Influence of sire breed on the interplay among rumen microbial populations inhabiting the rumen liquid of the progeny in beef cattle.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate whether the host genetic background impact the ruminal microbial communities of the progeny of sires from three different breeds under different diets. Eighty five bacterial and twenty eight methanogen phylotypes from 49 individuals of diverging sire breed (Angus, ANG; Charolais, CHA; and Hybrid, HYB), fed high energy density (HE) and low energy density (LE) diets were determined and correlated with breed, rumen fermentation and phenotypic variables, using multivariate statistical approaches. When bacterial phylotypes were compared between diets, ANG offspring showed the lowest number of diet-associated phylotypes, whereas CHA and HYB progenies had seventeen and twenty-three diet-associated phylotypes, respectively. For the methanogen phylotypes, there were no sire breed-associated phylotypes; however, seven phylotypes were significantly different among breeds on either diet (P<0.05). Sire breed did not influence the metabolic variables measured when high energy diet was fed. A correlation matrix of all pairwise comparisons among frequencies of bacterial and methanogen phylotypes uncovered their relationships with sire breed. A cluster containing methanogen phylotypes M16 (Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii) and M20 (Methanobrevibacter smithii), and bacterial phylotype B62 (Robinsoniella sp.) in Angus offspring fed low energy diet reflected the metabolic interactions among microbial consortia. The clustering of the phylotype frequencies from the three breeds indicated that phylotypes detected in CHA and HYB progenies are more similar among them, compared to ANG animals. Our results revealed that the frequency of particular microbial phylotypes in the progeny of cattle may be influenced by the sire breed when different diets are fed and ultimately further impact host metabolic functions, such as feed efficiency.
Project description:The molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in feedlot cattle and the composition of the methanogen populations in these animals from two geographic locations were investigated using 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from pooled PCR products from 10 animals in Ontario (127 clones) and 10 animals from Prince Edward Island (114 clones). A total of 241 clones were examined, with Methanobrevibacter ruminantium accounting for more than one-third (85 clones) of the clones identified. From these 241 clones, 23 different 16S rRNA phylotypes were identified. Feedlot cattle from Ontario, which were fed a corn-based diet, revealed 11 phylotypes (38 clones) not found in feedlot cattle from Prince Edward Island, whereas the Prince Edward Island cattle, which were fed potato by-products as a finishing diet, had 7 phylotypes (42 clones) not found in cattle from Ontario. Five sequences, representing the remaining 161 clones (67% of the clones), were common in both herds. Of the 23 different sequences, 10 sequences (136 clones) were 89.8 to 100% similar to those from cultivated methanogens belonging to the orders Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales, and the remaining 13 sequences (105 clones) were 74.1 to 75.8% similar to those from Thermoplasma volcanium and Thermoplasma acidophilum. Overall, nine possible new species were identified from the two clone libraries, including two new species belonging to the order Methanobacteriales and a new genus/species within the order Methanosarcinales. From the present survey, it is difficult to conclude whether the geographical isolation between these two herds or differences between the two finishing diets directly influenced community structure in the rumen. Further studies are warranted to properly assess the differences between these two finishing diets.
