Effects of CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of ryanodine receptor type 2 on islet calcium handling, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance.
ABSTRACT: Altered insulin secretion contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. This alteration is correlated with altered intracellular Ca(2+)-handling in pancreatic ? cells. Insulin secretion is triggered by elevation in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) of ? cells. This elevation in [Ca(2+)]cyt leads to activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII), which, in turn, controls multiple aspects of insulin secretion. CaMKII is known to phosphorylate ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2), an intracellular Ca(2+)-release channel implicated in Ca(2+)-dependent steps of insulin secretion. Our data show that RyR2 is CaMKII phosphorylated in a pancreatic ?-cell line in a glucose-sensitive manner. However, it is not clear whether any change in CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation underlies abnormal RyR2 function in ? cells and whether such a change contributes to alterations in insulin secretion. Therefore, knock-in mice with a mutation in RyR2 that mimics its constitutive CaMKII phosphorylation, RyR2-S2814D, were studied. This mutation led to a gain-of-function defect in RyR2 indicated by increased basal RyR2-mediated Ca(2+) leak in islets of these mice. This chronic in vivo defect in RyR2 resulted in basal hyperinsulinemia. In addition, S2814D mice also developed glucose intolerance, impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and lowered [Ca(2+)]cyt transients, which are hallmarks of pre-diabetes. The glucose-sensitive Ca(2+) pool in islets from S2814D mice was also reduced. These observations were supported by immunohistochemical analyses of islets in diabetic human and mouse pancreata that revealed significantly enhanced CaMKII phosphorylation of RyR2 in type 2 diabetes. Together, these studies implicate that the chronic gain-of-function defect in RyR2 due to CaMKII hyperphosphorylation is a novel mechanism that contributes to pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Diastolic calcium (Ca) leak via cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) can cause arrhythmias and heart failure (HF). Ca/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is upregulated and more active in HF, promoting RyR2-mediated Ca leak by RyR2-Ser2814 phosphorylation. Here, we tested a mechanistic hypothesis that RyR2 phosphorylation by CaMKII increases Ca leak by promoting a pathological RyR2 conformation with reduced CaM affinity. Acute CaMKII activation in wild-type RyR2, and phosphomimetic RyR2-S2814D (vs. non-phosphorylatable RyR2-S2814A) knock-in mouse myocytes increased SR Ca leak, reduced CaM-RyR2 affinity, and caused a pathological shift in RyR2 conformation (detected via increased access of the RyR2 structural peptide DPc10). This same trio of effects was seen in myocytes from rabbits with pressure/volume-overload induced HF. Excess CaM quieted leak and restored control conformation, consistent with negative allosteric coupling between CaM affinity and DPc10 accessible conformation. Dantrolene (DAN) also restored CaM affinity, reduced DPc10 access, and suppressed RyR2-mediated Ca leak and ventricular tachycardia in RyR2-S2814D mice. We propose that a common pathological RyR2 conformational state (low CaM affinity, high DPc10 access, and elevated leak) may be caused by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation, oxidation, and HF. Moreover, DAN (or excess CaM) can shift this pathological gating state back to the normal physiological conformation, a potentially important therapeutic approach.
Project description:Ca(2+)-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) activation is deleterious in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Moreover, inhibition of CaMKII-dependent phosphorylations at the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) prevents CaMKII-induced I/R damage. However, the downstream targets of CaMKII at the SR level, responsible for this detrimental effect, remain unclear. In the present study we aimed to dissect the role of the two main substrates of CaMKII at the SR level, phospholamban (PLN) and ryanodine receptors (RyR2), in CaMKII-dependent I/R injury. In mouse hearts subjected to global I/R (45/120min), phosphorylation of the primary CaMKII sites, S2814 on cardiac RyR2 and of T17 on PLN, significantly increased at the onset of reperfusion whereas PKA-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2 and PLN did not change. Similar results were obtained in vivo, in mice subjected to regional myocardial I/R (1/24h). Knock-in mice with an inactivated serine 2814 phosphorylation site on RyR2 (S2814A) significantly improved post-ischemic mechanical recovery, reduced infarct size and decreased apoptosis. Conversely, knock-in mice, in which CaMKII site of RyR2 is constitutively activated (S2814D), significantly increased infarct size and exacerbated apoptosis. In S2814A and S2814D mice subjected to regional myocardial ischemia, infarct size was also decreased and increased respectively. Transgenic mice with double-mutant non-phosphorylatable PLN (S16A/T17A) in the PLN knockout background (PLNDM) also showed significantly increased post-ischemic cardiac damage. This effect cannot be attributed to PKA-dependent PLN phosphorylation and was not due to the enhanced L-type Ca(2+) current, present in these mice. Our results reveal a major role for the phosphorylation of S2814 site on RyR2 in CaMKII-dependent I/R cardiac damage. In contrast, they showed that CaMKII-dependent increase in PLN phosphorylation during reperfusion opposes rather than contributes to I/R damage.
