ASPP1 and ASPP2 bind active RAS, potentiate RAS signalling and enhance p53 activity in cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: RAS mutations occur frequently in human cancer and activated RAS signalling contributes to tumour development and progression. Apart from its oncogenic effects on cell growth, active RAS has tumour-suppressive functions via its ability to induce cellular senescence and apoptosis. RAS is known to induce p53-dependent cell cycle arrest, yet its effect on p53-dependent apoptosis remains unclear. We report here that apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP) 1 and 2, two activators of p53, preferentially bind active RAS via their N-terminal RAS-association domains (RAD). Additionally, ASPP2 colocalises with and contributes to RAS cellular membrane localisation and potentiates RAS signalling. In cancer cells, ASPP1 and ASPP2 cooperate with oncogenic RAS to enhance the transcription and apoptotic function of p53. Thus, loss of ASPP1 and ASPP2 in human cancer cells may contribute to the full transforming property of RAS oncogene.
Project description:The apoptosis stimulating p53 proteins, ASPP1 and ASPP2, are the first two common activators of the p53 protein family that selectively enable the latter to regulate specific apoptotic target genes, which facilitates yes yet unknown mechanisms for discrimination between cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. To better understand the interplay between ASPP- and p53-family of proteins we investigated the molecular interactions between them using biochemical methods and structure-based homology modelling. The data demonstrate that: (i) the binding of ASPP1 and ASPP2 to p53, p63 and p73 is direct; (ii) the C-termini of ASPP1 and ASPP2 interact with the DNA-binding domains of p53 protein family with dissociation constants, K(d), in the lower micro-molar range; (iii) the stoichiometry of binding is 1:1; (iv) the DNA-binding domains of p53 family members are sufficient for these protein-protein interactions; (v) EMSA titrations revealed that while tri-complex formation between ASPPs, p53 family of proteins and PUMA/Bax is mutually exclusive, ASPP2 (but not ASPP1) formed a complex with PUMA (but not Bax) and displaced p53 and p73. The structure-based homology modelling revealed subtle differences between ASPP2 and ASPP1 and together with the experimental data provide novel mechanistic insights.
Project description:We recently showed that ASPP1 and ASPP2 stimulate the apoptotic function of p53. We show here that ASPP1 and ASPP2 also induce apoptosis independently of p53. By binding to p63 and p73 in vitro and in vivo, ASPP1 and ASPP2 stimulate the transactivation function of p63 and p73 on the promoters of Bax, PIG3, and PUMA but not mdm2 or p21(WAF-1/CIP1). The expression of ASPP1 and ASPP2 also enhances the apoptotic function of p63 and p73 by selectively inducing the expression of endogenous p53 target genes, such as PIG3 and PUMA, but not mdm2 or p21(WAF-1/CIP1). Removal of endogenous p63 or p73 with RNA interference demonstrated that (16) the p53-independent apoptotic function of ASPP1 and ASPP2 is mediated mainly by p63 and p73. Hence, ASPP1 and ASPP2 are the first two identified common activators of all p53 family members. All these results suggest that ASPP1 and ASPP2 could suppress tumor growth even in tumors expressing mutant p53.
Project description:We reported recently that apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP) 2, an activator of p53, co-operates with oncogenic RAS to enhance the transcription and apoptotic function of p53. However, the detailed mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that ASPP2 is a novel substrate of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Phosphorylation of ASPP2 by MAPK is required for RAS-induced increased binding to p53 and increased transactivation of pro-apoptotic genes. In contrast, an ASPP2 phosphorylation mutant exhibits reduced p53 binding and fails to enhance transactivation and apoptosis. Thus phosphorylation of ASPP2 by RAS/MAPK pathway provides a novel link between RAS and p53 in regulating apoptosis.
