Baicalin modulates microRNA expression in UVB irradiated mouse skin.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of baicalin on ultraviolet radiation B (UVB)-mediated microRNA (miRNA) expression in mouse skin. We determined miRNA expression profiles in UVB irradiated mice, baicalin treated irradiated mice, and untreated mice, and conducted TargetScan and Gene Ontology analyses to predict miRNA targets. Three miRNAs (mmu-miR-125a-5p, mmu-miR-146a, and mmu-miR-141) were downregulated and another three (mmu-miR-188-5p, mmu-miR-223 and mmu-miR-22) were upregulated in UVB irradiated mice compared with untreated mice. Additionally, these miRNAs were predicted to be related to photocarcinogenesis, hypomethylation and apoptosis. Three miRNAs (mmu-miR-378, mmu-miR-199a-3p and mmu-miR-181b) were downregulated and one (mmu-miR-23a) was upregulated in baicalin treated mice compared with UVB irradiated mice, and they were predicted to be related to DNA repair signaling pathway. These deregulated miRNAs are potentially involved in the pathogenesis of photodamage, and may aid treatment and prevention of UVB-induced dermatoses.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>UVB irradiation can cause acute damage such as sunburn, or photoaging and melanoma, all of which are major health threats.<h4>Objective</h4>This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of skin photoaging induced by UVB radiation in mice through the analysis of the differential expression of miRNAs.<h4>Methods</h4>A UVB irradiation photoaging model was constructed. HE and Masson special stains were used to examine the modifications in the epidermis and dermis of mice. The miRNA expression profiles of the mouse skin model exposed to UVB radiation and the normal skin of mice were analyzed using miRNA-sequence analysis. GO and Pathway analysis were employed for the prediction of miRNA targets.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 23 miRNAs were evaluated for significantly different expressions in comparison to normal skin. Among them, 7 miRNAs were up-regulated and 16 were down-regulated in the skin with photoaging of mice exposed to UVB irradiation. The differential expression of miRNA is related to a variety of signal transduction pathways, among which mmu-miR-195a-5p and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathways are crucial. There was a significant differential expression of miRNA in the skin of normal mice in comparison with the skin with photoaging induced by UVB irradiation.<h4>Study limitations</h4>Due to time and energy constraints, the specific protein level verification, MAPK pathway exploration, and miR-195a-5p downstream molecular mechanism need to be further studied in the future.<h4>Conclusions</h4>UVB-induced skin photoaging can be diagnosed and treated using miRNA.
Project description:Diabetic vascular complications are associated with impaired ischaemia-driven angiogenesis. We recently found that reconstituted high-density lipoproteins (rHDL) rescue diabetes-impaired angiogenesis. microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate angiogenesis and are transported within HDL to sites of injury/repair. The role of miRNAs in the rescue of diabetes-impaired angiogenesis by rHDL is unknown. Using a miRNA array, we found that rHDL inhibits hsa-miR-181c-5p expression in vitro and using a hsa-miR-181c-5p mimic and antimiR identify a novel anti-angiogenic role for miR-181c-5p. miRNA expression was tracked over time post-hindlimb ischaemic induction in diabetic mice. Early post-ischaemia when angiogenesis is important, rHDL suppressed hindlimb mmu-miR-181c-5p. mmu-miR-181c-5p was not detected in the plasma or within HDL, suggesting rHDL specifically targets mmu-miR-181c-5p at the ischaemic site. Three known angiogenic miRNAs (mmu-miR-223-3p, mmu-miR-27b-3p, mmu-miR-92a-3p) were elevated in the HDL fraction of diabetic rHDL-infused mice early post-ischaemia. This was accompanied by a decrease in plasma levels. Only mmu-miR-223-3p levels were elevated in the hindlimb 3 days post-ischaemia, indicating that rHDL regulates mmu-miR-223-3p in a time-dependent and site-specific manner. The early regulation of miRNAs, particularly miR-181c-5p, may underpin the rescue of diabetes-impaired angiogenesis by rHDL and has implications for the treatment of diabetes-related vascular complications.