In vivo detection of human TRPV6-rich tumors with anti-cancer peptides derived from soricidin.
ABSTRACT: Soricidin is a 54-amino acid peptide found in the paralytic venom of the northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) and has been found to inhibit the transient receptor potential of vallinoid type 6 (TRPV6) calcium channels. We report that two shorter peptides, SOR-C13 and SOR-C27, derived from the C-terminus of soricidin, are high-affinity antagonists of human TRPV6 channels that are up-regulated in a number of cancers. Herein, we report molecular imaging methods that demonstrate the in vivo diagnostic potential of SOR-C13 and SOR-C27 to target tumor sites in mice bearing ovarian or prostate tumors. Our results suggest that these novel peptides may provide an avenue to deliver diagnostic and therapeutic reagents directly to TRPV6-rich tumors and, as such, have potential applications for a range of carcinomas including ovarian, breast, thyroid, prostate and colon, as well as certain leukemia's and lymphomas.
Project description:Background: Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 6 (TRPV6), a non-voltage gated calcium channel, is implicated in malignancies and correlates with Gleason scores in prostate cancer and with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Data on the TRPV6 status of ovarian malignancies has not received significant attention. The effect of inhibiting TRPV6 activity on ovarian tumour growth has never been reported. Methods: We quantified TRPV6 mRNA and protein in biopsies of five types of ovarian cancer at different stages and grades by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. We verified the presence of TRPV6 in SKOV-3 cells and xenografts by Western Blotting. NOD/SCID mice bearing xenografted ovarian tumours derived from SKOV-3 were treated daily with TRPV6-antagonistic peptides (SOR-C13 and SOR-C27) at 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg delivered intraperitoneally (i.p.) over 12 days. Data from qPCR and tumour growth experiments were compared with a Student's t-test. Immunohistochemical ranking of staining were compared with Kruskall-Wallace one-way ANOVA and Dunn's Multiple Comparison post-test. Results: TRPV6 mRNA and protein are significantly elevated at all stages and grades of 5 ovarian cancer types over normal tissue. Overall qPCR log2 values (n, mean, ± SEM) for mRNA in tumour (n = 165, 5.06 ± 0.16) were greater (p < 0.05) than normal tissues (n = 26, 0.45 ± 0.41). All stages and grades included in the biopsy arrays were significantly greater than normal tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of TRPV6 was ranked >2 (faint in most cells) in 80.5% of tumours (123) while 92% of normal tissues (23) ranked ≤ 2. Daily i.p. injection with SOR-C13 (400, 600 and 800 mg/kg) over 12 days inhibits tumour growth (59%) at the highest dose compared to non-treated controls. SOR-C27 at 800 mg/kg SOR-C27 inhibited tumour growth 55% after 12 days. Results of daily and intermittent dosing (Days 1, 2, 3 and 8, 9, 10) with SOR-C13 were indistinguishable. Conclusion: TRPV6 mRNA and protein are elevated in biopsies of ovarian cancers compared to normal tissue. Inhibition of TRPV6 activity significantly reduces ovarian tumour growth providing evidence that TRPV6 is a feasible oncology target in ovarian cancers.
