The circadian binding of CLOCK protein to the promoter of C/ebp? gene in mouse cells.
ABSTRACT: C/EBP? plays important roles in metabolism as well as in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Here we describe loss of the circadian oscillation of C/ebp? expression in liver of Clock mutant mice. Reporter assays indicate Clock and Bmal significantly induced C/ebp? gene expression whereas Cry suppressed. Real time reporter assays showed that two mutated E-boxes disrupted C/ebp? promoter dependent-oscillation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation suggests Clock can bind to two E-boxes in the C/ebp? promoter with a circadian manner in vivo. Thus, C/ebp? gene transcription is under circadian control of a core clock component, Clock. The data suggests that circadian disturbances may affect metabolic abnormalities through the C/ebp? pathway in liver.
Project description:Dec2, a member of the basic helix-loop-helix superfamily, is a recently confirmed regulatory protein for the clockwork system. Transcripts of Dec2, as well as those of its related gene Dec1, exhibit a striking circadian oscillation in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and Dec2 inhibits transcription from the Per1 promoter induced by Clock/Bmal1 [Honma, Kawamoto, Takagi, Fujimoto, Sato, Noshiro, Kato and Honma (2002) Nature (London) 419, 841-844]. It is known that mammalian circadian rhythms are controlled by molecular clockwork systems based on negative-feedback loop(s), but the molecular mechanisms for the circadian regulation of Dec2 gene expression have not been clarified. We show here that transcription of the Dec2 gene is regulated by several clock molecules and a negative-feedback loop. Luciferase and gel retardation assays showed that expression of Dec2 was negatively regulated by binding of Dec2 or Dec1 to two CACGTG E-boxes in the Dec2 promoter. Forced expression of Clock/Bmal1 and Clock/Bmal2 markedly increased Dec2 mRNA levels, and up-regulated the transcription of the Dec2 gene through the CACGTG E-boxes. Like Dec, Cry and Per also suppressed Clock/Bmal-induced transcription from the Dec2 promoter. Moreover, the circadian expression of Dec2 transcripts was abolished in the kidney of Clock/Clock mutant mice. These findings suggest that the Clock/Bmal heterodimer enhances Dec2 transcription via the CACGTG E-boxes, whereas the induced transcription is suppressed by Dec2, which therefore must contribute to its own rhythmic expression. In addition, Cry and Per may also modulate Dec2 transcription.
Project description:In mammalian circadian clockwork, the CLOCK-BMAL1 complex binds to DNA enhancers of target genes and drives circadian oscillation of transcription. Here we identified 7,978 CLOCK-binding sites in mouse liver by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-Seq), and a newly developed bioinformatics method, motif centrality analysis of ChIP-Seq (MOCCS), revealed a genome-wide distribution of previously unappreciated noncanonical E-boxes targeted by CLOCK. In vitro promoter assays showed that CACGNG, CACGTT, and CATG(T/C)G are functional CLOCK-binding motifs. Furthermore, we extensively revealed rhythmically expressed genes by poly(A)-tailed RNA-Seq and identified 1,629 CLOCK target genes within 11,926 genes expressed in the liver. Our analysis also revealed rhythmically expressed genes that have no apparent CLOCK-binding site, indicating the importance of indirect transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations. Indirect transcriptional regulation is represented by rhythmic expression of CLOCK-regulated transcription factors, such as Krüppel-like factors (KLFs). Indirect posttranscriptional regulation involves rhythmic microRNAs that were identified by small-RNA-Seq. Collectively, CLOCK-dependent direct transactivation through multiple E-boxes and indirect regulations polyphonically orchestrate dynamic circadian outputs.
Project description:Temporal organization of tissue metabolism is important for maintaining nutrient and energy homeostasis in mammals. Autophagy is a conserved cellular pathway that is activated in response to nutrient limitation, resulting in the degradation of cytoplasmic components and the release of amino acids and other nutrients. Here, we show that autophagy exhibits robust circadian rhythm in mouse liver, which is accompanied by cyclic induction of genes involved in various steps of autophagy. Functional analyses of transcription factors and cofactors identified C/EBP? as a potent activator of autophagy. C/EBP? is rhythmically expressed in the liver and is regulated by both circadian and nutritional signals. In cultured primary hepatocytes, C/EBP? stimulates the program of autophagy gene expression and is sufficient to activate autophagic protein degradation. Adenoviral-mediated RNAi knockdown of C/EBP? in vivo abolishes diurnal autophagy rhythm in the liver. Further, circadian regulation of C/EBP? and autophagy is disrupted in mice lacking a functional liver clock. We have thus identified C/EBP? as a key factor that links autophagy to biological clock and maintains nutrient homeostasis throughout light/dark cycles.
