Tetra- and penta-acylated lipid A structures of Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS differentially activate TLR4-mediated NF-?B signal transduction cascade and immuno-inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen of periodontal disease that affects a majority of adults worldwide. Increasing evidence shows that periodontal disease is linked to various systemic diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease, by contributing to increased systemic levels of inflammation. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), as a key virulent attribute of P. gingivalis, possesses significant amount of lipid A heterogeneity containing tetra- (LPS1435/1449) and penta-acylated (LPS1690) structures. Hitherto, the exact molecular mechanism of P. gingivalis LPS involved in periodontal pathogenesis remains unclear, due to limited understanding of the specific receptors and signaling pathways involved in LPS-host cell interactions.This study systematically investigated the effects of P. gingivalis LPS1435/1449 and LPS1690 on the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 signal transduction and the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). We found that LPS1435/1449 and LPS1690 differentially modulated TLR2 and TLR4 expression. NF-?B pathway was significantly activated by LPS1690 but not by LPS1435/1449. In addition, LPS1690 induced significant expression of NF-?B and p38 MPAK pathways-related genes, such as NFKBIA, NFKB1, IKBKB, MAP2K4 and MAPK8. Notably, the pro-inflammatory genes including GM-CSF, CXCL10, G-CSF, IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2 were significantly upregulated by LPS1690 while down-regulated by LPS1435/1449. Blocking assays confirmed that TLR4-mediated NF-?B signaling was vital in LPS1690-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in HGFs.The present study suggests that the tetra- and penta-acylated lipid A structures of P. gingivalis LPS differentially activate TLR4-mediated NF-?B signaling pathway, and significantly modulate the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in HGFs. The ability to alter the lipid A structure of LPS could be one of the strategies carried-out by P. gingivalis to evade innate host defense in gingival tissues, thereby contributing to periodontal pathogenesis.
Project description:Periodontal (gum) disease is a highly prevalent infection and inflammation accounting for the majority of tooth loss in adult population worldwide. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone periodontal pathogen and its lipopolysaccharide (PgLPS) acts as a major virulence attribute to the disease. Herein, we deciphered the overall host response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to two featured isoforms of tetra-acylated PgLPS1435/1449 and penta-acylated PgLPS1690 with reference to E. coli LPS through quantitative proteomics. This study unraveled differentially expressed novel biomarkers of immuno-inflammatory response, antioxidant defense and cytoskeletal dynamics in HGFs. PgLPS1690 greatly upregulated inflammatory proteins (e.g. cyclophilin, inducible nitric oxide synthase, annexins, galectin, cathepsins and heat shock proteins), whereas the anti-inflammatory proteins (e.g. Annexin A2 and Annexin A6) were significantly upregulated by PgLPS1435/1449. Interestingly, the antioxidants proteins such as mitochondrial manganese-containing superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin 5 were only upregulated by PgLPS1690. The cytoskeletal rearrangement-related proteins like myosin were differentially regulated by these PgLPS isoforms. The present study gives new insight into the biological properties of P. gingivalis LPS lipid A moiety that could critically modulate immuno-inflammatory response, antioxidant defense and cytoskeletal dynamics in HGFs, and thereby enhances our understanding of periodontal pathogenesis.
Project description:Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) as an acute-phase protein plays a crucial role in innate host response to bacterial challenge. Our previous study shows that LBP expression in human gingiva is associated with periodontal status. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone periodontopathogen, and its LPS with lipid A structural heterogeneity critically accounts for periodontal pathogenesis. This study investigated the effects of LBP and its interactions with two featured isoforms of P. gingivalis LPS (tetra-acylated LPS1435/1449 and penta-acylated LPS1690) on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs), and the involvement of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. HOKs were pre-incubated with recombinant human LBP (rhLBP) at 10ng/ml, 100ng/ml and 1?g/ml for 1 h, followed by the treatment of P. gingivalis LPS1690 or LPS1435/1449 for 3h or 24h respectively. The expression of IL-6 and IL-8, and involvements of TLR2 and TLR4 were analyzed. The genes associated with TLR signaling were assessed by PCR array. Interestingly, rhLBP per se significantly up-regulated the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in HOKs (p<0.05), which was blocked by TLR2 antibody (p<0.001). LPS1435/1449 down-regulated more significantly rhLBP-induced IL-6 and IL-8 mRNAs with reference to P. gingivalis LPS1690 (approximately 80% vs. 40%, p<0.05; and 90% vs. 36%, p<0.001, respectively). Moreover, rhLBP markedly down-regulated the gene expression of TLRs and their adaptors such as CD180 (-2.44 folds) and MD-1 (-9.62 folds), while the interaction of P. gingivalis LPS1435/1449 with rhLBP greatly up-regulated both transcripts (7.11 and 4.05 folds, respectively). Notably, P. gingivalis LPS1690-rhLBP interaction dramatically up-regulated CD180 transcript (20.86 folds) and significantly down-regulated MD-1 transcript (-6.93 folds). This pioneering study shows that rhLBP enables to enhance the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in HOKs through TLR2 signaling pathway. P. gingivalis LPS with different lipid A structures down-regulates to different extents rhLBP-induced cytokine expression, possibly through fine-tuning of the CD180-MD1 complex and relevant TLRs.