Project description:Introduction This was an open-label, dose escalation (3 + 3 design), Phase I study of SOR-C13 in patients with advanced tumors of epithelial origin. Primary objectives were to assess safety/tolerability and pharmacokinetics. Secondary goals were to assess pharmacodynamics and efficacy of SOR-C13. Methods SOR-C13 was administered IV QD on days 1-3 and 8-10 of a 21-day cycle. Doses were 2.75 and 5.5 mg/kg (20-min infusion) and 1.375, 2.75, 4.13 and 6.2 mg/kg (90-min infusion). Toxicity was assessed by National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0. Dose limiting toxicity (DLT) was assessed within the first treatment cycle. Tumors were evaluated, using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1, after two cycles. Results Twenty-three patients were treated. No drug-related serious adverse events occurred. DLTs occurred in six patients: asymptomatic, drug-related, transient Grade 2 hypocalcemia (4 patients), and unrelated Grade 3 anemia and Grade 3 atrial fibrillation, 1 patient each. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation eliminated further Grade 2 hypocalcemia. One Grade 3 treatment emergent adverse event, urticaria, was definitely related to SOR-C13. Four possibly drug-related, Grade 3 events (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase elevation, headache, and hypokalemia) were observed. Of 22 evaluable patients, 54.5% showed stable disease ranging from 2.8 to 12.5 months. The best response was a 27% reduction in a pancreatic tumor with a 55% reduction in CA19-9 levels at 6.2 mg/kg. Conclusion SOR-C13 was safe and tolerated up to 6.2 mg/kg. The Maximal Tolerated Dose (MTD) was not established. Stable disease suggested antitumor activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The transient receptor potential, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6) is a Ca(2+) selective cation channel. Several studies have shown that TRPV6 transcripts are expressed in locally advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma, metastatic and androgen-insensitive prostatic lesions but are undetectable in healthy prostate tissue and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Two allelic variants of the human trpv6 gene have been identified which are transcribed into two independent mRNAs, TRPV6a and TRPV6b. We now asked, whether the trpv6a allele is correlated with the onset of prostate cancer, with the Gleason score and the tumour stage. METHODS: Genomic DNA of prostate cancer patients and control individuals was isolated from resections of prostatic adenocarcinomas and salivary fluid respectively. Genotyping of SNPs of the TRPV6 gene was performed by restriction length polymorphism or by sequencing analysis. RNA used for RT-PCR was isolated from prostate tissue. Data sets were analyzed by Chi-Square test. RESULTS: We first characterized in detail the five polymorphisms present in the protein coding exons of the trpv6 gene and show that these polymorphisms are coupled and are underlying the TRPV6a and the TRPV6b variants. Next we analysed the frequencies of the two TRPV6 alleles using genomic DNA from saliva samples of 169 healthy individuals. The homozygous TRPV6b genotype predominated with 86%, whereas no homozygous TRPV6a carriers could be identified. The International HapMap Project identified a similar frequency for an Utah based population whereas in an African population the a-genotype prevailed. The incidence of prostate cancer is several times higher in African populations than in non-African and we then investigated the TRPV6a/b frequencies in 141 samples of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The TRPV6b allele was found in 87% of the samples without correlation with Gleason score and tumour stage. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the frequencies of trpv6 alleles in healthy control individuals and prostate cancer patients are not significantly different. Although expression of trpv6 transcripts correlates with aggressive potential of prostate cancer, the TRPV6 genotype does not correlate with the onset of prostate cancer, with the Gleason score and the tumour stage.
Project description:Two decades ago a class of ion channels, hitherto unsuspected, was discovered. In mammals these Transient Receptor Potential channels (TRPs) have not only expanded in number (to 26 functional channels) but also expanded the view of our interface with the physical and chemical environment. Some are heat and cold sensors while others monitor endogenous and/or exogenous chemical signals. Some TRP channels monitor osmotic potential, and others measure cell movement, stretching, and fluid flow. Many TRP channels are major players in nociception and integration of pain signals. One member of the vanilloid sub-family of channels is TRPV6. This channel is highly selective for divalent cations, particularly calcium, and plays a part in general whole-body calcium homeostasis, capturing calcium in the gut from the diet. TRPV6 can be greatly elevated in a number of cancers deriving from epithelia and considerable study has been made of its role in the cancer phenotype where calcium control is dysfunctional. This review compiles and updates recent published work on TRPV6 as a promising drug target in a number of cancers including those afflicting breast, ovarian, prostate and pancreatic tissues.
Project description:Despite remarkable advances in the therapy and prevention of prostate cancer it is still the second cause of death from cancer in industrialized countries. Many therapies initially shown to be beneficial for the patients were abandoned due to the high drug resistance and the evolution rate of the tumors. One of the prospective therapeutical agents even used in the first stage clinical trials, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, was shown to be either unpredictable or inefficient in many cases. We have already shown that TRPV6 calcium channel, which is the direct target of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor, positively controls prostate cancer proliferation and apoptosis resistance (Lehen'kyi et al., Oncogene, 2007). However, how the known 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 antiproliferative effects may be compatible with the upregulation of pro-oncogenic TRPV6 channel remains a mystery. Here we demonstrate that in low steroid conditions 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 upregulates the expression of TRPV6, enhances the proliferation by increasing the number of cells entering into S-phase. We show that these pro-proliferative effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are directly mediated via the overexpression of TRPV6 channel which increases calcium uptake into LNCaP cells. The apoptosis resistance of androgen-dependent LNCaP cells conferred by TRPV6 channel is drastically inversed when 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 effects were combined with the successful TRPV6 knockdown. In addition, the use of androgen-deficient DU-145 and androgen-insensitive LNCaP C4-2 cell lines allowed to suggest that the ability of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to induce the expression of TRPV6 channel is a crucial determinant of the success or failure of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-based therapies.