Project description:Brain and muscle ARNT-like protein-1 (BMAL-1) is an important component of the cellular circadian clock. Proteins such as epidermal (EGF) or nerve growth factor (NGF) affect the cellular clock via extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK-1/2) in NIH3T3 or neuronal stem cells, but no such data are available for the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). The hypothalamus expresses receptors for all three growth factors, acts as a central circadian pacemaker, and releases hormones in a circadian fashion. However, little is known about growth factor-induced modulation of clock gene activity in hypothalamic cells. Here, we investigated effects of IGF-1, EGF, or NGF on the Bmal-1 promoter in two hypothalamic cell lines. We found that only IGF-1 but not EGF or NGF enhanced activity of the Bmal-1 promoter. Inhibition of ERK-1/2 activity did not affect IGF-1-induced Bmal-1 promoter activation and all three growth factors similarly phosphorylated ERK-1/2, questioning a role for ERK-1/2 in controlling BMAL-1 promoter activity. Of note, only IGF-1 induced sustained phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Moreover, the GSK-3β inhibitor lithium or siRNA-mediated GSK-3β knockdown diminished the effects of IGF-1 on the Bmal-1 promoter. When IGF-1 was used in the context of temperature cycles entraining hypothalamic clock gene expression to a 24-h rhythm, it shifted the phase of Bmal-1 promoter activity, indicating that IGF-1 functions as a zeitgeber for cellular hypothalamic circadian clocks. Our results reveal that IGF-1 regulates clock gene expression and that GSK-3β but not ERK-1/2 is required for the IGF-1-mediated regulation of the Bmal-1 promoter in hypothalamic cells.
Project description:Various physiological and behavioral processes exhibit circadian rhythmicity. These rhythms are usually maintained by negative feedback loops of core clock genes, namely, CLOCK, BMAL, PER, and CRY. Recently, dysfunction in the circadian clock has been recognized as an important foundation for the pathophysiology of lifestyle-related diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. We have reported that angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) contributes to the pathogenesis of these lifestyle-related diseases by inducing chronic inflammation. However, molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of ANGPTL2 expression are poorly understood. Here, we assess circadian rhythmicity of ANGPTL2 expression in various mouse tissues. We observed that ANGPTL2 rhythmicity was similar to that of the PER2 gene, which is regulated by the CLOCK/BMAL1 complex. Promoter activity of the human ANGPTL2 gene was significantly induced by CLOCK and BMAL1, an induction markedly attenuated by CRY co-expression. We also identified functional E-boxes in the ANGPTL2 promoter and observed occupancy of these sites by endogenous CLOCK in human osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, Cry-deficient mice exhibited arrhythmic Angptl2 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that periodic expression of ANGPTL2 is regulated by a molecular clock.
Project description:In mammals, the expression of 5-10% of genes occurs with circadian fluctuation in various organs and tissues. This cyclic transcription is thought to be directly or indirectly regulated through circadian transcriptional/translational feedback loops consisting of a set of clock genes. Among the clock genes in mammals, expression of the Dbp mRNA robustly oscillates both in vivo and in culture cells. Here, we present circadian enhancer detection strategy using prokaryotic transposon system. The mDbp promoter drives reporter gene expression in robust circadian cycles in rat-1 fibroblasts. To identify the circadian enhancer generating this robust rhythm, we developed a prokaryotic transposon-based enhancer detecting vector for in vitro transposition. Using this system, we identified a strong circadian enhancer region containing the CATGTG sequence in the 5' flanking region of the mDbp gene; this enhancer region is critical for the ability of the mDbp promoter to drive robust oscillation in living cells. This enhancer is classified as a CANNTG type non-canonical E-box. These findings strongly suggest that CANNTG-type non-canonical E-boxes may contribute, at least in part, to the regulation of robust circadian gene expression. Furthermore, these data may help explain the wider effects of the CLOCK/BMAL1 complex in control of clock output genes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The circadian expression of the mammalian clock genes is based on transcriptional feedback loops. Two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) PAS (for Period-Arnt-Sim) domain-containing transcriptional activators, CLOCK and BMAL1, are known to regulate gene expression by interacting with a promoter element termed the E-box (CACGTG). The non-canonical E-boxes or E-box-like sequences have also been reported to be necessary for circadian oscillation. RESULTS: We report a new cis-element required for cell-autonomous circadian transcription of clock genes. This new element consists of a canonical E-box or a non-canonical E-box and an E-box-like sequence in tandem with the latter with a short interval, 6 base pairs, between them. We demonstrate that both E-box or E-box-like sequences are needed to generate cell-autonomous oscillation. We also verify that the spacing nucleotides with constant length between these 2 E-elements are crucial for robust oscillation. Furthermore, by in silico analysis we conclude that several clock and clock-controlled genes possess a direct repeat of the E-box-like elements in their promoter region. CONCLUSION: We propose a novel possible mechanism regulated by double E-box-like elements, not to a single E-box, for circadian transcriptional oscillation. The direct repeat of the E-box-like elements identified in this study is the minimal required element for the generation of cell-autonomous transcriptional oscillation of clock and clock-controlled genes.
