Molecular markers for novel therapeutic strategies in pancreatic endocrine tumors.
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) share numerous features with gastrointestinal neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors. Targets of novel therapeutic strategies previously assessed in carcinoid tumors were analyzed in PETs (44 cases).Activating mutations in EGFR, KIT, and PDGFRA and nonresponse mutations in KRAS were evaluated. Copy number of EGFR and HER-2/neu was quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Expression of EGFR, PDGFRA, VEGFR1, TGFBR1, Hsp90, SSTR2A, SSTR5, IGF1R, mTOR, and MGMT was measured immunohistochemically.Elevated EGFR copy number was found in 38% of cases but no KRAS nonresponse mutations. VEGFR1, TGFBR1, PDGFRA, SSTR5, SSTR2A, and IGF1R exhibited the highest levels of expression in the largest percentages of PETs.Anticancer drugs BMS-754807 (selective for IGF1R/IR), 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, targeting Hsp90), and axitinib (directed toward VEGFR1-3/PDGFRA-B/KIT) induced growth inhibition of human QGP-1 PET cells with IC50 values (nM) of 273, 723, and 743, respectively. At growth-inhibiting concentrations, BMS-754807 inhibited IGF1R phosphorylation; 17-AAG induced loss of EGFR, IGF1R, and VEGFR2; and axitinib increased p21(CDKN1A) expression without inhibiting VEGFR2 phosphorylation.Results encourage further research into multidrug strategies incorporating inhibitors targeting IGF1R or Hsp90 and into studies of axitinib combined with conventional chemotherapeutics toxic to tumor cells in persistent growth arrest.
Project description:The development of somatostatin analogs for the treatment of pituitary Cushing's disease has been based on somatostatin receptor expression analyses of small cohorts of pituitary adenomas. Additionally, the classification of pituitary adenomas has recently changed. To enable progress with this treatment option, we assessed somatostatin receptors in a large cohort of corticotroph and other pituitary adenomas according to the new WHO classification of endocrine tumors. Paraffin-embedded tumor samples of 88 corticotroph pituitary adenomas and 30 nonadenomatous pituitary biopsies were analyzed after processing into tissue microarrays and immunohistochemical staining for SSTR 1, SSTR2A, SSTR3, SSTR4, and SSTR5. For comparison, 159 other noncorticotroph pituitary adenomas were analyzed. SSTR3 expression was higher in corticotroph adenomas compared to PIT-1-positive, gonadotroph, and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0280, and p < 0.0001, respectively). This was also the case for the expression of SSTR5 (p = 0.0003, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0001, respectively). SSTR2A expression was higher compared to gonadotroph and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (p = 0.0217 and 0.0126, respectively) while PIT-1-positive adenomas showed even higher SSTR2A expression (p < 0.0001). SSTR2A and SSTR5 were both expressed higher in nonadenomatous pituitary biopsies than in pituitary adenomas (p = 0.0126 and p = 0.0008, respectively). There are marked expression differences of SSTR1-5 as well as changes in expression in recurrent disease that need to be addressed when looking for other possible substances for the treatment of Cushing's disease. SSTR2A, SSTR3, and SSTR5 seem to be most suitable biomarkers for a targeted therapy with somatostatin analogs.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We previously postulated that 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) activates multiple pro-survival pathways through IGF1R to negate its inhibitory effect on glycolysis. Here, we evaluated whether IGF1R inhibitor synergizes with 2-DG to impede the growth of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS:The activation of IGF1R signaling was assessed by the phosphorylation of IGF1R and its downstream target AKT using immunoblot. Drug dose response and combination index analyses were carried out according to the method of Chou and Talalay. