Leptin is key to peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative stress and Kupffer cell activation in experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS:Progression from steatosis to steatohepatitic lesions is hypothesized to require a second hit. These lesions have been associated with increased oxidative stress, often ascribed to high levels of leptin and other proinflammatory mediators. Here we have examined the role of leptin in inducing oxidative stress and Kupffer cell activation in CCl4-mediated steatohepatitic lesions of obese mice. METHODS:Male C57BL/6 mice fed with a high-fat diet (60%kcal) at 16 weeks were administered CCl? to induce steatohepatitic lesions. Approaches included use of immuno-spin trapping for measuring free radical stress, gene-deficient mice for leptin, p47 phox, iNOS and adoptive transfer of leptin primed macrophages in vivo. RESULTS:Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, treated with CCl4 increased serum leptin levels. Oxidative stress was significantly elevated in the DIO mouse liver, but not in ob/ob mice, or in DIO mice treated with leptin antibody. In ob/ob mice, leptin supplementation restored markers of free radical generation. Markers of free radical formation were significantly decreased by the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FeTPPS, the iNOS inhibitor 1400W, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, or in iNOS or p47 phox-deficient mice. These results correlated with the decreased expression of TNF-alpha and MCP-1. Kupffer cell depletion eliminated oxidative stress and inflammation, whereas in macrophage-depleted mice, the adoptive transfer of leptin-primed macrophages significantly restored inflammation. CONCLUSIONS:These results, for the first time, suggest that leptin action in macrophages of the steatotic liver, through induction of iNOS and NADPH oxidase, causes peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative stress thus activating Kupffer cells.
Project description:Today's developed world faces a major public health challenge in the rise in the obese population and the increased incidence in fatty liver disease. There is a strong association among diet induced obesity, fatty liver disease and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but the environmental link to disease progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that in obesity, early steatohepatitic lesions induced by the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane are mediated by increased oxidative stress and leptin which act in synchrony to potentiate disease progression. Low acute exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), in diet-induced obesity produced oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation, protein free radical and nitrotyrosine formation and elevated leptin levels. Exposed obese mice showed histopathological signs of early steatohepatitic injury and necrosis. Spontaneous knockout mice for leptin or systemic leptin receptor knockout mice had significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-? levels. Co-incubation of leptin and BDCM caused Kupffer cell activation as shown by increased MCP-1 release and NADPH oxidase membrane assembly, a phenomenon that was decreased in Kupffer cells isolated from leptin receptor knockout mice. In obese mice that were BDCM-exposed, livers showed a significant increase in Kupffer cell activation marker CD68 and, increased necrosis as assessed by levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, events that were decreased in the absence of leptin or its receptor. In conclusion, our results show that exposure to the disinfection byproduct BDCM in diet-induced obesity augments steatohepatitic injury by potentiating the effects of leptin on oxidative stress, Kupffer cell activation and cell death in the liver.
Project description:Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that regulates appetite and energy expenditure via the hypothalamus. Since the majority of obese subjects are leptin resistant, leptin sensitizers, rather than leptin itself, are expected to be anti-obesity drugs. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the hypothalamus plays a key role in the pathogenesis of leptin resistance. ATP-deficient cells are vulnerable to ER stress and ATP treatment protects cells against ER stress. Thus, we investigated the therapeutic effects of oral 1,3-butanediol (BD) administration, which increases plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and hypothalamic ATP concentrations, in diet induced obese (DIO) mice with leptin resistance. BD treatment effectively decreased food intake and body weight in DIO mice. In contrast, BD treatment had no effect in leptin deficient ob/ob mice. Co-administration experiment demonstrated that BD treatment sensitizes leptin action in both DIO and ob/ob mice. We also demonstrated that BD treatment attenuates ER stress and leptin resistance at the hypothalamus level. This is the first report to confirm the leptin sensitizing effect of BD treatment in leptin resistant DIO mice. The present study provides collateral evidence suggesting that the effect of BD treatment is mediated by the elevation of hypothalamic ATP concentration. Ketone bodies and hypothalamic ATP are the potential target for the treatment of obesity and its complications.
Project description:Obesity induces inflammation both in the adipose tissue and the brain. Activated macrophage infiltration, polarization of macrophages to a more inflammatory type (M1), and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are related to brain inflammation, which induces leptin resistance in the brain. Pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6-bieckol (PPB), a compound from Ecklonia cava, has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PPB effect M1 polarization and inflammation and its ability to restore the effects of leptin, such as a decrease in appetite and body weight. We administered PPB to diet-induced obesity (DIO) and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice, evaluated macrophage activation, polarization, and changes of inflammatory cytokine level in adipose tissue and brain, and determined the effect of PPB on leptin resistance or leptin sensitivity in the brain. The levels of activated macrophage marker, M1/M2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were increased in the adipose tissue and brain of DIO and ob/ob mice than control. TLR4 expression, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and NF-?B expression in the brain of DIO and ob/ob mice were also increased; this increase was related to the upregulation of SOCS3 and decreased phosphorylated STAT3, which decreased leptin sensitivity in the brain. PPB decreased inflammation in the brain, restored leptin sensitivity, and decreased food intake and weight gain in both DIO and ob/ob mice.