Project description:The type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a Ca2+ release channel on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of several types of cells, including cardiomyocytes and pancreatic ? cells. In cardiomyocytes, RyR2-dependent Ca2+ release is critical for excitation-contraction coupling; however, a functional role for RyR2 in ? cell insulin secretion and diabetes mellitus remains controversial. Here, we took advantage of rare RyR2 mutations that were identified in patients with a genetic form of exercise-induced sudden death (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia [CPVT]). As these mutations result in a "leaky" RyR2 channel, we exploited them to assess RyR2 channel function in ? cell dynamics. We discovered that CPVT patients with mutant leaky RyR2 present with glucose intolerance, which was heretofore unappreciated. In mice, transgenic expression of CPVT-associated RyR2 resulted in impaired glucose homeostasis, and an in-depth evaluation of pancreatic islets and ? cells from these animals revealed intracellular Ca2+ leak via oxidized and nitrosylated RyR2 channels, activated ER stress response, mitochondrial dysfunction, and decreased fuel-stimulated insulin release. Additionally, we verified the effects of the pharmacological inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ leak in CPVT-associated RyR2-expressing mice, in human islets from diabetic patients, and in an established murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Taken together, our data indicate that RyR2 channels play a crucial role in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.
Project description:AIMS:Abnormal Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), associated with Ca2+-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser2814, has consistently been linked to arrhythmogenesis and ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cell death. In contrast, the role played by SR Ca2+ uptake under these stress conditions remains controversial. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in SR Ca2+ uptake is able to attenuate reperfusion arrhythmias and cardiac injury elicited by increased RyR2-Ser2814 phosphorylation. METHODS AND RESULTS:We used WT mice, which have been previously shown to exhibit a transient increase in RyR2-Ser2814 phosphorylation at the onset of reperfusion; mice with constitutive pseudo-phosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser2814 (S2814D) to exacerbate CaMKII-dependent reperfusion arrhythmias and cardiac damage, and phospholamban (PLN)-deficient-S2814D knock-in (SDKO) mice resulting from crossbreeding S2814D with phospholamban knockout deficient (PLNKO) mice. At baseline, S2814D and SDKO mice had structurally normal hearts. Moreover none of the strains were arrhythmic before ischaemia. Upon cardiac I/R, WT, and S2814D hearts exhibited abundant arrhythmias that were prevented by PLN ablation. In contrast, PLN ablation increased infarct size compared with WT and S2814D hearts. Mechanistically, the enhanced SR Ca2+ sequestration evoked by PLN ablation in SDKO hearts prevented arrhythmogenic events upon reperfusion by fragmenting SR Ca2+ waves into non-propagated and non-arrhythmogenic events (mini-waves). Conversely, the increase in SR Ca2+ sequestration did not reduce but rather exacerbated I/R-induced SR Ca2+ leak, as well as mitochondrial alterations, which were greatly avoided by inhibition of RyR2. These results indicate that the increase in SR Ca2+ uptake is ineffective in preventing the enhanced SR Ca2+ leak of PLN ablated myocytes from either entering into nearby mitochondria and/or activating additional CaMKII pathways, contributing to cardiac damage. CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrate that increasing SR Ca2+ uptake by PLN ablation can prevent the arrhythmic events triggered by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2-induced SR Ca2+ leak. These findings underscore the benefits of increasing SERCA2a activity in the face of SR Ca2+ triggered arrhythmias. However, enhanced SERCA2a cannot prevent but rather exacerbates I/R cardiac injury.