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate cell cycle progression. Apoptosis was monitored by caspase-3/PARP cleavages or Annexin V staining. A subcutaneous xenograft model was used to assess this combination in vivo. RESULTS:2-DG induces the phosphorylation of IGF1R in its kinase domain, which can be abolished by the IGF1R inhibitor BMS-754807. Furthermore, the combination of 2-DG and BMS-754807 synergistically inhibited the survival of several non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanistic basis of this synergy was cell line-dependent, and LKB1-inactivated EKVX cells underwent apoptosis following treatment with a subtoxic dose of 2-DG and BMS-754807. For these cells, the restoration of LKB1 kinase activity suppressed apoptosis induced by this combination but enhanced G1 arrest. In H460 cells, the addition of 2-DG did not enhance the low level of apoptosis induced by BMS-754807. However, treatment with 0.75??M of BMS-754807 resulted in the accumulation of H460 cells with 8n-DNA content without affecting cell density increases. Hence, H460 cells may escape BMS-754807-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest through polyploidy. The inclusion of 2-DG blocked formation of the 8n-DNA cell population and restored G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. CONCLUSION:The combination of 2-DG and IGF1R inhibitor BMS-754807 may be used to suppress the proliferation of NSCLC tumors through different mechanisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Most GISTs have mutations in KIT or PDGFRA. Patients with advanced GIST with KIT exon 9, PDGFRA mutation or WT for KIT and PDGFRA have a worse progression-free survival (PFS) compared to patients with KIT exon 11 mutated tumors. We evaluated the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of p-IGF1R (Y1316) and MMP3 as predictors of PFS or overall survival (OS). METHODS:Ninety-two advanced GIST patients included in GEIS-16 study with KIT and PDGFRA mutational information were examined for p-IGF1R (Y1316) and MMP3 expression in a tissue micro-array. To study activation of the IGF1R system, we have used an antibody (anti-pY1316) that specifically recognizes the active phosphorylated form of the IGF1R. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues and intronic PCR primers were used to amplify exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 of KIT, 12 and 18 of PDGFRA. Bidirectional sequencing with specific primers was performed on a ABI3100 sequencer using the Big Dye Terminator v3.1 kit. Multivariate model was built using a stepwise automated variable selection approach with criterion to enter the variable in the model of p < 0.10 and criterion to keep the variable in the model of p < 0.05. PFS was computed as the date of imatinib initiation to progression or death. Overall survival was defined as the time from imatinib initiation to death. RESULTS:Phospho-IGF1R was expressed only in 9 % (2/22) of cases without KIT mutation. MMP3 expression was detected in 2/5 patients (40 %) with PDGFRA mutation, 1/16 patients (6 %) with WT genotype and 7/71 patients (10 %) of KIT mutant patients. At univariate analysis KIT exon 11/13 mutation had better PFS than patients with exon 9 mutation, PDGFRA mutation or WT genotype (p = 0.021; HR: 0.46; 95 %CI (0.28-0.76). Less than 24 months disease free-interval (HR 24.2, 95 % CI 10.5-55.8), poor performance status (PS) (HR 6.3, 95 % CI 2.5-15.9), extension of disease; >1 organ (HR 1.89; 95 % CI 1.03-3.4) and genotype analysis (HR 0.57, 95 % CI 0.37-0.97) but not immunophenotype analysis (HR 1.53; 95 % CI 0.76-3.06) were the strongest prognostic factors for PFS in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS:Our results do not support p-IGF-1R and MMP3 evaluation in non-selected GIST patients but evaluation of this immunophenotype in WT and mutant PDGFR mutation in larger group of GIST patients, deserve merits.
Project description:There are limited findings available on KIT-negative GIST-like (KNGL) population. Also, KIT expression may be post-transcriptionally regulated by miRNA221 and miRNA222. Hence, the aim of this study is to characterize KNGL population, by differential gene expression, and to analyze miRNA221/222 expression and their prognostic value in KNGL patients.KIT, PDGFRA, DOG1, IGF1R, MIR221 and MIR222 expression levels were determined by qRT-PCR. We also analyzed KIT and PDGFRA mutations, DOG1 expression, by immunohistochemistry, along with clinical and pathological data. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) differences were calculated using Log-rank test.Hierarchical cluster analyses from gene expression data identified two groups: group I had KIT, DOG1 and PDGFRA overexpression and IGF1R underexpression and group II had overexpression of IGF1R and low expression of KIT, DOG1 and PDGFRA. Group II had a significant worse OS (p = 0.013) in all the series, and showed a tendency for worse OS (p = 0.11), when analyzed only the localized cases. MiRNA222 expression was significantly lower in a control subset of KIT-positive GIST (p < 0.001). OS was significantly worse in KNGL cases with higher expression of MIR221 (p = 0.028) or MIR222 (p = 0.014).We identified two distinct KNGL subsets, with a different prognostic value. Increased levels of miRNA221/222, which are associated with worse OS, could explain the absence of KIT protein expression of most KNGL tumors.