Project description:Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are large Holarctic herbivores whose heterogeneous diet has led to the development of a unique gastrointestinal microbiota, essential for the digestion of arctic flora, which may include a large proportion of lichens during winter. Lichens are rich in plant secondary metabolites, which may affect members of the gut microbial consortium, such as the methane-producing methanogenic archaea. Little is known about the effect of lichen consumption on the rumen and cecum microbiotas and how this may affect methanogenesis in reindeer. Here, we examined the effects of dietary lichens on the reindeer gut microbiota, especially methanogens. Samples from the rumen and cecum were collected from two groups of reindeer, fed either lichens (Ld: n = 4), or a standard pelleted feed (Pd: n = 3). Microbial densities (methanogens, bacteria and protozoa) were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and methanogen and bacterial diversities were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In general, the density of methanogens were not significantly affected (p>0.05) by the intake of lichens. Methanobrevibacter constituted the main archaeal genus (>95% of reads), with Mbr. thaueri CW as the dominant species in both groups of reindeer. Bacteria belonging to the uncharacterized Ruminococcaceae and the genus Prevotella were the dominant phylotypes in the rumen and cecum, in both diets (ranging between 16-38% total sequences). Bacteria belonging to the genus Ruminococcus (3.5% to 0.6%; p = 0.001) and uncharacterized phylotypes within the order Bacteroidales (8.4% to 1.3%; p = 0.027), were significantly decreased in the rumen of lichen-fed reindeer, but not in the cecum (p = 0.2 and p = 0.087, respectively). UniFrac-based analyses showed archaeal and bacterial libraries were significantly different between diets, in both the cecum and the rumen (vegan::Adonis: pseudo-F<0.05). Based upon previous literature, we suggest that the altered methanogen and bacterial profiles may account for expected lower methane emissions from lichen-fed reindeer.
Project description:Rapeseed meal (RSM) is an alternative feed ingredient to soybean meal (SBM) in pig diets. However, knowledge on the effect of RSM on gut health, especially in relation to changes in gut microbiota is still limited. In our study, Norwegian Landrace weaner pigs were fed with either a control diet (CON) based on wheat, barley and SBM, or a high-fiber experimental diet where SBM was replaced by RSM (RSF). We found no large differences in the gut microbiota of pigs fed the two diets, suggesting that RSF does not disturb the gut microbiota and the normal gut function. The relative abundance of SCFA-producing phylotypes and colon-health related phylotypes increased in the large intestine of RSF-fed pigs. Among them, Lachnospira and Coprococcus were negatively associated with the presence of neutrophils in the colon wall. The higher abundance of these bacteria in colon of RSF pigs may suggest an anti-inflammatory stimulus effect of the RSF diet. The gut microbiota of RSF-fed pigs was relatively unaltered following episodes of diarrhea suggesting that the RSF diet may promote robustness in weaner pigs and reduce the risk of dysbiosis.
Project description:The molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in sheep in Australia was investigated by using individual 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from the rumen contents obtained from six merino sheep grazing pasture (326 clones), six sheep fed an oaten hay-based diet (275 clones), and five sheep fed a lucerne hay-based diet (132 clones). A total of 733 clones were examined, and the analysis revealed 65 phylotypes whose sequences (1,260 bp) were similar to those of cultivated methanogens belonging to the order Methanobrevibacter: Pasture-grazed sheep had more methanogen diversity than sheep fed either the oaten hay or lucerne hay diet. Methanobrevibacter strains SM9, M6, and NT7 accounted for over 90% of the total number of clones identified. M6 was more prevalent in grazing sheep, and SM9, despite being found in 16 of the 17 sheep, was more prevalent in sheep fed the lucerne-based diet. Five new species were identified. Two of these species exhibited very little sequence similarity to any cultivated methanogens and were found eight times in two of the six sheep that were grazing pasture. These unique sequences appear to represent a novel group of rumen archaea that are atypical for the rumen environment.
Project description:Identifying factors that influence the composition of the microbial population in the digestive system of dairy cattle will be key in regulating these populations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we analyzed rumen and fecal samples from five high residual feed intake (RFI) Holstein cows, five low RFI Holstein cows, five high RFI Jersey cows and five low RFI Jersey cows, fed either a high-concentrate diet (expected to reduce methane emission) or a high-forage diet. Bacterial communities from both the rumen and feces were profiled using Illumina sequencing on the 16S rRNA gene. Rumen archaeal communities were profiled using Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) targeting the mcrA gene. The rumen methanogen community was influenced by breed but not by diet or RFI. The rumen bacterial community was influenced by breed and diet but not by RFI. The fecal bacterial community was influenced by individual animal variation and, to a lesser extent, by breed and diet but not by RFI. Only the bacterial community correlated with methane production. Community differences seen in the rumen were reduced or absent in feces, except in the case of animal-to-animal variation, where differences were more pronounced. The two cattle breeds had different levels of response to the dietary intervention; therefore, it may be appropriate to individually tailor methane reduction strategies to each cattle breed.