Project description:Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic ?-cells requires an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]). Glucose uptake into ?-cells promotes Ca2+ influx and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In other cell types, Ca2+ and ROS jointly induce Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels. Therefore, we explored here if RyR-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to GSIS in ?-cell islets isolated from male rats. Stimulatory glucose increased islet insulin secretion, and promoted ROS generation in islets and dissociated ?-cells. Conventional PCR assays and immunostaining confirmed that ?-cells express RyR2, the cardiac RyR isoform. Extended incubation of ?-cell islets with inhibitory ryanodine suppressed GSIS; so did the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), which also decreased insulin secretion induced by glucose plus caffeine. Inhibitory ryanodine or NAC did not affect insulin secretion induced by glucose plus carbachol, which engages inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Incubation of islets with H2O2 in basal glucose increased insulin secretion 2-fold. Inhibitory ryanodine significantly decreased H2O2-stimulated insulin secretion and prevented the 4.5-fold increase of cytoplasmic [Ca2+] produced by incubation of dissociated ?-cells with H2O2. Addition of stimulatory glucose or H2O2 (in basal glucose) to ?-cells disaggregated from islets increased RyR2 S-glutathionylation to similar levels, measured by a proximity ligation assay; in contrast, NAC significantly reduced the RyR2 S-glutathionylation increase produced by stimulatory glucose. We propose that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release, induced by the concomitant increases in [Ca2+] and ROS produced by stimulatory glucose, is an essential step in GSIS.
Project description:It is well accepted that junctophilin (JPHs) isoforms act as a physical bridge linking plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for channel crosstalk in excitable cells. Our purpose is to investigate whether JPHs are involved in the proper communication between Ca(2+) influx and subsequent Ca(2+) amplification in pancreatic beta cells, thereby participating in regulating insulin secretion. The expression of JPH isoforms was examined in human and mouse pancreatic tissues, and JPH3 expression was found in both the beta cells. In mice, knockdown of Jph3 (si-Jph3) in islets decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) accompanied by mitochondrial function impairment. Si-Jph3 lowered the insulin secretory response to Ca(2+) signaling in the presence of glucose, and reduced [Ca(2+)]c transient amplitude triggered by caffeine. Si-Jph3 also attenuated mitofusin 2 expression, thereby disturbing the spatial organization of ER-mitochondria contact in islets. These results suggest that the regulation of GSIS by the KATP channel-independent pathways is partly impaired due to decrease of JPH3 expression in mouse islets. JPH3 also binds to type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2) in mouse and human pancreatic tissues, which might contribute to Ca(2+) release amplification in GSIS. This study demonstrates some previously unrecognized findings in pancreatic tissues: (1) JPH3 expresses in mouse and human beta cells; (2) si-Jph3 in mouse primary islets impairs GSIS in vitro; (3) impairment in GSIS in si-Jph3 islets is due to changes in RyR2-[Ca(2+)]c transient amplitude and ER-mitochondria contact.
Project description:Voltage-gated Ca<sup>2+</sup> channels (Ca<sub>v</sub>) are essential for pancreatic beta cell function as they mediate Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx, which leads to insulin exocytosis. The ?3 subunit of Ca<sub>v</sub> (Ca<sub>v</sub>?<sub>3</sub>) has been suggested to regulate cytosolic Ca<sup>2+</sup> ([Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>i</sub>) oscillation frequency and insulin secretion under physiological conditions, but its role in diabetes is unclear. Here, we report that islets from diabetic mice show Ca<sub>v</sub>?<sub>3</sub> overexpression, altered [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>i</sub> dynamics, and impaired insulin secretion upon glucose stimulation. Consequently, in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes, Ca<sub>v</sub>?<sub>3</sub>-deficient (Ca<sub>v</sub>?<sub>3</sub><sup>-/-</sup>) mice showed improved islet function and enhanced glucose tolerance. Normalization of Ca<sub>v</sub>?<sub>3</sub> expression in ob/ob islets by an antisense oligonucleotide rescued the altered [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>i</sub> dynamics and impaired insulin secretion. Importantly, transplantation of Ca<sub>v</sub>?<sub>3</sub><sup>-/-</sup> islets into the anterior chamber of the eye improved glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Ca<sub>v</sub>?<sub>3</sub> overexpression in human islets also impaired insulin secretion. We thus suggest that Ca<sub>v</sub>?<sub>3</sub> may serve as a druggable target for diabetes treatment.