Project description:The apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP) family of proteins can regulate apoptosis by interacting with the p53 family and have been identified to play an important role in cancer progression. Previously, we have demonstrated that ASPP2 downregulation can promote invasion and migration by controlling ?-catenin-dependent regulation of ZEB1, however, the role of ASPP1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. We analyzed data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and coupled this to in vitro experiments in CRC cell lines as well as to experimental pulmonary metastasis in vivo. Tissue microarrays of CRC patients with information of clinical-pathological parameters were also used to investigate the expression and function of ASPP1 in CRC. Here, we report that loss of ASPP1 is capable of enhancing migration and invasion in CRC, both in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrate that depletion of ASPP1 could activate expression of Snail2 via the NF-?B pathway and in turn, induce EMT; and this process is further exacerbated in RAS-mutated CRC. ASPP1 could be a prognostic factor in CRC, and the use of NF-?B inhibitors may provide new strategies for therapy against metastasis in ASPP1-depleted CRC patients.
Project description:p53-dependent apoptosis is modulated by the ASPP family of proteins (apoptosis-stimulating proteins of p53; also called ankyrin repeat-, Src homology 3 domain-, and Pro-rich region-containing proteins). Its three known members, ASPP1, ASPP2, and iASPP, were previously found to interact with p53, influencing the apoptotic response of cells without affecting p53-induced cell cycle arrest. More specifically, the bona fide tumor suppressors, ASPP1 and ASPP2, bind to the core domain of p53 and stimulate transcription of apoptotic genes, whereas oncogenic iASPP also binds to the p53 core domain but inhibits p53-dependent apoptosis. Although the general interaction regions are known, details of the interfaces for each p53-ASPP complex have not been evaluated. We undertook a comprehensive biophysical characterization of ASPP-p53 complex formation and mapped the binding interfaces by NMR. We found that the interaction interface on p53 for the proapoptotic protein ASPP2 is distinct from that for the antiapoptotic iASPP. ASPP2 primarily binds to the core domain of p53, whereas iASPP predominantly interacts with a linker region adjacent to the core domain. Our detailed structural analyses of the ASPP-p53 interactions provide insight into the structural basis of the differential behavior of pro- and antiapoptotic ASPP family members.
Project description:Regulated interactions between kinetochores and spindle microtubules are critical for maintaining genomic stability during chromosome segregation. Defects in chromosome segregation are widespread phenomenon in human cancers that are thought to serve as the fuel for tumorigenic progression. Tumor suppressor proteins ASPP1 and ASPP2, two members of the apoptosis stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP) family, are frequently down-regulated in human cancers. Here we report that ASPP1/2 are required for proper mitotic progression. In ASPP1/2 co-depleted cells, the persistence of unaligned chromosomes and the reduction of tension across sister kinetochores on aligned chromosomes resulted in persistent spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation. Using protein affinity purification methods, we searched for functional partners of ASPP1/2, and found that ASPP1/2 were associated with a subset of kinetochore proteins (Hec1, KNL-1, and CENP-F). It was found that ASPP1/2 act as PP1-targeting subunits to facilitate the interaction between PP1 and Hec1, and catalyze Hec1 (Ser165) dephosphorylation during late mitosis. These observations revealed a previously unrecognized function of ASPP1/2 in chromosome segregation and kinetochore-microtubule attachments that likely contributes to their roles in chromosome stability and tumor suppression.
Project description:Changes in cell adhesion and polarity are closely associated with epithelial cell transformation and metastatic capacity. The tumor suppressor protein ASPP (Apoptosis-Stimulating Proteins of p53) 2 has been implicated in control of cell adhesion and polarity through its effect on the PAR complex. Here we demonstrate that under hypoxic conditions, the ubiquitin ligase Siah (seven in absentia homolog)2 controls ASPP2 availability, with concomitant effect on epithelial cell polarity. LC-MS/MS analysis identified ASPP2 and ASPP1 as Siah2-interacting proteins. Biochemical analysis confirmed this interaction and mapped degron motifs within ASPP2, which are required for Siah2-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal-dependent degradation. Inhibition of Siah2 expression increases ASPP2 levels and enhances ASPP2-dependent maintenance of tight junction (TJ) integrity, and polarized architecture in three dimensional (3D) organotypic culture. Conversely, increase of Siah2 expression under hypoxia decreases ASPP2 levels and the formation of apical polarity in 3D culture. In all, our studies demonstrate the role of Siah2 in regulation of TJ integrity and cell polarity under hypoxia, through its regulation of ASPP2 stability.