Project description:Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 6 (TRPV6) is a highly selective calcium channel that has been considered as a part of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Despite its first discovery in the early 2000s, the role of this channel in prostate cancer (PCa) remained, until now, obscure. Here we show that TRPV6 mediates calcium entry, which is highly increased in PCa due to the remodeling mechanism involving the translocation of the TRPV6 channel to the plasma membrane via the Orai1/TRPC1-mediated Ca(2+)/Annexin I/S100A11 pathway, partially contributing to SOCE. The TRPV6 calcium channel is expressed de novo by the PCa cell to increase its survival by enhancing proliferation and conferring apoptosis resistance. Xenografts in nude mice and bone metastasis models confirmed the remarkable aggressiveness of TRPV6-overexpressing tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis of these demonstrated the increased expression of clinical markers such as Ki-67, prostate specific antigen, synaptophysin, CD31, and CD56, which are strongly associated with a poor prognosis. Thus, the TRPV6 channel acquires its oncogenic potential in PCa due to the remodeling mechanism via the Orai1-mediated Ca(2+)/Annexin I/S100A11 pathway.
Project description:TRPV6 channels function as epithelial Ca(2+) entry pathways in the epididymis, prostate, and placenta. However, the identity of the endogenous TRPV6 protein relies on predicted gene coding regions and is only known to a certain level of approximation. We show that in vivo the TRPV6 protein has an extended N terminus. Translation initiates at a non-AUG codon, at ACG, which is decoded by methionine and which is upstream of the annotated AUG, which is not used for initiation. The in vitro properties of channels formed by the extended full-length TRPV6 proteins and the so-far annotated and smaller TRPV6 are similar, but the extended N terminus increases trafficking to the plasma membrane and represents an additional scaffold for channel assembly. The increased translation of the smaller TRPV6 cDNA version may overestimate the in vivo situation where translation efficiency may represent an additional mechanism to tightly control the TRPV6-mediated Ca(2+) entry to prevent deleterious Ca(2+) overload.
Project description:Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial medium- and large-segment sequences, support an ancient evolutionary origin of a genetically distinct hantavirus detected by reverse transcription-PCR in tissues of northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) captured in Minnesota in August 1998. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of hantaviruses harbored by shrews in the Americas.
Project description:Transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6), a calcium-selective channel possessing six transmembrane domains (S1-S6) and intracellular N and C termini, plays crucial roles in calcium absorption in epithelia and bone and is involved in human diseases including vitamin-D deficiency, osteoporosis, and cancer. The TRPV6 function and regulation remain poorly understood. Here we show that the TRPV6 intramolecular S4-S5 linker to C-terminal TRP helix (L/C) and N-terminal pre-S1 helix to TRP helix (N/C) interactions, mediated by Arg470:Trp593 and Trp321:Ile597 bonding, respectively, are autoinhibitory and are required for maintaining TRPV6 at basal states. Disruption of either interaction by mutations or blocking peptides activates TRPV6. The N/C interaction depends on the L/C interaction but not reversely. Three cationic residues in S5 or C terminus are involved in binding PIP2 to suppress both interactions thereby activating TRPV6. This study reveals "PIP2 - intramolecular interactions" regulatory mechanism of TRPV6 activation-autoinhibition, which will help elucidating the corresponding mechanisms in other TRP channels.
Project description:Herein we report the first photoswitchable inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 6 (TRPV6), a selective calcium channel involved in a number of diseases and in cancer progression. By surveying analogs of a previously reported TRPV6 inhibitor appended with a phenyl-diazo group, we identified a compound switching between a weak TRPV6 inhibitor in its dark, E-diazo stereoisomer (Z/E = 3:97, IC50 ? 10 ?M) and a potent inhibitor as the Z-diazo stereoisomer accessible reversibly by UV irradiation at ? = 365 nm (Z/E = 3:1, IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.4 ?M), thereby allowing precise spatiotemporal control of inhibition. This new tool compound should be useful to deepen our understanding of TRPV6.