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators involved in the antiviral response to influenza virus infection, however, an analytical comparison of miRNA and mRNA expression changes induced by several H7N9 host-adapting PB2 mutants remains undone. Here, miRNA microarray and transcriptome sequencing of BALB/c mouse lungs infected with A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) [hereafter referred to as H7N9/AH1-PB2-627K(WT)] and mutant variants with PB2 amino acid substitutions (avian-like H7N9/AH1-PB2-627E and mammalian-adapted H7N9/AH1-PB2-627E/701N) were directly compared. The results showed that influenza virus infection induced dysregulation of numerous host cell processes. In a miRNA-mRNA network associated with immunity, changes in the expression of 38 miRNAs and 58 mRNAs were detected following influenza virus infection. Notably, the miRNAs of mmu-miR-188-5p, mmu-miR-511-5p, mmu-miR-483-5p, and mmu-miR-690 were specifically associated with the replication of the avian-like virus H7N9/AH1-PB2-627E. Likewise, the miRNAs of mmu-miR-691, mmu-miR-329-3p, and mmu-miR-144-3p were specifically associated with the mammalian-adapted virus H7N9/AH1-PB2-627E/701N. Finally, the miRNAs of mmu-miR-98-5p, mmu-miR-103-3p, mmu-miR-199a-5p, and mmu-miR-378a-3p were specifically associated with H7N9/AH1-PB2-627K(WT) virus replication. This is the first report of comparative integration analysis of miRNA-mRNA expression of these three H7N9 influenza viruses with different host-adapting PB2 mutations. Our results highlight potential miRNAs of importance in influenza virus pathogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genital C. trachomatis infection may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) that can lead to tubal factor infertility (TFI). Understanding the pathogenesis of chlamydial complications including the pathophysiological processes within the female host genital tract is important in preventing adverse pathology. MicroRNAs regulate several pathophysiological processes of infectious and non-infectious etiologies. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the miRNA profile of single and repeat genital chlamydial infections will be different and that these differences will be time dependent. Thus, we analyzed and compared differentially expressed mice genital tract miRNAs after single and repeat chlamydia infections using a C. muridarum mouse model. Mice were sacrificed and their genital tract tissues were collected at 1, 2, 4, and 8?weeks after a single and repeat chlamydia infections. Histopathology, and miRNA sequencing were performed. RESULTS:Histopathology presentation showed that the oviduct and uterus of reinfected mice were more inflamed, distended and dilated compared to mice infected once. The miRNAs expression profile was different in the reproductive tissues after a reinfection, with a greater number of miRNAs expressed after reinfection. Also, the number of miRNAs expressed each week after chlamydia infection and reinfection varied, with weeks eight and one having the highest number of differentially expressed miRNAs for chlamydia infection and reinfection respectively. Ten miRNAs; mmu-miR-378b, mmu-miR-204-5p, mmu-miR-151-5p, mmu-miR-142-3p, mmu-miR-128-3p, mmu-miR-335-3p, mmu-miR-195a-3p, mmu-miR-142-5p, mmu-miR-106a-5p and mmu-miR-92a-3p were common in both primary chlamydia infection and reinfection. Pathway analysis showed that, amongst other functions, the differentially regulated miRNAs control pathways involved in cellular and tissue development, disease conditions and toxicity. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides insights into the changes in miRNA expression over time after chlamydia infection and reinfection, as well as the pathways they regulate to determine pathological outcomes. The miRNAs networks generated in our study shows that there are differences in the focus molecules involved in significant biological functions in chlamydia infection and reinfection, implying that chlamydial pathogenesis occurs differently for each type of infection and that this could be important when determining treatments regime and disease outcome. The study underscores the crucial role of host factors in chlamydia pathogenesis.
Project description:Liver fibrosis results from the imbalance between extracellular matrix (ECM) production and degradation, which is a common pathological consequence of various chronic liver diseases. Although many miRNAs have been reported in liver fibrosis progression, miRNA-mRNA interactions in its reversal process remain to be elucidated. In the current study, we performed an integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in the mouse model with the spontaneous reversal potency of liver fibrosis. A total of 102 miRNA and 2,845 mRNAs showed significant differential expression in reversal mice compared to fibrotic mice. Moreover, 3,769 putative negatively correlated miRNA-mRNA pairs were revealed to be potentially implicated in the biological function regulation of small molecule metabolism and ECM organization. By integrating miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks, mmu-miR-1843a-5p, mmu-miR-193a-5p, mmu-miR-194-2-3p, and mmu-miR-30c-2-3p were identified as lysyl oxidases-specific miRNAs that were correlated with fibrosis reversal. Our results provided potential candidate targets for the treatment of liver fibrosis.