Project description:The ASPP2 (also known as 53BP2L) tumor suppressor is a proapoptotic member of a family of p53 binding proteins that functions in part by enhancing p53-dependent apoptosis via its C-terminal p53-binding domain. Mounting evidence also suggests that ASPP2 harbors important nonapoptotic p53-independent functions. Structural studies identify a small G protein Ras-association domain in the ASPP2 N terminus. Because Ras-induced senescence is a barrier to tumor formation in normal cells, we investigated whether ASPP2 could bind Ras and stimulate the protein kinase Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade. We now show that ASPP2 binds to Ras-GTP at the plasma membrane and stimulates Ras-induced signaling and pERK1/2 levels via promoting Ras-GTP loading, B-Raf/C-Raf dimerization, and C-Raf phosphorylation. These functions require the ASPP2 N terminus because BBP (also known as 53BP2S), an alternatively spliced ASPP2 isoform lacking the N terminus, was defective in binding Ras-GTP and stimulating Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. Decreased ASPP2 levels attenuated H-RasV12-induced senescence in normal human fibroblasts and neonatal human epidermal keratinocytes. Together, our results reveal a mechanism for ASPP2 tumor suppressor function via direct interaction with Ras-GTP to stimulate Ras-induced senescence in nontransformed human cells.
Project description:Oncogene-induced senescence represents a key tumor suppressive mechanism. Here, we show that Ras oncogene-induced senescence can be mediated by the recently identified haploinsufficient tumor suppressor apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP) 2 through a novel and p53/p19(Arf)/p21(waf1/cip1)-independent pathway. ASPP2 suppresses Ras-induced small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-modified nuclear cyclin D1 and inhibits retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation. The lysine residue, K33, of cyclin D1 is a key site for this newly identified regulation. In agreement with the fact that its nuclear localization is required for its oncogenic activity, we show that nuclear cyclin D1 is far more potent than wild-type (WT) cyclin D1 in bypassing Ras-induced senescence. Thus, this study identifies SUMO modification as a positive regulator of nuclear cyclin D1, and reveals a new way by which cell cycle entry and senescence are regulated.
Project description:Ras-induced senescence mediated through ASPP2 represents a barrier to tumour formation. It is initiated by ASPP2's interaction with Ras at the plasma membrane, which stimulates the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade. Ras to Raf signalling requires Ras to be organized in nanoscale signalling complexes, called nanocluster. We therefore wanted to investigate whether ASPP2 affects Ras nanoclustering. Here we show that ASPP2 increases the nanoscale clustering of all oncogenic Ras isoforms, H-ras, K-ras and N-ras. Structure-function analysis with ASPP2 truncation mutants suggests that the nanocluster scaffolding activity of ASPP2 converges on its ?-helical domain. While ASPP2 increased effector recruitment and stimulated ERK and AKT phosphorylation, it did not increase colony formation of RasG12V transformed NIH/3T3 cells. By contrast, ASPP2 was able to suppress the transformation enhancing ability of the nanocluster scaffold Gal-1, by competing with the specific effect of Gal-1 on H-rasG12V- and K-rasG12V-nanoclustering, thus imposing ASPP2's ERK and AKT signalling signature. Similarly, ASPP2 robustly induced senescence and strongly abrogated mammosphere formation irrespective of whether it was expressed alone or together with Gal-1, which by itself showed the opposite effect in Ras wt or H-ras mutant breast cancer cells. Our results suggest that Gal-1 and ASPP2 functionally compete in nanocluster for active Ras on the plasma membrane. ASPP2 dominates the biological outcome, thus switching from a Gal-1 supported growth-promoting setting to a senescence inducing and stemness suppressive program in cancer cells. Our results support Ras nanocluster as major integrators of tumour fate decision events.