Project description:Enteric methane from rumen methanogens is responsible for 25.9 % of total methane emissions in the United States. Rumen methanogens also contribute to decreased animal feed efficiency. For methane mitigation strategies to be successful, it is important to establish which factors influence the rumen methanogen community and rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA). In the present study, we used next-generation sequencing to determine if dairy breed and/or days in milk (DIM) (high-fiber periparturient versus high-starch postpartum diets) affect the rumen environment and methanogen community of primiparous Holstein, Jersey, and Holstein-Jersey crossbreeds.When the 16S rRNA gene sequences were processed and assigned to operational taxonomic units (OTU), a core methanogen community was identified, consisting of Methanobrevibacter (Mbr.) smithii, Mbr. thaueri, Mbr. ruminantium, and Mbr. millerae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence reads clustered at 3 DIM, but not by breed. At 3 DIM, the mean % abundance of Mbr. thaueri was lower in Jerseys (26.9 %) and higher in Holsteins (30.7 %) and Holstein-Jersey crossbreeds (30.3 %) (P < 0.001). The molar concentrations of total VFA were higher at 3 DIM than at 93, 183, and 273 DIM, whereas the molar proportions of propionate were increased at 3 and 93 DIM, relative to 183 and 273 DIM. Rumen methanogen densities, distributions of the Mbr. species, and VFA molar proportions did not differ by breed.The data from the present study suggest that a core methanogen community is present among dairy breeds, through out a lactation. Furthermore, the methanogen communities were more influenced by DIM and the breed by DIM interactions than breed differences.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Dietary fibers contribute to health and physiology primarily via the fermentative actions of the host's gut microbiome. Physicochemical properties such as solubility, fermentability, viscosity, and gel-forming ability differ among fiber types and are known to affect metabolism. However, few studies have focused on how they influence the gut microbiome and how these interactions influence host health. The aim of this study is to investigate how the gut microbiome of growing pigs responds to diets containing gel-forming alginate and fermentable resistant starch and to predict important interactions and functional changes within the microbiota. RESULTS: Nine growing pigs (3-month-old), divided into three groups, were fed with either a control, alginate-, or resistant starch-containing diet (CON, ALG, or RS), and fecal samples were collected over a 12-week period. SSU (small subunit) rDNA amplicon sequencing data was annotated to assess the gut microbiome, whereas comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP) of digested material was employed to evaluate feed degradation. Gut microbiome structure variation was greatest in pigs fed with resistant starch, where notable changes included the decrease in alpha diversity and increase in relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae- and Ruminococcus-affiliated phylotypes. Imputed function was predicted to vary significantly in pigs fed with resistant starch and to a much lesser extent with alginate; however, the key pathways involving degradation of starch and other plant polysaccharides were predicted to be unaffected. The change in relative abundance levels of basal dietary components (plant cell wall polysaccharides and proteins) over time was also consistent irrespective of diet; however, correlations between the dietary components and phylotypes varied considerably in the different diets. CONCLUSIONS: Resistant starch-containing diet exhibited the strongest structural variation compared to the alginate-containing diet. This variation gave rise to a microbiome that contains phylotypes affiliated with metabolically reputable taxonomic lineages. Despite the significant microbiome structural shifts that occurred from resistant starch-containing diet, functional redundancy is seemingly apparent with respect to the microbiome's capacity to degrade starch and other dietary polysaccharides, one of the key stages in digestion.
