT in all isolates was erythromycin inducible and yielded comparable macrolide MICs in all six isolates. Taken together, inducible expression of both ermB and ermT conferred high macrolide resistance in these S. gallolyticus subsp. pasterianus isolates. Our findings reveal new macrolide resistance features in S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus by both ermB and ermT.
Project description:We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying macrolide resistance in 38 strains of Campylobacter isolated from poultry. Twenty-seven strains were resistant to azithromycin and erythromycin, five showed intermediate azithromycin resistance and erythromycin susceptibility, and six showed azithromycin resistance and erythromycin susceptibility. Four Campylobacter jejuni and six Campylobacter coli strains had azithromycin MICs which were 8-16 and 2-8-fold greater than those of erythromycin, respectively. The A2075G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene was detected in 11 resistant strains with MICs ranging from 64 to ? 512 ?g/mL. Mutations including V137A, V137S, and a six-amino acid insertion (114-VAKKAP-115) in ribosomal protein L22 were detected in the C. jejuni strains. Erythromycin ribosome methylase B-erm(B) was not detected in any strain. All strains except three showed increased susceptibility to erythromycin with twofold to 256-fold MIC change in the presence of phenylalanine arginine ß-naphthylamide (PAßN); the effects of PAßN on azithromycin MICs were limited in comparison to those on erythromycin MICs, and 13 strains showed no azithromycin MIC change in the presence of PAßN. Differences between azithromycin and erythromycin resistance and macrolide resistance phenotypes and genotypes were observed even in highly resistant strains. Further studies are required to better understand macrolide resistance in Campylobacter.
Project description:Contrary to other species in the Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus complex, we reidentified M. bolletii strains isolated from 4 respiratory patients and found these strains to be uniformly resistant to clarithromycin. No mutations previously associated with macrolide resistance in bacteria were detected in either the 23S rDNA or the genes encoding riboproteins L4 and L22.
Project description:Mutations in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 confer resistance to erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics in a variety of bacteria. L4 and L22 have elongated loops whose tips converge in the peptide exit tunnel near the macrolide-binding site, and resistance mutations typically affect residues within these loops. Here, we used bacteriophage lambda Red-mediated recombination, or "recombineering," to uncover new L4 and L22 alleles that confer macrolide resistance in Escherichia coli. We randomized residues at the tips of the L4 and L22 loops using recombineered oligonucleotide libraries and selected the mutagenized cells for erythromycin-resistant mutants. These experiments led to the identification of 341 resistance mutations encoding 278 unique L4 and L22 proteins-the overwhelming majority of which are novel. Many resistance mutations were complex, involving multiple missense mutations, in-frame deletions, and insertions. Transfer of L4 and L22 mutations into wild-type cells by phage P1-mediated transduction demonstrated that each allele was sufficient to confer macrolide resistance. Although L4 and L22 mutants are typically resistant to most macrolides, selections carried out on different antibiotics revealed macrolide-specific resistance mutations. L22 Lys90Trp is one such allele that confers resistance to erythromycin but not to tylosin and spiramycin. Purified L22 Lys90Trp ribosomes show reduced erythromycin binding but have the same affinity for tylosin as wild-type ribosomes. Moreover, dimethyl sulfate methylation protection assays demonstrated that L22 Lys90Trp ribosomes bind tylosin more readily than erythromycin in vivo. This work underscores the exceptional functional plasticity of the L4 and L22 proteins and highlights the utility of Red-mediated recombination in targeted genetic selections.