Project description:"Perioceutics" including antimicrobial therapy and host modulatory therapy has emerged as a vital adjunctive treatment of periodontal disease. Melatonin level was significantly reduced in patients with periodontal diseases suggesting melatonin could be applied as a potential "perioceutics" treatment of periodontal diseases. This study aims to investigate the effects of melatonin receptor agonists (melatonin and ramelteon) on Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence and Porphyromonas gingivalis-derived lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS)-induced inflammation.Effects of melatonin receptor agonists on Porphyromonas gingivalis planktonic cultures were determined by microplate dilution assays. Formation, reduction, and viability of Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms were detected by crystal violet staining and MTT assays, respectively. Meanwhile, biofilms formation was also observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The effects on gingipains and hemolytic activities of Porphyromonas gingivalis were evaluated using chromogenic peptides and sheep erythrocytes. The mRNA expression of virulence and iron/heme utilization was assessed using RT-PCR. In addition, cell viability of melatonin receptor agonists on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) was evaluated by MTT assays. After pretreatment of melatonin receptor agonists, HGFs were stimulated with Pg-LPS and then release of cytokines (IL-6 and lL-8) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Melatonin and ramelteon did exhibit antimicrobial effects against planktonic culture. Importantly, they inhibited biofilm formation, reduced the established biofilms, and decreased biofilm viability of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Furthermore, they at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) concentrations markedly inhibited the proteinase activities of gingipains and hemolysis in a dose-dependent manner. They at sub-MIC concentrations significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of virulence factors (kgp, rgpA, rgpB, hagA, and ragA), while increasing the mRNA expression of ferritin (ftn) or hemolysin (hem). They did not show obvious cytotoxicity toward HGFs. They inhibited Pg-LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, which was reversed by luzindole, the melatonin receptor antagonist.Melatonin receptor agonists can inhibit planktonic and biofilm growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis by affecting the virulent properties, as well as Pg-LPS-induced inflammatory response. Our study provides new evidence that melatonin receptor agonists might be useful as novel "perioceutics" agents to prevent and treat Porphyromonas gingivalis-associated periodontal diseases.
Project description:Background:Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major bacterial species implicated in the progression of periodontal disease, which is recognized as a common complication of diabetes. The interleukin (IL)-1?, processed by the NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, has been identified as a target for pathogenic infection of the inflammatory response. However, the effect of P. gingivalis in a high-glucose situation in the modulation of inflammasome activation in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) is not well-understood. Methods:P. gingivalis strain CCUG25226 was used to study the mechanisms underlying the regulation of HGF NLRP3 expression by the infection of high-glucose-treated P. gingivalis (HGPg). Results: HGF infection with HGPg increases the expression of IL-1? and NLRP3. We further demonstrated that the upregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c by activation of the Akt and p70S6K pathways is critical for HGPg-induced NLRP3 expression. We showed that the inhibition of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) blocks the Akt- and p70S6K-mediated SREBP-1c, NLRP3, and IL-1? expression. The effect of HGPg on HGF signaling and NLRP3 expression is mediated by ?1 integrin. In addition, gingival tissues from diabetic patients with periodontal disease exhibited higher NLRP3 and SREBP-1c expression. Conclusions: Our findings identify the molecular pathways underlying HGPg-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome expression in HGFs, providing insight into the effect of P. gingivalis invasion in HGFs.