Project description:In the dairy cattle industry, Holstein and Jersey are the breeds most commonly used for production. They differ in performance by various traits, such as body size, milk production, and milk composition. With increased concerns about the impact of agriculture on climate change, potential differences in other traits, such as methane emission, also need to be characterized further. Since methane is produced in the rumen by methanogenic archaea, we investigated whether the population structure of methanogen communities would differ between Holsteins and Jerseys. Breed-specific rumen methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from lactating Holstein and Jersey cows, generating 180 and 185 clones, respectively. The combined 365 sequences were assigned to 55 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty OTUs, representing 85% of the combined library sequences, were common to both breeds, while 23 OTUs (36 sequences) were found only in the Holstein library and 12 OTUs (18 sequences) were found only in the Jersey library, highlighting increased diversity in the Holstein library. Other differences included the observation that sequences with species-like sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were represented more highly in the Jersey breed, while Methanosphaera-related sequences and novel uncultured methanogen clones were more frequent in the Holstein library. In contrast, OTU sequences with species-level sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium were represented similarly in both libraries. Since the sampled animals were from a single herd consisting of two breeds which were fed the same diet and maintained under the same environmental conditions, the differences we observed may be due to differences in host breed genetics.
Project description:Nitric Oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator and vital signaling molecule, has been shown to contribute to the regulation of glomerular ultrafiltration. However, whether changes in NO occur in podocytes during the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension has not yet been thoroughly examined. We showed here that podocytes produce NO, and further hypothesized that hypertensive animals would exhibit reduced NO production in these cells in response to various paracrine factors, which might contribute to the damage of glomeruli filtration barrier and development of proteinuria. To test this, we isolated glomeruli from the kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats fed a low salt (LS; 0.4% NaCl) or high salt (HS; 4% NaCl, 3 weeks) diets and loaded podocytes with either a combination of NO and Ca2+ fluorophores (DAF-FM and Fura Red, respectively) or DAF-FM alone. Changes in fluorescence were observed with confocal microscopy in response to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), angiotensin II (Ang II), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Application of Ang II resulted in activation of both NO and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) transients. In contrast, ATP promoted [Ca2+]i transients, but did not have any effects on NO production. SS rats fed a HS diet for 3 weeks demonstrated impaired NO production: the response to Ang II or H2O2 in podocytes of glomeruli isolated from SS rats fed a HS diet was significantly reduced compared to rats fed a LS diet. Therefore, glomerular podocytes from hypertensive rats showed a diminished NO release in response to Ang II or oxidative stress, suggesting that podocytic NO signaling is dysfunctional in this condition and likely contributes to the development of kidney injury.
Project description:Background: The Nguni is an indigenous Bos taurus Sanga breed which is primarily used in extensive commercial and communal farming systems in South Africa. The Nguni is a small framed early maturing breed not preferred for finishing under feedlot systems, as the large framed later maturing types are favoured for high lean meat yield. In this study we aim to investigate differentially expressed genes in Longissimus dorsi muscle of Nguni cattle fed diets differing in energy levels finished under commercial feedlot conditions. Results: Twenty Nguni and twenty Bonsmara were fed either a low (10.9 MJ ME/kg) or a high (12.00 MJ ME/kg) energy diet for 120 days. At slaughter, muscle samples were taken for RNA extraction and RNA-sequencing. A total of 2214 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were observed between the two breeds regardless of diet. For the low energy diets, 2244 DEG in the Nguni and the Bonsmara were significantly expressed, while a higher number of were differentially expression between the Nguni and Bonsmara on high energy diet (3154 DEG). A difference of 288 DEG were identified between the Nguni fed on the low and high energy diets. Most of the fat deposition genes were upregulated in the Bonsmara (ASIP, OXT, SNAI3, FOX01, PPARGC1A), with lower levels in the Nguni. Conclusion: Clear breed differences were found for the number and level of gene expression, while a larger variation in DEG were observed between the two diets within in the Bonsmara breed. Overall design: The effect of 2 diets (high or low energy) on two breeds