The Saccharomyces cerevisiae checkpoint gene BUB1 encodes a novel protein kinase.
ABSTRACT: Normal cell multiplication requires that the events of mitosis occur in a carefully ordered fashion. Cells employ checkpoints to prevent cycle progression until some prerequisite step has been completed. To explore the mechanisms of checkpoint enforcement, we previously screened for mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which are unable to recover from a transient treatment with a benzimidazole-related microtubule inhibitor because they fail to inhibit subsequent cell cycle steps. Two of the identified genes, BUB2 and BUB3, have been cloned and described (M. A. Hoyt, L. Totis, and B. T. Roberts, Cell 66:507-517, 1991). Here we present the characterization of the BUB1 gene and its product. Genetic evidence was obtained suggesting that Bub1 and Bub3 are mutually dependent for function, and immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated a physical association between the two. Sequence analysis of BUB1 revealed a domain with similarity to protein kinases. In vitro experiments confirmed that Bub1 possesses kinase activity; Bub1 was able to autophosphorylate and to catalyze phosphorylation of Bub3. In addition, overproduced Bub1 was found to localize to the cell nucleus.
Project description:A feedback control mechanism, or cell cycle checkpoint, delays the onset of anaphase until all the chromosomes are correctly aligned on the mitotic spindle. Previously, we showed that the murine homologue of Bub1 is not only required for checkpoint response to spindle damage, but also restrains progression through a normal mitosis (Taylor, S.S., and F. McKeon. 1997. Cell. 89:727-735). Here, we describe the identification of a human homologue of Bub3, a 37-kD protein with four WD repeats. Like Bub1, Bub3 localizes to kinetochores before chromosome alignment. In addition, Bub3 and Bub1 interact in mammalian cells. Deletion mapping was used to identify the domain of Bub1 required for binding Bub3. Significantly, this same domain is required for kinetochore localization of Bub1, suggesting that the role of Bub3 is to localize Bub1 to the kinetochore, thereby activating the checkpoint in response to unattached kinetochores. The identification of a human Mad3/Bub1-related protein kinase, hBubR1, which can also bind Bub3 in mammalian cells, is described. Ectopically expressed hBubR1 also localizes to kinetochores during prometaphase, but only when hBub3 is overexpressed. We discuss the implications of the common interaction between Bub1 and hBubR1 with hBub3 for checkpoint control.
Project description:Telomeres and telomere-binding proteins form complex secondary nucleoprotein structures that are critical for genome integrity but can present serious challenges during telomere DNA replication. It remains unclear how telomere replication stress is resolved during S phase. Here, we show that the BUB3-BUB1 complex, a component in spindle assembly checkpoint, binds to telomeres during S phase and promotes telomere DNA replication. Loss of the BUB3-BUB1 complex results in telomere replication defects, including fragile and shortened telomeres. We also demonstrate that the telomere-binding ability of BUB3 and kinase activity of BUB1 are indispensable to BUB3-BUB1 function at telomeres. TRF2 targets BUB1-BUB3 to telomeres, and BUB1 can directly phosphorylate TRF1 and promote TRF1 recruitment of BLM helicase to overcome replication stress. Our findings have uncovered previously unknown roles for the BUB3-BUB1 complex in S phase and shed light on how proteins from diverse pathways function coordinately to ensure proper telomere replication and maintenance.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors microtubule attachment to kinetochores to ensure accurate sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. The SAC members Bub1 and BubR1 are paralogs that underwent significant functional specializations during evolution. We report an in-depth characterization of the kinase domains of Bub1 and BubR1. BubR1 kinase domain binds nucleotides but is unable to deliver catalytic activity in vitro. Conversely, Bub1 is an active kinase regulated by intra-molecular phosphorylation at the P+1 loop. The crystal structure of the phosphorylated Bub1 kinase domain illustrates a hitherto unknown conformation of the P+1 loop docked into the active site of the Bub1 kinase. Both Bub1 and BubR1 bind Bub3 constitutively. A hydrodynamic characterization of Bub1:Bub3 and BubR1:Bub3 demonstrates both complexes to have 1:1 stoichiometry, with no additional oligomerization. Conversely, Bub1:Bub3 and BubR1:Bub3 combine to form a heterotetramer. Neither BubR1:Bub3 nor Knl1, the kinetochore receptor of Bub1:Bub3, modulate the kinase activity of Bub1 in vitro, suggesting autonomous regulation of the Bub1 kinase domain. We complement our study with an analysis of the Bub1 substrates. Our results contribute to the mechanistic characterization of a crucial cell cycle checkpoint.