Project description:Objective:To investigate the impact of JTXK granule on the miRNA expression profiles in hepatic tissue of diabetic mice, and to explore the molecular targets and associated signaling pathways of JTXK granule in its anti-diabetic effect. Methods:Eight mice were randomly selected as normal group fed with chow diet. Then high fat diet was used to induce diabetic model, and the mice were subsequently divided into JTXK-treated group (J group, n = 6) and model group (M group, n = 6). After 8 weeks' intervention we examined the fasting blood glucose and observed the histopathologic changes in hepatic tissue between these two groups. Next we screened the differentially expressed miRNAs between the two groups using microRNA sequencing analysis. Finally, miRNA target gene prediction, GO and KEGG analysis were applied to explore the function of DEMs. Results:The blood glucose level in J group was significantly lower than M group (P < 0.05). The results from H&E staining showed that the arrangement and structure of hepatocytes from J group were basically normal with fewer ballooning degeneration and less inflammatory cell infiltration. Furthermore, a total of 33 significantly differentiated miRNAs were detected in comparison between the two groups (| log2(fold change) | >0.3, P < 0.05). MiRNA-mRNA analysis showed that mmu-miR-30a-5p, mmu-miR-23b-5p, mmu-miR-199a-5p, mmu-miR-425-5p, and mmu-miR-214-3p are closely related to inflammatory response, histological changes and insulin signal transduction in liver. In addition, KEGG analysis showed that the DEMs were closely related to Ras and insulin signaling pathway. Conclusion:JTXK granule exerts anti-diabetic effect in hepatic tissue of diabetic mice by modulating miRNAs and mRNAs network.
Project description:We present a comprehensive analysis of the hepatic miRNA transcriptome at one month post-infection of experimental primary alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a parasitic infection caused upon ingestion of E. multilocularis eggs. Liver tissues were collected from infected and non-infected C57BL/6 mice, then small RNA libraries were prepared for next-generation sequencing (NGS). We conducted a Stem-loop RT-qPCR for validation of most dysregulated miRNAs. In infected mice, the expression levels of 28 miRNAs were significantly altered. Of these, 9 were up-regulated (fold change (FC) ? 1.5) and 19 were down-regulated (FC ? 0.66) as compared to the non-infected controls. In infected livers, mmu-miR-148a-3p and mmu-miR-101b-3p were 8- and 6-fold down-regulated, respectively, and the expression of mmu-miR-22-3p was reduced by 50%, compared to non-infected liver tissue. Conversely, significantly higher hepatic levels were noted for Mus musculus (mmu)-miR-21a-5p (FC = 2.3) and mmu-miR-122-5p (FC = 1.8). In addition, the relative mRNA expression levels of five genes (vegfa, mtor, hif1-?, fasn and acsl1) that were identified as targets of down-regulated miRNAs were significantly enhanced. All the five genes exhibited a higher expression level in livers of E. multilocularis infected mice compared to non-infected mice. Finally, we studied the issue related to functionally mature arm selection preference (5p and/or 3p) from the miRNA precursor and showed that 9 pre-miRNAs exhibited different arm selection preferences in normal versus infected liver tissues. In conclusion, this study provides first evidence that miRNAs are regulated early in primary murine AE. Our findings raise intriguing questions such as (i) how E. multilocularis affects hepatic miRNA expression;(ii) what are the alterations in miRNA expression patterns in more advanced AE-stages; and (iii) which hepatic cellular, metabolic and/or immunologic processes are modulated through altered miRNAs in AE. Thus, further research on the regulation of miRNAs during AE is needed, since miRNAs constitute an attractive potential option for development of novel therapeutic approaches against AE.
