ABSTRACT: We announce the availability of the 5.023-Mbp high-quality draft assembly of the Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (serovar O6:K5:H1) genome. Short genomic segments from this important probiotic strain have been available in public databases, but the full genome sequence has remained inaccessible. Thus, high-coverage, whole genome sequencing of E. coli Nissle 1917 is presented herein. Reannotation and metabolic reconstruction will enable comparative genomics analysis and model-guided predictions of genetic manipulations leading to increased production of the K5 capsular polysaccharide known as N-acetyl heparosan, a precursor to the anticoagulant pharmaceutical heparin.
Project description:Structural analysis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from semirough, serum-sensitive Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (DSM 6601, serotype O6:K5:H1) revealed that this strain's LPS contains a bisphosphorylated hexaacyl lipid A and a tetradecasaccharide consisting of one E. coli O6 antigen repeating unit attached to the R1-type core. Configuration of the GlcNAc glycosidic linkage between O-antigen oligosaccharide and core (beta) differs from that interlinking the repeating units in the E. coli O6 antigen polysaccharide (alpha). The wa(*) and wb(*) gene clusters of strain Nissle 1917, required for LPS core and O6 repeating unit biosyntheses, were subcloned and sequenced. The DNA sequence of the wa(*) determinant (11.8 kb) shows 97% identity to other R1 core type-specific wa(*) gene clusters. The DNA sequence of the wb(*) gene cluster (11 kb) exhibits no homology to known DNA sequences except manC and manB. Comparison of the genetic structures of the wb(*)(O6) (wb(*) from serotype O6) determinants of strain Nissle 1917 and of smooth and serum-resistant uropathogenic E. coli O6 strain 536 demonstrated that the putative open reading frame encoding the O-antigen polymerase Wzy of strain Nissle 1917 was truncated due to a point mutation. Complementation with a functional wzy copy of E. coli strain 536 confirmed that the semirough phenotype of strain Nissle 1917 is due to the nonfunctional wzy gene. Expression of a functional wzy gene in E. coli strain Nissle 1917 increased its ability to withstand antibacterial defense mechanisms of blood serum. These results underline the importance of LPS for serum resistance or sensitivity of E. coli.
Project description:Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (O6:K5:H1) is used as a probiotic agent in medicine, mainly for the treatment of various gastroenterological diseases. To gain insight on the genetic level into its properties of colonization and commensalism, this strain's genome structure has been analyzed by three approaches: (i) sequence context screening of tRNA genes as a potential indication of chromosomal integration of horizontally acquired DNA, (ii) sequence analysis of 280 kb of genomic islands (GEIs) coding for important fitness factors, and (iii) comparison of Nissle 1917 genome content with that of other E. coli strains by DNA-DNA hybridization. PCR-based screening of 324 nonpathogenic and pathogenic E. coli isolates of different origins revealed that some chromosomal regions are frequently detectable in nonpathogenic E. coli and also among extraintestinal and intestinal pathogenic strains. Many known fitness factor determinants of strain Nissle 1917 are localized on four GEIs which have been partially sequenced and analyzed. Comparison of these data with the available knowledge of the genome structure of E. coli K-12 strain MG1655 and of uropathogenic E. coli O6 strains CFT073 and 536 revealed structural similarities on the genomic level, especially between the E. coli O6 strains. The lack of defined virulence factors (i.e., alpha-hemolysin, P-fimbrial adhesins, and the semirough lipopolysaccharide phenotype) combined with the expression of fitness factors such as microcins, different iron uptake systems, adhesins, and proteases, which may support its survival and successful colonization of the human gut, most likely contributes to the probiotic character of E. coli strain Nissle 1917.
Project description:Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is among the best characterised probiotics, with a proven clinical impact in a range of conditions. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying these "probiotic effects" are not clearly defined. Here we applied random transposon mutagenesis to identify genes relevant to the interaction of EcN with intestinal epithelial cells. This demonstrated mutants disrupted in the kfiB gene, of the K5 capsule biosynthesis cluster, to be significantly enhanced in attachment to Caco-2 cells. However, this phenotype was distinct from that previously reported for EcN K5 deficient mutants (kfiC null mutants), prompting us to explore further the role of kfiB in EcN:Caco-2 interaction. Isogenic mutants with deletions in kfiB (EcN?kfiB), or the more extensively characterised K5 capsule biosynthesis gene kfiC (EcN?kfiC), were both shown to be capsule deficient, but displayed divergent phenotypes with regard to impact on Caco-2 cells. Compared with EcN?kfiC and the EcN wild-type, EcN?kfiB exhibited significantly greater attachment to Caco-2 cells, as well as apoptotic and cytotoxic effects. In contrast, EcN?kfiC was comparable to the wild-type in these assays, but was shown to induce significantly greater COX-2 expression in Caco-2 cells. Distinct differences were also apparent in the pervading cell morphology and cellular aggregation between mutants. Overall, these observations reinforce the importance of the EcN K5 capsule in host-EcN interactions, but demonstrate that loss of distinct genes in the K5 pathway can modulate the impact of EcN on epithelial cell health.
