Differential roles for MBD2 and MBD3 at methylated CpG islands, active promoters and binding to exon sequences.
ABSTRACT: The heterogeneous collection of nucleosome remodelling and deacetylation (NuRD) complexes can be grouped into the MBD2- or MBD3-containing complexes MBD2-NuRD and MBD3-NuRD. MBD2 is known to bind to methylated CpG sequences in vitro in contrast to MBD3. Although functional differences have been described, a direct comparison of MBD2 and MBD3 in respect to genome-wide binding and function has been lacking. Here, we show that MBD2-NuRD, in contrast to MBD3-NuRD, converts open chromatin with euchromatic histone modifications into tightly compacted chromatin with repressive histone marks. Genome-wide, a strong enrichment for MBD2 at methylated CpG sequences is found, whereas CpGs bound by MBD3 are devoid of methylation. MBD2-bound genes are generally lower expressed as compared with MBD3-bound genes. When depleting cells for MBD2, the MBD2-bound genes increase their activity, whereas MBD2 plus MBD3-bound genes reduce their activity. Most strikingly, MBD3 is enriched at active promoters, whereas MBD2 is bound at methylated promoters and enriched at exon sequences of active genes.
Project description:MBD2 and MBD3 are closely related proteins with consensus methyl-CpG binding domains. MBD2 is a transcriptional repressor that specifically binds to methylated DNA and is a component of the MeCP1 protein complex. In contrast, MBD3 fails to bind methylated DNA in murine cells, and is a component of the Mi-2/NuRD corepressor complex. We show by gene targeting that the two proteins are not functionally redundant in mice, as Mbd3-/- mice die during early embryogenesis, whereas Mbd2-/- mice are viable and fertile. Maternal behavior of Mbd2-/- mice is however defective and, at the molecular level, Mbd2-/- mice lack a component of MeCP1. Mbd2-mutant cells fail to fully silence transcription from exogenous methylated templates, but inappropriate activation of endogenous imprinted genes or retroviral sequences was not detected. Despite their differences, Mbd3 and Mbd2 interact genetically suggesting a functional relationship. Genetic and biochemical data together favor the view that MBD3 is a key component of the Mi-2/NuRD corepressor complex, whereas MBD2 may be one of several factors that can recruit this complex to DNA.
Project description:The heterogeneous collection of NuRD complexes can be grouped into the MBD2 or MBD3 containing complexes MBD2-NuRD and MBD3-NuRD. Although functional differences have been described, a direct comparison of MBD2 and MBD3 in respect to genome-wide binding and function has been lacking. Here we show a strong enrichment for MBD2 at methylated CpG sequences, whereas CpGs bound by MBD3 are devoid of methylation. Gene activity of MBD2 bound genes is four fold lower as compared to genes bound by MBD3. When depleting cells for MBD2, the MBD2 bound genes increase their activity, whereas MBD2 plus MBD3 bound genes reduce their activity. Most strikingly, MBD3 is enriched at active promoters, whereas MBD2 is bound at methylated promoters and enriched at exon sequences of active genes. This suggests a functional connection between MBD2 binding to chromatin and splicing. V5 ChIP followed by high throughput sequencing in HeLa cells transiently transfected with either V5-MBD2b, V5-MBD3 or V5.
Project description:The heterogeneous collection of NuRD complexes can be grouped into the MBD2 or MBD3 containing complexes MBD2-NuRD and MBD3-NuRD. MBD2 is known to bind to methylated CpG sequences in vitro in contrast to MBD3. Although functional differences have been described, a direct comparison of MBD2 and MBD3 in respect to genome-wide binding and function has been lacking. Here we show when depleting cells for MBD2, the MBD2 bound genes increase their activity, whereas MBD2 plus MBD3 bound genes reduce their activity. Most strikingly, MBD3 is enriched at active promoters, whereas MBD2 is bound at methylated promoters and enriched at exon sequences of active genes. This suggests a functional connection between MBD2 binding to chromatin and splicing. 9 Total samples were analysed. Three individual replicates for HeLa cells treated with siRNA against MBD2, MBD3 or scrambled siRNA were performed. We calculated the fold change of gene expression of cells treated with MBD2- or MBD3-siRNA over cells treated with scrambled siRNA.