Project description:Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in the innate immune responses to periodontal pathogens in periodontal disease. The present study was performed to determine the roles of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in alveolar bone resorption, using a Porphyromonas gingivalis-associated ligature-induced periodontitis model in mice. Wild-type (WT), Tlr2(-/-), and Tlr4(-/-) mice (8 to 10 weeks old) in the C57/BL6 background were used. Silk ligatures were applied to the maxillary second molars in the presence or absence of live P. gingivalis infection. Ligatures were removed from the second molars on day 14, and mice were kept for another 2 weeks before sacrifice for final analysis (day 28). On day 14, there were no differences in alveolar bone resorption and gingival RANKL expression between mice treated with ligation plus P. gingivalis infection and mice treated with ligation alone. Gingival interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) expression was increased, whereas IL-10 expression was decreased in WT and Tlr2(-/-) mice but not in Tlr4(-/-) mice. On day 28, WT and Tlr4(-/-) mice treated with ligation plus P. gingivalis infection showed significantly increased bone loss and gingival RANKL expression compared to those treated with ligation alone, whereas such an increase was diminished in Tlr2(-/-) mice. Gingival TNF-? upregulation and IL-10 downregulation were observed only in WT and Tlr4(-/-) mice, not in Tlr2(-/-) mice. In all mice, bone resorption induced by ligation plus P. gingivalis infection was antagonized by local anti-RANKL antibody administration. This study suggests that P. gingivalis exacerbates ligature-induced, RANKL-dependent periodontal bone resorption via differential regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling.
Project description:Periodontitis, a chronic infection by periodontopathic bacteria, induces uncontrolled inflammation, which leads to periodontal tissue destruction. 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-glucoside (THSG), a polyphenol extracted from Polygoni Multiflori, reportedly has anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of THSG on the Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced inflammatory responses in human gingival fibroblasts and animal modeling of ligature-induced periodontitis. Human gingival fibroblast cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from P. gingivalis in the presence of resveratrol or THSG to analyze the expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 genes. Increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and SirT1 expression were induced by THSG. Treatment of THSG decreased the expression of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines, enhanced AMPK activation, and increased the expression of SirT1. In addition, it suppressed the activation of NF-?B when cells were stimulated with P. gingivalis LPS. The anti-inflammatory effect of THSG and P. Multiflori crude extracts was reproduced in ligature-induced periodontitis animal modeling. In conclusion, THSG inhibited the inflammatory responses of P. gingivalis-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts and ameliorated ligature-induced periodontitis in animal model.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis-LPS) is one of the major pathogenic factors of chronic periodontitis (CP). Few reports on the correlation between P. gingivalis-LPS and cognitive function exist. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of P. gingivalis-LPS on cognitive function and the associated underlying mechanism in C57BL/6 mice. METHODS:The C57BL/6 mice were injected with P. gingivalis-LPS (5 mg kg-1) either with or without Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor (TAK-242, 5 mg kg-1). After 7 days, behavioral alterations were assessed with the open field test (OFT), Morris water maze (MWM) test, and passive avoidance test (PAT). The activation of astrocytes and microglia in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice was observed by immunohistochemistry. The expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8), TLRs (TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4), and CD14 and the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway (IRAK1, p65, and p-p65) in the cerebral cortex of the mice were evaluated by RT-PCR, ELISA, and western blot. RESULTS:The OFT showed that P. gingivalis-LPS did not affect the initiative and activity of mice. Administration of P. gingivalis-LPS significantly impaired spatial learning and memory during the MWM test and attenuated the ability of passive avoidance learning during the PAT. Both astrocytes and microglia were activated in the cortex and hippocampus. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) was upregulated by P. gingivalis-LPS in the cortex. In addition, the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway was activated (TLR4, CD14, IRAK1, and p-p65). These effects were effectively alleviated by TAK-242. CONCLUSIONS:Administration of P. gingivalis-LPS can lead to learning and memory impairment in C57BL/6 mice. This impairment is mediated by activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our study suggests that P. gingivalis-LPS-induced neuroinflammation plays an important role in cognitive impairment. It also reveals that endotoxins of periodontal pathogens could represent a risk factor for cognitive disorders.