Project description:The eukaryotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays anaphase in the presence of chromosome attachment errors. Bub3 has been reported to be required for SAC activity in all eukaryotes examined so far. We find that Bub3, unlike its binding partner Bub1, is not essential for the SAC in fission yeast. As Bub3 is needed for the efficient kinetochore localization of Bub1, and of Mad1, Mad2 and Mad3, this implies that most SAC proteins do not need to be enriched at the kinetochores for the SAC to function. We find that Bub3 is also dispensable for shugoshin localization to the centromeres, which is the second known function of Bub1. Instead, Bub3, together with Bub1, has a specific function in promoting the conversion from chromosome mono-orientation to bi-orientation.
Project description:The cell death mechanism that prevents aneuploidy caused by a failure of the spindle checkpoint has recently emerged as an important regulatory paradigm. We previously identified a new type of mitotic cell death, termed caspase-independent mitotic death (CIMD), which is induced during early mitosis by partial BUB1 (a spindle checkpoint protein) depletion and defects in kinetochore-microtubule attachment. In this study, we have shown that survived cells that escape CIMD have abnormal nuclei, and we have determined the molecular mechanism by which BUB1 depletion activates CIMD. The BUB3 protein (a BUB1 interactor and a spindle checkpoint protein) interacts with p73 (a homolog of p53), specifically in cells wherein CIMD occurs. The BUB3 protein that is freed from BUB1 associates with p73 on which Y99 is phosphorylated by c-Abl tyrosine kinase, resulting in the activation of CIMD. These results strongly support the hypothesis that CIMD is the cell death mechanism protecting cells from aneuploidy by inducing the death of cells prone to substantial chromosome missegregation.
Project description:Germline mutations in BUB1 and BUB3 have been reported to increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) at young age, in presence of variegated aneuploidy and reminiscent dysmorphic traits of mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome. We performed a mutational analysis of BUB1 and BUB3 in 456 uncharacterized mismatch repair-proficient hereditary non-polyposis CRC families and 88 polyposis cases. Four novel or rare germline variants, one splice-site and three missense, were identified in four families. Neither variegated aneuploidy nor dysmorphic traits were observed in carriers. Evident functional effects in the heterozygous form were observed for c.1965-1G>A, but not for c.2296G>A (p.E766K), in spite of the positive co-segregation in the family. BUB1 c.2473C>T (p.P825S) and BUB3 c.77C>T (p.T26I) remained as variants of uncertain significance. As of today, the rarity of functionally relevant mutations identified in familial and/or early onset series does not support the inclusion of BUB1 and BUB3 testing in routine genetic diagnostics of familial CRC.
Project description:Accurate chromosome segregation depends on the proper attachment of kinetochores to spindle microtubules before anaphase onset. The Ipl1/Aurora B kinase corrects improper attachments by phosphorylating kinetochore components and so releasing aberrant kinetochore-microtubule interactions. The localization of Ipl1 to kinetochores in budding yeast depends upon multiple pathways, including the Bub1-Bub3 pathway. We show here that in meiosis, Bub3 is crucial for correction of attachment errors. Depletion of Bub3 results in reduced levels of kinetochore-localized Ipl1 and concomitant massive chromosome missegregation caused by incorrect chromosome-spindle attachments. Depletion of Bub3 also results in shorter metaphase I and metaphase II due to premature localization of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to kinetochores, which antagonizes Ipl1-mediated phosphorylation. We propose a new role for the Bub1-Bub3 pathway in maintaining the balance between kinetochore localization of Ipl1 and PP1, a balance that is essential for accurate meiotic chromosome segregation and timely anaphase onset.