Project description:The Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex is a multiprotein machine proposed to regulate chromatin structure by nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation activities. Recent reports describing localization of NuRD provide new insights that question previous models on NuRD action, but are not in complete agreement. Here, we provide location analysis of endogenous MBD3, a component of NuRD complex, in two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using two independent genomic techniques: DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID) and ChIP-seq. We observed concordance of the resulting genomic localization, suggesting that these studies are converging on a robust map for NuRD in the cancer cell genome. MBD3 preferentially associated with CpG rich promoters marked by H3K4me3 and showed cell-type specific localization across gene bodies, peaking around the transcription start site. A subset of sites bound by MBD3 was enriched in H3K27ac and was in physical proximity to promoters in three-dimensional space, suggesting function as enhancers. MBD3 enrichment was also noted at promoters modified by H3K27me3. Functional analysis of chromatin indicated that MBD3 regulates nucleosome occupancy near promoters and in gene bodies. These data suggest that MBD3, and by extension the NuRD complex, may have multiple roles in fine tuning expression for both active and silent genes, representing an important step in defining regulatory mechanisms by which NuRD complex controls chromatin structure and modification status.
Project description:Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic and regulatory mark that functions in part through recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes containing methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins. Two MBD proteins, Mbd2 and Mbd3, were previously shown to bind methylated or hydroxymethylated DNA, respectively; however, both of these findings have been disputed. Here, we investigated this controversy using experimental approaches and re-analysis of published data and find no evidence for methylation-independent functions of Mbd2 or Mbd3. We show that chromatin localization of Mbd2 and Mbd3 is highly overlapping and, unexpectedly, we find Mbd2 and Mbd3 are interdependent for chromatin association. Further investigation reveals that both proteins are required for normal levels of cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation in murine embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, Mbd2 and Mbd3 regulate overlapping sets of genes that are also regulated by DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation factors. These findings reveal an interdependent regulatory mechanism mediated by the DNA methylation machinery and its readers.
Project description:ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling and core histone acetylation and deacetylation represent mechanisms to alter nucleosome structure. NuRD is a multisubunit complex containing nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase activities. The histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2 and the histone binding proteins RbAp48 and RbAp46 form a core complex shared between NuRD and Sin3-histone deacetylase complexes. The histone deacetylase activity of the core complex is severely compromised. A novel polypeptide highly related to the metastasis-associated protein 1, MTA2, and the methyl-CpG-binding domain-containing protein, MBD3, were found to be subunits of the NuRD complex. MTA2 modulates the enzymatic activity of the histone deacetylase core complex. MBD3 mediates the association of MTA2 with the core histone deacetylase complex. MBD3 does not directly bind methylated DNA but is highly related to MBD2, a polypeptide that binds to methylated DNA and has been reported to possess demethylase activity. MBD2 interacts with the NuRD complex and directs the complex to methylated DNA. NuRD may provide a means of gene silencing by DNA methylation.
Project description:Paternal repression of the imprinted H19 gene is mediated by a differentially methylated domain (DMD) that is essential to imprinting of both H19 and the linked and oppositely imprinted Igf2 gene. The mechanisms by which paternal-specific methylation of the DMD survive the period of genome-wide demethylation in the early embryo and are subsequently used to govern imprinted expression are not known. Methyl-CpG binding (MBD) proteins are likely candidates to explain how these DMDs are recognized to silence the locus, because they preferentially bind methylated DNA and recruit repression complexes with histone deacetylase activity. MBD RNA and protein are found in preimplantation embryos, and chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that MBD3 is bound to the H19 DMD. To test a role for MBDs in imprinting, two independent RNAi-based strategies were used to deplete MBD3 in early mouse embryos, with the same results. In RNAi-treated blastocysts, paternal H19 expression was activated, supporting the hypothesis that MBD3, which is also a member of the Mi-2/NuRD complex, is required to repress the paternal H19 allele. RNAi-treated blastocysts also have reduced levels of the Mi-2/NuRD complex protein MTA-2, which suggests a role for the Mi-2/NuRD repressive complex in paternal-specific silencing at the H19 locus. Furthermore, DNA methylation was reduced at the H19 DMD when MBD3 protein was depleted. In contrast, expression and DNA methylation were not disrupted in preimplantation embryos for other imprinted genes. These results demonstrate new roles for MBD3 in maintaining imprinting control region DNA methylation and silencing the paternal H19 allele. Finally, MBD3-depleted preimplantation embryos have reduced cell numbers, suggesting a role for MBD3 in cell division.