Project description:The circadian clock acts at the genomic level to coordinate internal behavioral and physiologic rhythms via the CLOCK-BMAL transcriptional heterodimer. Although the nuclear receptors REV-ERB? and ? have been proposed to contribute to clock function, their precise roles and importance remain unresolved. To establish their regulatory potential we generated comparative cistromes of both Rev-erb isoforms, which revealed shared recognition at over ~50% of their total sites and extensive overlap with the master clock regulator Bmal. While Rev-erb? has been shown to directly regulate Bmal expression, the cistromic analysis reveals a more profound connection between Bmal and Rev-erb? and ? regulatory circuits than previously suspected. Genes within the intersection of the Bmal and Rev-erb cistromes are highly enriched for both clock and metabolic functions. As predicted by the cistromic analysis, dual depletion of Rev-erb?/? function by creating double-knockout mice (DKOs) profoundly disrupted circadian expression of core clock and lipid homeostatic genes. As a result, DKOs show strikingly altered circadian wheel-running behavior and deregulated lipid metabolism. These data reveal an integral role of Rev-erb?/? in clock function as well as provide a cistromic basis for the integration of circadian rhythm and metabolism. Total RNA was obtained from livers of wild-type and Liver-specific Reverb alpha/beta double knockout mice at ZT 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20.
Project description:Low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) plays an important role in the cholesterol homeostasis. We examined the possible circadian regulation of LDLR and mechanism(s) underlying it. In mice, blood glucose and plasma triglyceride, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol varied distinctively throughout a day. In addition, LDLR mRNA oscillated in the liver in a functional clock-dependent manner. Accordingly, analysis of human LDLR promoter sequence revealed three putative E-boxes, raising the possible regulation of LDLR expression by E-box-binding transcription factors. To test this possibility, human LDLR promoter reporter constructs were transfected into HepG2 cells and the effects of CLOCK/BMAL1, Hes1, and Hes6 expression were analyzed. It was found that positive circadian transcription factor complex CLOCK/BMAL1 upregulated human LDLR promoter activity in a serum-independent manner, while Hes family members Hes1 and Hes6 downregulated it only under serum-depleted conditions. Both effects were mapped to proximal promoter region of human LDLR, where mutation or deletion of well-known sterol regulatory element (SRE) abolished only the repressive effect of Hes1. Interestingly, hes6 and hes1 mRNA oscillated in an anti-phasic manner in the wild-type but not in the per1-/-per2 -/- mouse. Comparative analysis of mouse, rat and human hes6 genes revealed that three E-boxes are conserved among three species. Transfection and site-directed mutagenesis studies with hes6 reporter constructs confirmed that the third E-box in the exon IV is functionally induced by CLOCK/BMAL1. Taken together, these results suggest that LDLR expression is under circadian control involving CLOCK/BMAL1 and Hes family members Hes1 and Hes6.
Project description:Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradation system, and recently was shown to display circadian rhythms in mice. The mechanisms underlying circadian regulation of autophagy, however, are still unclear. Here, we observed that numbers of autophagosomes and autolysosomes exhibit daily rhythms in the zebrafish liver, and cebpb/(c/ebp?) and various autophagy genes are rhythmically expressed in zebrafish larvae but significantly upregulated in per1b and TALEN-generated nr1d1/rev-erb? mutant fish, indicating that both Per1b and Nr1d1 play critical roles in autophagy rhythms. Luciferase reporter and ChIP assays show that the circadian clock directly regulates autophagy genes through Nr1d1, and also regulates transcription of cebpb through Per1b. We also found that fasting leads to altered expression of both circadian clock genes and autophagy genes in zebrafish adult peripheral organs. Further, transcriptome analysis reveals multiple functions of Nr1d1 in zebrafish. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for how the circadian clock regulates autophagy, imply that nutritional signaling affects both circadian regulation and autophagy activities in peripheral organs, and shed light on how circadian gene mutations act through autophagy to contribute to common metabolic diseases such as obesity.