Project description:Glucose homeostasis is critically dependent on insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells, which is strictly regulated by glucose-induced oscillations in membrane potential (V(m)) and the cytosolic calcium level ([Ca(2+)](cyt)). We propose that TRPM5, a Ca(2+)-activated monovalent cation channel, is a positive regulator of glucose-induced insulin release. Immunofluorescence revealed expression of TRPM5 in pancreatic islets. A Ca(2+)-activated nonselective cation current with TRPM5-like properties is significantly reduced in Trpm5(-/-) cells. Ca(2+)-imaging and electrophysiological analysis show that glucose-induced oscillations of V(m) and [Ca(2+)](cyt) have on average a reduced frequency in Trpm5(-/-) islets, specifically due to a lack of fast oscillations. As a consequence, glucose-induced insulin release from Trpm5(-/-) pancreatic islets is significantly reduced, resulting in an impaired glucose tolerance in Trpm5(-/-) mice.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Mutations that render ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels insensitive to ATP inhibition cause neonatal diabetes mellitus. In mice, these mutations cause insulin secretion to be lost initially and, as the disease progresses, beta cell mass and insulin content also disappear. We investigated whether defects in calcium signalling alone are sufficient to explain short-term and long-term islet dysfunction. METHODS:We examined the metabolic, electrical and insulin secretion response in islets from mice that become diabetic after induction of ATP-insensitive Kir6.2 expression. To separate direct effects of K(ATP) overactivity on beta cell function from indirect effects of prolonged hyperglycaemia, normal glycaemia was maintained by protective exogenous islet transplantation. RESULTS:In endogenous islets from protected animals, glucose-dependent elevations of intracellular free-calcium activity ([Ca(2+)](i)) were severely blunted. Insulin content of these islets was normal, and sulfonylureas and KCl stimulated increased [Ca(2+)](i). In the absence of transplant protection, [Ca(2+)](i) responses were similar, but glucose metabolism and redox state were dramatically altered; sulfonylurea- and KCl-stimulated insulin secretion was also lost, because of systemic effects induced by long-term hyperglycaemia and/or hypoinsulinaemia. In both cases, [Ca(2+)](i) dynamics were synchronous across the islet. After reduction of gap-junction coupling, glucose-dependent [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin secretion was partially restored, indicating that excitability of weakly expressing cells is suppressed by cells expressing mutants, via gap-junctions. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:The primary defect in K(ATP)-induced neonatal diabetes mellitus is failure of glucose metabolism to elevate [Ca(2+)](i), which suppresses insulin secretion and mildly alters islet glucose metabolism. Loss of insulin content and mitochondrial dysfunction are secondary to the long-term hyperglycaemia and/or hypoinsulinaemia that result from the absence of glucose-dependent insulin secretion.
Project description:approximately half of patients with heart failure die suddenly as a result of ventricular arrhythmias. Although abnormal Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors (RyR2) has been linked to arrhythmogenesis, the molecular mechanisms triggering release of arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that increased RyR2 phosphorylation by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is both necessary and sufficient to promote lethal ventricular arrhythmias.mice in which the S2814 Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II site on RyR2 is constitutively activated (S2814D) develop pathological sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release events, resulting in reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load on confocal microscopy. These Ca(2+) release events are associated with increased RyR2 open probability in lipid bilayer preparations. At baseline, young S2814D mice have structurally and functionally normal hearts without arrhythmias; however, they develop sustained ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death on catecholaminergic provocation by caffeine/epinephrine or programmed electric stimulation. Young S2814D mice have a significant predisposition to sudden arrhythmogenic death after transverse aortic constriction surgery. Finally, genetic ablation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II site on RyR2 (S2814A) protects mutant mice from pacing-induced arrhythmias versus wild-type mice after transverse aortic constriction surgery.our results suggest that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation of RyR2 Ca(2+) release channels at S2814 plays an important role in arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death in mice with heart failure.