Project description:The detailed mechanism for DNA methylation homeostasis relies on an intricate regulatory network with a possible contribution from methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3 (MBD3). In this study we examine the single-molecule behavior of MBD3 and its functional implication in balancing the activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Besides a localization tendency to DNA demethylating sites, MBD3 experiences a concurrent transcription with DNMTs in cell cycle. Fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (FLCS) and photon counting histogram (PCH) were applied to characterize the chromatin binding kinetics and stoichiometry of MBD3 in different cell phases. In the G1-phase, MBD3, in the context of the Mi-2/NuRD (nucleosome remodeling deacetylase) complex, could adopt a salt-dependent homodimeric association with its target epigenomic loci. Along with cell cycle progression, utilizing fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy-based Förster resonance energy transfer (FLIM-FRET) we revealed that a proportion of MBD3 and MBD2 would co-localize with DNMT1 during DNA maintenance methylation, providing a proofreading and protective mechanism against a possible excessive methylation by DNMT1. In accordance with our hypothesis, insufficient MBD3 induced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) was found to result in a global DNA hypermethylation as well as increased methylation in the promoter CpG islands (CGIs) of a number of cell cycle related genes.
Project description:The tumour-suppressor gene CDKN1A (encoding p21Waf/Cip1) is thought to be epigenetically repressed in cancer cells. FBI-1 (ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor repressing the alternative reading frame and p21WAF/CDKN1A genes of the p53 pathway. FBI-1 interacts directly with MBD3 (methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3) in the nucleus. We demonstrated that FBI-1 binds both non-methylated and methylated DNA and that MBD3 is recruited to the CDKN1A promoter through its interaction with FBI-1, where it enhances transcriptional repression by FBI-1. FBI-1 also interacts with the co-repressors nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR), silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptors (SMRT) and BCL-6 corepressor (BCoR) to repress transcription. MBD3 regulates a molecular interaction between the co-repressor and FBI-1. MBD3 decreases the interaction between FBI-1 and NCoR/SMRT but increases the interaction between FBI-1 and BCoR. Because MBD3 is a subunit of the Mi-2 autoantigen (Mi-2)/nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylase (NuRD)-HDAC complex, FBI-1 recruits the Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex via MBD3. BCoR interacts with the Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex, DNMTs and HP1. MBD3 and BCoR play a significant role in the recruitment of the Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex- and the NuRD complex-associated proteins, DNMTs and HP. By recruiting DNMTs and HP1, Mi-2/NuRD-HDAC complex appears to play key roles in epigenetic repression of CDKN1A by DNA methylation.
Project description:Although highly homologous to other methylcytosine-binding domain (MBD) proteins, MBD3 does not selectively bind methylated DNA, and thus the functional role of MBD3 remains in question. To explore the structural basis of its binding properties and potential function, we characterized the solution structure and binding distribution of the MBD3 MBD on hydroxymethylated, methylated, and unmethylated DNA. The overall fold of this domain is very similar to other MBDs, yet a key loop involved in DNA binding is more disordered than previously observed. Specific recognition of methylated DNA constrains the structure of this loop and results in large chemical shift changes in NMR spectra. Based on these spectral changes, we show that MBD3 preferentially localizes to methylated and, to a lesser degree, unmethylated cytosine-guanosine dinucleotides (CpGs), yet does not distinguish between hydroxymethylated and unmethylated sites. Measuring residual dipolar couplings for the different bound states clearly shows that the MBD3 structure does not change between methylation-specific and nonspecific binding modes. Furthermore, residual dipolar couplings measured for MBD3 bound to methylated DNA can be described by a linear combination of those for the methylation and nonspecific binding modes, confirming the preferential localization to methylated sites. The highly homologous MBD2 protein shows similar but much stronger localization to methylated as well as unmethylated CpGs. Together, these data establish the structural basis for the relative distribution of MBD2 and MBD3 on genomic DNA and their observed occupancy at active and inactive CpG-rich promoters.