Project description:B10 cells can regulate inflammatory responses in innate immunity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in B cell-mediated immune responses in periodontal disease. This study aimed to determine the effects of TLR-activated B10 cells on periodontal bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Spleen B cells isolated from C57BL/6J mice were cultured with Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytosine-phospho-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides for 48 h. B10-enriched CD1dhi CD5+ B cells were sorted by flow cytometry and were adoptively transferred to recipient mice through tail vein injection. At the same time, P. gingivalis-soaked ligatures were placed subgingivally around the maxillary second molars and remained there for 2 weeks before the mice were euthanized. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) production and the percentage of CD1dhi CD5+ B cells were significantly increased with treatment with P. gingivalis LPS plus CpG compared to those in mice treated with P. gingivalis LPS or CpG alone. Mice with CD1dhi CD5+ B cell transfer demonstrated reduced periodontal bone loss compared to the no-transfer group and the group with CD1dlo CD5- B cell transfer. Gingival IL-10 mRNA expression was significantly increased, whereas expressions of receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and IL-1? were significantly inhibited in the CD1dhi CD5+ B cell transfer group. The percentages of CD19+ IL-10+ cells, CD19+ CD1dhi CD5+ cells, and P. gingivalis-binding CD19+ cells were significantly higher in recovered mononuclear cells from gingival tissues of the CD1dhi CD5+ B cell transfer group than in tissues of the no-transfer group and the CD1dlo CD5- B cell transfer group. This study indicated that the adoptive transfer of B10 cells alleviated periodontal inflammation and bone loss in experimental periodontitis in mice.
Project description:Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Monocytes and macrophages stimulated by periodontopathic bacteria induce inflammatory mediators that cause tooth-supporting structure destruction and alveolar bone resorption. In this study, using a DNA microarray, we identified the enhanced gene expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in human monocytic cells stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TSP-1 is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein that is upregulated during the inflammatory process. Recent studies have suggested that TSP-1 is associated with rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and osteoclastogenesis. TSP-1 is secreted from neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, which mediate immune responses at inflammatory regions. However, TSP-1 expression in periodontitis and the mechanisms underlying TSP-1 expression in human monocytic cells remain unknown. Here using real-time RT-PCR, we demonstrated that TSP-1 mRNA expression level was significantly upregulated in inflamed periodontitis gingival tissues and in P. gingivalis LPS-stimulated human monocytic cell line THP-1 cells. TSP-1 was expressed via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 pathways. In P. gingivalis LPS stimulation, TSP-1 expression was dependent upon TLR2 through the activation of NF-?B signaling. Furthermore, IL-17F synergistically enhanced P. gingivalis LPS-induced TSP-1 production. These results suggest that modulation of TSP-1 expression by P. gingivalis plays an important role in the progression and chronicity of periodontitis. It may also contribute a new target molecule for periodontal therapy.
Project description:Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) maintains tissue homeostasis by inducing inflammation and angiogenesis. It is produced in infiltrating immune cells or resident cells, such as adipocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and tumor cells. We hypothesized that ANGPTL2 might play an important role as a unique mediator in both systemic and periodontal disease. We demonstrated an increased ANGPTL2 concentration in gingival crevicular fluid from chronic periodontitis patients. Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment strongly induced ANGPTL2 mRNA and protein levels in Ca9-22 human gingival epithelial cells. Recombinant human ANGPTL2 increased interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA and protein levels in Ca9-22 cells. Small-interfering (si)RNA-mediated ANGPTL2 knockdown in Ca9-22 cells reduced IL-1?, IL-8 and TNF-? mRNA and protein levels compared with control siRNA (p<0.01) in P. gingivalis LPS-stimulated Ca9-22 cells. Antibodies against integrin ?5?1, an ANGPTL receptor, blocked induction of these inflammatory cytokines in P. gingivalis LPS-treated Ca9-22 cells, suggesting that secreted ANGPTL induces inflammatory cytokines in gingival epithelial cells via an autocrine loop. The classic sequential cascade of P. gingivalis LPS ? inflammatory cytokine induction is well established. However, in the current study, we reveal a novel cascade comprising sequential P. gingivalis LPS ? ANGPTL2 ? integrin ?5?1 ? inflammatory cytokine induction, which might be responsible for inducing potent periodontal disorganization activity in gingival epithelial cells. Via this pathway, ANGPTL2 functions in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and contributes to prolonging chronic inflammation in patients with systemic disease.