Project description:During mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors the attachment of kinetochores (KTs) to the plus ends of spindle microtubules (MTs) and prevents anaphase onset until chromosomes are aligned and KTs are under proper tension. Here, we identify a SAC component, BuGZ/ZNF207, from an RNAi viability screen in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) brain tumor stem cells. BuGZ binds to and stabilizes Bub3 during interphase and mitosis through a highly conserved GLE2p-binding sequence (GLEBS) domain. Inhibition of BuGZ results in loss of both Bub3 and its binding partner Bub1 from KTs, reduction of Bub1-dependent phosphorylation of centromeric histone H2A, attenuation of KT-based Aurora B kinase activity, and lethal chromosome congression defects in cancer cells. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that BuGZ orthologs are highly conserved among eukaryotes, but are conspicuously absent from budding and fission yeasts. These findings suggest that BuGZ has evolved to facilitate Bub3 activity and chromosome congression in higher eukaryotes.
Project description:Bipolar microtubule attachment is central to genome stability. Here, we investigate the mitotic role of the fission yeast EB1 homologue Mal3. Mal3 shows dynamic inward movement along the spindle, initial emergence at the spindle pole body (SPB) and translocation towards the equatorial plane, followed by sudden disappearance. Deletion of Mal3 results in early mitotic delay, which is dependent on the Bub1, but not the Mad2, spindle checkpoint. Consistently, Bub1, but not Mad2, shows prolonged kinetochore localization. Double mutants between mal3 and a subset of checkpoint mutants, including bub1, bub3, mad3 and mph1, but not mad1 or mad2, show massive chromosome mis-segregation defects. In mal3bub1 mutants, both sister centromeres tend to remain in close proximity to one of the separating SPBs. Further analysis indicates that mis-segregated centromeres are exclusively associated with the mother SPB. Mal3, therefore, has a role in preventing monopolar attachment in cooperation with the Bub1/Bub3/Mad3/Mph1-dependent checkpoint.
Project description:The spindle checkpoint monitors kinetochore-microtubule interactions and generates a "wait anaphase" delay when any defects are apparent [1-3]. This provides time for cells to correct chromosome attachment errors and ensure high-fidelity chromosome segregation. Checkpoint signals are generated at unattached chromosomes during mitosis. To activate the checkpoint, Mps1Mph1 kinase phosphorylates the kinetochore component KNL1Spc105/Spc7 on conserved MELT motifs to recruit Bub3-Bub1 complexes [4-6] via a direct Bub3 interaction with phospho-MELT motifs [7, 8]. Mps1Mph1 then phosphorylates Bub1, which strengthens its interaction with Mad1-Mad2 complexes to produce a signaling platform [9, 10]. The Bub1-Mad1 platform is thought to recruit Mad3, Cdc20, and Mad2 to produce the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which is the diffusible wait anaphase signal [9, 11, 12]. The MCC binds and inhibits the mitotic E3 ubiquitin ligase, known as Cdc20-anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), and stabilizes securin and cyclin to delay anaphase onset [13-17]. Here we demonstrate, in both budding and fission yeast, that kinetochores and KNL1Spc105/Spc7 can be bypassed; simply inducing heterodimers of Mps1Mph1 kinase and Bub1 is sufficient to trigger metaphase arrest that is dependent on Mad1, Mad2, and Mad3. We use this to dissect the domains of Bub1 necessary for arrest, highlighting the need for Bub1-CD1, which binds Mad1 , and Bub1's highly conserved N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain [18, 19]. We demonstrate that the Bub1 TPR domain is both necessary and sufficient to bind and recruit Mad3. We propose that this brings Mad3 into close proximity to Mad1-Mad2 and Mps1Mph1 kinase, enabling efficient generation of MCC complexes.