Project description:Rapidly growing antibiotic resistance among gastrointestinal pathogens, and the ability of antibiotics to induce the virulence of these pathogens makes it increasingly difficult to rely on antibiotics to treat gastrointestinal infections. The probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is the active component of the pharmaceutical preparation Mutaflor® and has been successfully used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Gut bacteriophages are dominant players in maintaining the microbial homeostasis in the gut, however, their interaction with incoming probiotic bacteria remains to be at conception. The presence of bacteriophages in the gut makes it inevitable for any probiotic bacteria to be phage resistant, in order to survive and successfully colonize the gut. This study addresses the phage resistance of EcN, specifically against lytic T4 phage infection. From various experiments we could show that (i) EcN is resistant toward T4 phage infection, (ii) EcN's K5 polysaccharide capsule plays a crucial role in T4 phage resistance and (iii) EcN's lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inactivates T4 phages and notably, treatment with the antibiotic polymyxin B which neutralizes the LPS destroyed the phage inactivation ability of isolated LPS from EcN. Combination of these identified properties in EcN was not found in other tested commensal E. coli strains. Our results further indicated that N-acetylglucosamine at the distal end of O6 antigen in EcN's LPS could be the interacting partner with T4 phages. From our findings, we have reported for the first time, the role of EcN's K5 capsule and LPS in its defense against T4 phages. In addition, by inactivating the T4 phages, EcN also protects E. coli K-12 strains from phage infection in tri-culture experiments. Our research highlights phage resistance as an additional safety feature of EcN, a clinically successful probiotic E. coli strain.
Project description:Oral administration of the probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 improves chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, but the molecular basis for this therapeutic efficacy is unknown. E. coli Nissle 1917 harbors a cluster of genes coding for the biosynthesis of hybrid nonribosomal peptide-polyketide(s). This biosynthetic pathway confers the ability for bacteria to induce DNA double strand breaks in eukaryotic cells. Here we reveal that inactivation of the clbA gene within this genomic island abrogated the ability for the strain to induce DNA damage and chromosomal abnormalities in non-transformed cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells but is required for the probiotic activity of E. coli Nissle 1917. Thus, evaluation of colitis severity induced in rodent fed with E. coli Nissle 1917 or an isogenic non-genotoxic mutant demonstrated the need for a functional biosynthetic pathway both in the amelioration of the disease and in the modulation of cytokine expression. Feeding rodents with a complemented strain for which genotoxicity was restored confirmed that this biosynthetic pathway contributes to the health benefits of the probiotic by modulating its immunomodulatory properties. Our data provide additional evidence for the benefit of this currently used probiotic in colitis but remind us that an efficient probiotic may also have side effects as any other medication.
Project description:Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 has been used as a probiotic against intestinal disorders for many decades. It is a good colonizer of the human gut and has been reported to be able to express type 1 fimbriae. Type 1 fimbriae are surface organelles which mediate alpha-D-mannose-sensitive binding to various host cell surfaces. The expression is phase variable, and two tyrosine recombinases, FimB and FimE, mediate the inversion of the fimbrial phase switch. Current evidence suggests that FimB can carry out recombination in both directions, whereas FimE-catalyzed switching is on to off only. We show here that under liquid shaking growth conditions, Nissle 1917 did not express type 1 fimbriae, due to a truncation of the fimB gene by an 1,885-bp insertion element. Despite its fimB null status, Nissle 1917 was still capable of off-to-on switching of the phase switch and expressing type 1 fimbriae when grown under static conditions. This phase switching was not catalyzed by FimE, by truncated FimB, or by information residing within the insertion element. No further copies of fimB seemed to be present on the chromosome of Nissle 1917, suggesting that another tyrosine recombinase in Nissle 1917 is responsible for the low-frequency off-to-on inversion of the phase switch that is strongly favored under static growth conditions. This is the first report documenting the non-FimB- or non-FimE-catalyzed inversion of the fim switch.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The use of live microorganisms to influence positively the course of intestinal disorders such as infectious diarrhea or chronic inflammatory conditions has recently gained increasing interest as a therapeutic alternative. In vitro and in vivo investigations have demonstrated that probiotic-host eukaryotic cell interactions evoke a large number of responses potentially responsible for the effects of probiotics. The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the E. coli Nissle 1917-host interaction by analyzing the gene expression pattern initiated by this probiotic in human intestinal epithelial cells. METHODS: Gene expression profiles of Caco-2 cells treated with E. coli Nissle 1917 were analyzed with microarrays. A second human intestinal cell line and also pieces of small intestine from BALB/c mice were used to confirm regulatory data of selected genes by real-time RT-PCR and cytometric bead array (CBA) to detect secretion of corresponding proteins. RESULTS: Whole genome expression analysis revealed 126 genes specifically regulated after treatment of confluent Caco-2 cells with E. coli Nissle 1917. Among others, expression of genes encoding the proinflammatory molecules monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 ligand 2 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 alpha (MIP-2alpha) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 beta (MIP-2beta) was increased up to 10 fold. Caco-2 cells cocultured with E. coli Nissle 1917 also secreted high amounts of MCP-1 protein. Elevated levels of MCP-1 and MIP-2alpha mRNA could be confirmed with Lovo cells. MCP-1 gene expression was also up-regulated in mouse intestinal tissue. CONCLUSION: Thus, probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 specifically upregulates expression of proinflammatory genes and proteins in human and mouse intestinal epithelial cells.
Project description:Confluent Caco-2 cells cultured over 6 hours non-treated with E.coli Nissle 1917; (GSM40938 and GSM40941). Confluent Caco-2 cells cocultured over 6 hours with E.coli Nissle 1917 (GSM40881 and GSM40937).
Project description:Bacterial vectors, as microscopic living 'robotic factories', can be reprogrammed into microscopic living 'robotic factories', using a top-down bioengineering approach to produce and deliver anticancer agents. Most of the current research has focused on bacterial species such as Salmonella typhimurium or Clostridium novyi. However, Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is another promising candidate with probiotic properties. EcN offers increased applicability for cancer treatment with the development of new molecular biology and complete genome sequencing techniques. In this review, we discuss the genetics and physical properties of EcN. We also summarize and analyse recent studies regarding tumour therapy mediated by EcN. Many challenges remain in the development of more promising strategies for combatting cancer with EcN.