Project description:Aberrant receptor kinase signalling and tumour neovascularization are hallmarks of medulloblastoma development and are both considered valuable therapeutic targets. In addition to VEGFR1/2, expression of PDGFR ?/? in particular has been documented as characteristic of metastatic disease correlating with poor prognosis. Therefore, we have been suggested that the clinically approved multi-kinase angiogenesis inhibitor Axitinib, which specifically targets these kinases, might constitute a promising option for medulloblastoma treatment. Indeed, our results delineate anti-neoplastic activity of Axitinib in medulloblastoma cell lines modelling the most aggressive c-myc-amplified Non-WNT/Non-SHH and SHH-TP53-mutated tumours. Exposure of medulloblastoma cell lines to Axitinib results in marked inhibition of proliferation and profound induction of cell death. The differential efficacy of Axitinib is in line with target expression of medulloblastoma cells identifying VEGFR 1/2, PDGFR ?/? and c-kit as potential markers for drug application. The high specificity of Axitinib and the consequential low impact on the haematopoietic and immune system render this drug ideal multi-modal treatment approaches. In this context, we demonstrate that the clinically available PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 enhances the anti-neoplastic efficacy of Axitinib against c-myc-amplified medulloblastoma. Our findings provide a rational to further evaluate Axitinib alone and in combination with other therapeutic agents for the treatment of most aggressive medulloblastoma subtypes.
Project description:Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are highly vascular neoplasms overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as VEGF receptors (VEGFR). Axitinib is a potent, selective inhibitor of VEGFR-1, -2 and -3, currently approved for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. We performed an open-label, two-stage design, phase II trial of axitinib 5mg twice daily in patients with progressive unresectable/metastatic low-to-intermediate grade carcinoid tumors. The primary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and 12-month PFS rate. The secondary end points included time to treatment failure (TTF), overall survival (OS), overall radiographic response rate (ORR), biochemical response rate and safety. A total of 30 patients were enrolled and assessable for toxicity; 22 patients were assessable for response. After a median follow-up of 29months, we observed a median PFS of 26.7months (95% CI, 11.4-35.1), with a 12-month PFS rate of 74.5% (±10.2). The median OS was 45.3 months (95% CI, 24.4-45.3), and the median TTF was 9.6months (95% CI, 5.5-12). The best radiographic response was partial response (PR) in 1/30 (3%) and stable disease (SD) in 21/30 patients (70%); 8/30 patients (27%) were unevaluable due to early withdrawal due to toxicity. Hypertension was the most common toxicity that developed in 27 patients (90%). Grade 3/4 hypertension was recorded in 19 patients (63%), leading to treatment discontinuation in six patients (20%). Although axitinib appears to have an inhibitory effect on tumor growth in patients with advanced, progressive carcinoid tumors, the high rate of grade 3/4 hypertension may represent a potential impediment to its use in unselected patients.
Project description:BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) have been approved for the clinical treatment of BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma. Although initial responses to BRAFi are generally favorable, acquired BRAFi resistance emerges rapidly, resulting in treatment failure. Only some of the underlying mechanisms responsible for BRAFi resistance are currently understood. Here, we showed that the genetic inhibition of histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1) in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells resulted in BRAFi resistance. Using quantitative immunofluorescence analysis of patient sample pairs, consisting of pre-treatment along with matched progressed BRAFi?+?MEKi-treated melanoma samples, HAT1 downregulation was observed in 7/11 progressed samples (~63%) in comparison with pre-treated samples. Employing NanoString-based nCounter PanCancer Pathway Panel-based gene expression analysis, we identified increased MAPK, Ras, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, and Wnt pathway activation in HAT1 expression inhibited cells. We further found that MAPK pathway activation following the loss of HAT1 expression was partially driven by increased insulin growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling. We showed that both MAPK and IGF1R pathway inhibition, using the ERK inhibitor SCH772984 and the IGF1R inhibitor BMS-754807, respectively, restored BRAFi sensitivity in melanoma cells lacking HAT1. Collectively, we show that the loss of HAT1 expression confers acquired BRAFi resistance by activating the MAPK signaling pathway via IGF1R.