Project description:Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening clinical condition associated with critically ill patients, and the construction of potential microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) regulatory networks will help to fully elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. First, we screened fifteen upregulated differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) and six downregulated DE-miRNAs from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Then, the predicted target genes of the upregulated and downregulated DE-miRNAs were identified from the miRNet database. Subsequently, differentially expressed mRNAs (DE-mRNAs) were identified from the GEO database and subjected to combined analysis with the predicted DE-miRNA target genes. Eleven target genes of the upregulated DE-miRNAs and one target gene of the downregulated DE-miRNAs were screened out. To further validate the prediction results, we randomly selected a dataset for subsequent analysis and found some accurate potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory axes, including mmu-mir-7b-5p-Gria1, mmu-mir-486a-5p-Shc4 and mmu-mir-486b-5p-Shc4 pairs. Finally, mir-7b and its target gene Gria1 and mir-486b and its target gene Shc4 were further validated in a bleomycin-induced ALI mouse model. We established a potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory network of ALI in mice, which may provide a basis for basic and clinical research on ALI and advance the available treatment options.
Project description:The heterogeneity of exosome populations presents a great challenge to their study. The current study was designed to investigate the potential heterogeneity miRNA contents in circulating exosomes purified via different exosomal markers. In this study, exosomes from the serum of C57BL/6 mice after cecum ligation and perforation (CLP) or sham operation were isolated by precipitation using ExoQuick-TC and affinity purified with anti-Rab5b, anti-CD9, anti-CD31, and anti-CD44 antibodies using the Exo-Flow Exosome Capture kit to collect exosome subpopulations. RNA extracted from the exosomes isolated by ExoQuick-TC were profiled by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was also employed to determine the expression profiles of four representative exosomal miRNAs (mmu-miR-486-5p, mmu-miR-10a-5p, mmu-miR-143-3p, and mmu-miR-25-3p) selected from the NGS analysis. The results revealed that the expression patterns of these miRNAs in exosomes isolated by ExoQuick-TC as determined by RT-qPCR and NGS were similar, showing upregulation of mmu-miR-10a-5p and mmu-miR-143-3p but downregulation of mmu-miR-25-3p and mmu-miR-486-5p following CLP when compared to the levels in exosomes from sham control mice. However, their expression levels in the antibody-captured exosome subpopulations varied. The miRNAs in the exosomes captured by anti-Rab5b or anti-CD9 antibodies were more similar to those isolated by ExoQuick-TC than to those captured by anti-CD44 antibodies. However, there were no significant differences in these four miRNAs in CD31-captured exosomes. This study demonstrated that purification with different exosomal markers allows the collection of different exosome subpopulations with various miRNA contents. The results of this study demonstrate the heterogeneity of circulating exosomes and suggest the importance of stratifying exosome subpopulations when using circulating exosomes as biomarkers or investigating exosome function. In addition, this study also emphasized the necessity of using a consistent exosome marker across different samples as detecting biomarkers.
Project description:Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Brucella species and represents a serious threat to both human and animal health. Omp25 is an important immunogenic and protective antigen in Brucella species; however, the functional mechanism of Omp25 in macrophages has not yet been elucidated. Here, we constructed a Brucella melitensis omp25 deletion mutant (M5-90-? omp25) and performed microRNA (miRNA) profiling of infected RAW264.7 cells. Eight differentially expressed miRNAs ( mmu-miR-146a-5p, mmu-miR-155-5p, mmu-miR-3473a, mmu-miR-149-3p, mmu-miR-671-5p, mmu-miR-1224-5p, mmu-miR-1895, and mmu-miR-5126) were identified, with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirming the up-regulation of mmu-miR-146-a-5p and mmu-miR-155-5p and down-regulation of mmu-miR-149-3p and mmu-miR-5126. mRNA profiling of B. melitensis M5-90-?o mp25-infected RAW264.7 cells identified 967 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change???2). Among these, we focused on genes that were predicted by TargetScan, miRanda, and PicTar to be the potential targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. The results suggested that 17 separate genes are potentially targeted by mmu-miR-149-3p, with one of these genes, Tbr1, also targeted by mmu-miR-5126. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the up-regulation of nine of the predicted target genes. Our findings provide important information about the functional molecules in host cells, including miRNA and their target genes, affected by Omp25 from Brucella. This information is particularly valuable for the prophylaxis and treatment of brucellosis.