Project description:While some studies show that carbon tetrachloride-mediated metabolic oxidative stress exacerbates steatohepatitic-like lesions in obese mice, the redox mechanisms that trigger the innate immune system and accentuate the inflammatory cascade remain unclear. Here we have explored the role of the purinergic receptor P2X7-NADPH oxidase axis as a primary event in recognizing the heightened release of extracellular ATP from CCl(4)-treated hepatocytes and generating redox-mediated Kupffer cell activation in obese mice. We found that an underlying condition of obesity led to the formation of protein radicals and posttranslational nitration, primarily in Kupffer cells, at 24h post-CCl(4) administration. The free radical-mediated oxidation of cellular macromolecules, which was NADPH oxidase and P2X7 receptor-dependent, correlated well with the release of TNF-? and MCP-2 from Kupffer cells. The Kupffer cells in CCl(4)-treated mice exhibited increased expression of MHC Class II proteins and showed an activated phenotype. Increased expression of MHC Class II was inhibited by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin , P2X7 receptor antagonist A438709 hydrochloride, and genetic deletions of the NADPH oxidase p47 phox subunit or the P2X7 receptor. The P2X7 receptor acted upstream of NADPH oxidase activation by up-regulating the expression of the p47 phox subunit and p47 phox binding to the membrane subunit, gp91 phox. We conclude that the P2X7 receptor is a primary mediator of oxidative stress-induced exacerbation of inflammatory liver injury in obese mice via NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanisms.
Project description:Obese leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit a low-grade chronic inflammation together with a low muscle mass. Our aim was to analyze the changes in muscle expression levels of genes related to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in leptin deficiency and to identify the effect of in vivo leptin administration. Ob/ob mice were divided in three groups as follows: control ob/ob, leptin-treated ob/ob (1 mg/kg/d) and leptin pair-fed ob/ob mice. Gastrocnemius weight was lower in control ob/ob than in wild type mice (P < .01) exhibiting an increase after leptin treatment compared to control and pair-fed (P < .01) ob/ob animals. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, markers of oxidative stress, were higher in serum (P < .01) and gastrocnemius (P = .05) of control ob/ob than in wild type mice and were significantly decreased (P < .01) by leptin treatment. Leptin deficiency altered the expression of 1,546 genes, while leptin treatment modified the regulation of 1,127 genes with 86 of them being involved in oxidative stress, immune defense and inflammatory response. Leptin administration decreased the high expression of Crybb1, Hspb3, Hspb7, Mt4, Cat, Rbm9, Serpinc1 and Serpinb1a observed in control ob/ob mice, indicating that it improves inflammation and muscle loss.
Project description:Obesity leads to ovarian dysfunction and the establishment of local leptin resistance. The aim of our study was to characterize the levels of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in ovaries and liver of mice during obesity progression. Furthermore, we tested the putative role of leptin on NLRP3 regulation in those organs. C57BL/6J female mice were treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for estrous cycle synchronization and ovary collection. In diet-induced obesity (DIO) protocol, mice were fed chow diet (CD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 or 16 weeks, whereas in the hyperleptinemic model (LEPT), mice were injected with leptin for 16 days (16 L) or saline (16 C). Finally, the genetic obese leptin-deficient <i>ob/ob</i> (+/? and -/-) mice were fed CD for 4 week. Either ovaries and liver were collected, as well as cumulus cells (CCs) after superovulation from DIO and LEPT. The estrus cycle synchronization protocol showed increased protein levels of NLRP3 and interleukin (IL)-18 in diestrus, with this stage used for further sample collections. In DIO, protein expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components was increased in 4 week HFD, but decreased in 16 week HFD. Moreover, NLRP3 and IL-1β were upregulated in 16 L and downregulated in <i>ob/ob.</i> Transcriptome analysis of CC showed common genes between LEPT and 4 week HFD modulating NLRP3 inflammasome. Liver analysis showed NLRP3 protein upregulation after 16 week HFD in DIO, but also its downregulation in <i>ob/ob-/-</i>. We showed the link between leptin signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the ovary throughout obesity progression in mice, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underpinning ovarian failure in maternal obesity.