Project description:Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) are the major receptors involved in endothelial cell-dependent tumor angiogenesis. There are studies account for the effects of Hsp90 on angiogenesis, but the role and mechanism of Hsp90? isoforms and NVP-BEP800, a specific inhibitor of Hsp90?, in tumor angiogenesis is rarely mentioned.Immunohistochemistry and statistical analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Hsp90? expression, CD31 endothelial cell-dependent vessel density, and VEGFRs expression in tissue samples of 96 HCCs. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and COX proportional hazards analysis the relation of Hsp90? and prognosis. HUVEC cells were transfected with Hsp90? or treated with NVP-BEP800, and then cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation were investigated. The VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression was determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 promoter activities were detected by dual luciferase report system. In vivo, the angiogenesis promotion of Hsp90? and anti-angiogenesis efficacy of NVP-BEP800 was tested in HCC xenograft models. Histological analysis was performed on tumor samples to evaluate Hsp90?, VEGFRs expression and MVD.This study investigated the correlation between Hsp90? expression and CD31+ endothelial cell-dependent vessel density. Hsp90? promoted VEGFRs expression by increasing their promoter activities. The proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation activities of human endothelial cells significantly increased when Hsp90? was overexpressed. NVP-BEP800 down-regulated VEGFRs expression to significantly reduce tubular differentiation, as well as endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, NVP-BEP800 decreased VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 promoter activities. In vivo, Hsp90? promoted VEGFRs and CD31 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma tumor xenografts and was associated with increased tumor microvessel density. After 18 days of treatment with 30 mg/kg/day NVP-BEP800, VEGFRs and CD31 expression significantly decreased.Hsp90? induced endothelial cell-dependent tumor angiogenesis by activating VEGFRs transcription. NVP-BEP800 has potential as a therapeutic strategy for inhibiting tumor angiogenesis by decreasing endothelial cell progression and metastasis. It can help develop a therapeutic strategy for tumor treatment through the inhibition of endothelial cell progression and metastasis.
Project description:Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) contain KIT or PDGFRA kinase gain-of-function mutations, and therefore respond clinically to imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapies. However, clinical progression subsequently results from selection of TKI-resistant clones, typically containing secondary mutations in the KIT kinase domain, which can be heterogeneous between and within GIST metastases in a given patient. TKI-resistant KIT oncoproteins require HSP90 chaperoning and are potently inactivated by HSP90 inhibitors, but clinical applications in GIST patients are constrained by the toxicity resulting from concomitant inactivation of various other HSP90 client proteins, beyond KIT and PDGFRA. To identify novel targets responsible for KIT oncoprotein function, we performed parallel genome-scale short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene knockdowns in KIT-mutant GIST-T1 and GIST882. GIST cells were infected with a lentiviral shRNA pooled library targeting 11?194 human genes, and allowed to proliferate for 5-7 weeks, at which point assessment of relative hairpin abundance identified the HSP90 cofactor, CDC37, as one of the top six GIST-specific essential genes. Validations in treatment-naive (GIST-T1, GIST882) vs imatinib-resistant GISTs (GIST48, GIST430) demonstrated that: (1) CDC37 interacts with oncogenic KIT; (2) CDC37 regulates expression and activation of KIT and downstream signaling intermediates in GIST; and (3) unlike direct HSP90 inhibition, CDC37 knockdown accomplishes prolonged KIT inhibition (>20 days) in GIST. These studies highlight CDC37 as a key biologic vulnerability in both imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant GIST. CDC37 targeting is expected to be selective for KIT/PDGFRA and a subset of other HSP90 clients, and thereby represents a promising strategy for inactivating the myriad KIT/PDGFRA oncoproteins in TKI-resistant GIST patients.
Project description:Over the last seven years, seven targeted agents have been approved in the treatment of advanced or metastatic renal cell cancer, changing the therapeutic approach and prognosis of the disease dramatically. The latest agent with demonstrated efficacy is axitinib (Inlyta(®)). This new generation of tyrosine kinase agent differs from previously existing agents by its greater activity potency of inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor-receptor (VEGFR1-3). This efficacy has been tested in phase II and III clinical trials. Axitinib is the only targeted agent that benefits from recommended titration, with intra-patient dose escalation. The toxicity profile of the drug is tolerable. This paper reviews the mechanism of action of axitinib, its metabolism, and its pharmacokinetic profile. Clinical data of efficacy and safety is also detailed. The agent has been integrated in the international therapeutic guidelines, as a standard in treatment of renal cell cancer patients, previously treated through antiangiogenic therapy.