Project description:This study aimed to characterize and compare the effects of obesity on gene expression profiles in two distinct adipose depots, epididymal and bone marrow, at two different ages in mice. Alterations in gene expression were analyzed in adipocytes isolated from diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J male mice at 6 and 14 months of age and from leptin deficient mice (ob/ob) at 6 months of age using microarrays. DIO affected gene expression in both depots at 6 and 14 months, but more genes were altered in epididymal than bone marrow adipocytes at each age and younger mice displayed more changes than older animals. In epididymal adipocytes a total of 2789 (9.6%) genes were differentially expressed at 6-months with DIO, whereas 952 (3.3%) were affected at 14-months. In bone marrow adipocytes, 347 (1.2%) genes were differentially expressed at 6-months with DIO, whereas only 189 (0.66%) were changed at 14-months. 133 genes were altered by DIO in both fat depots at 6-months, and 37 genes at 14-months. Only four genes were altered in both depots at both ages with DIO. Bone marrow adipocytes are less responsive to DIO than epididymal adipocytes and the response of both depots to DIO declines with age. This loss of responsiveness with age is likely due to age-associated changes in expression of genes related to adipogenesis, inflammation and mitochondrial function that are similar to and obscure the changes commonly associated with DIO. Patterns of gene expression were generally similar in epididymal adipocytes from ob/ob and DIO mice; however, several genes were differentially expressed in bone marrow adipocytes from ob/ob and DIO mice, perhaps reflecting the importance of leptin signaling for bone metabolism. In conclusion, obesity affects age-associated alterations in gene expression in both epididymal and bone marrow adipocytes regardless of diet or genetic background.
Project description:The circulating concentrations of adiponectin, an antidiabetic adipokine, have been shown to be reduced in obesity, in relation to an increase in inflammation. The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of leptin replacement on adiponectin levels and expression as well as on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Twelve-week-old male mice (n?=?7-10 per group) were treated with either saline (wild type and ob/ob mice) or leptin (ob/ob mice) for 18 days. A third group of ob/ob mice was treated with saline and pair-fed to the amount of food consumed by the leptin-treated group. Leptin replacement restored values of adiponectin (P?<?0.001), reduced circulating 8-isoprostane and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels (P?<?0.05 for both), and significantly downregulated the increased gene expression of osteopontin (Spp1, P?<?0.05), Saa3 (P?<?0.05), Cd68 (P?<?0.01), Il6 (P?<?0.01) and NADPH oxidase (Nox1 and Nox2, P?<?0.01) in the perirenal WAT and Spp1 (P?<?0.05) in the liver of ob/ob mice. In cultured adipocytes from ob/ob mice, leptin increased (P?<?0.05) the mRNA expression and secretion of adiponectin. We concluded that circulating concentrations of adiponectin are positively regulated by leptin and ameliorate obesity-associated oxidative stress and inflammation in mice.
Project description:Leptin-deficient and leptin-resistant mice manifest obesity, insulin resistance, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH); however, LVH's mechanisms are not fully understood. Cardiac iron dysregulation has been recently implicated in cardiomyopathy. Here we investigated the protective effects of caloric restriction on cardiac remodeling in impaired leptin signaling obese mice. RNA-seq analysis was performed to assess the differential gene expressions in the heart of wild-type and ob/ob mice. In particular, to investigate the roles of caloric restriction on iron homeostasis-related gene expressions, 10-week-old ob/ob and db/db mice were assigned to ad libitum or calorie-restricted diets for 12 weeks. Male ob/ob mice exhibited LVH, cardiac inflammation, and oxidative stress. Using RNA-seq analysis, we identified that an iron uptake-associated gene, transferrin receptor, was upregulated in obese ob/ob mice with LVH. Caloric restriction attenuated myocyte hypertrophy, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress in ob/ob and db/db mice. Furthermore, we found that caloric restriction reversed iron homeostasis-related lipocalin 2, divalent metal transporter 1, transferrin receptor, ferritin, ferroportin, and hepcidin expressions in the heart of ob/ob and db/db mice. These findings demonstrate that the cardioprotective effects of caloric restriction result from the cellular regulation of iron homeostasis, thereby decreasing oxidative stress, inflammation, and cardiac remodeling. We suggest that decreasing iron-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation offers new therapeutic approaches for obesity-induced cardiomyopathy.
Project description:Obesity places an enormous medical and economic burden on society. The principal driver appears to be central leptin resistance with hyperleptinemia. Accordingly, a compound that reverses or prevents leptin resistance should promote weight normalisation and improve glucose homeostasis. The protease Bace1 drives beta amyloid (A?) production with obesity elevating hypothalamic Bace1 activity and A?1-42 production. Pharmacological inhibition of Bace1 reduces body weight, improves glucose homeostasis and lowers plasma leptin in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. These actions are not apparent in ob/ob or db/db mice, indicating the requirement for functional leptin signalling. Decreasing Bace1 activity normalises hypothalamic inflammation, lowers PTP1B and SOCS3 and restores hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and pSTAT3 response in obese mice, but does not affect leptin sensitivity in lean mice. Raising central A?1-42 levels in the early stage of DIO increases hypothalamic basal pSTAT3 and reduces the amplitude of the leptin pSTAT3 signal without increased inflammation. Thus, elevated A?1-42 promotes hypothalamic leptin resistance, which is associated with diminished whole-body sensitivity to exogenous leptin and exacerbated body weight gain in high fat fed mice. These results indicate that Bace1 inhibitors, currently in clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease, may be useful agents for the treatment of obesity and associated diabetes.