High quality de novo sequencing and assembly of the Saccharomyces arboricolus genome.
ABSTRACT: Comparative genomics is a formidable tool to identify functional elements throughout a genome. In the past ten years, studies in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a set of closely related species have been instrumental in showing the benefit of analyzing patterns of sequence conservation. Increasing the number of closely related genome sequences makes the comparative genomics approach more powerful and accurate.Here, we report the genome sequence and analysis of Saccharomyces arboricolus, a yeast species recently isolated in China, that is closely related to S. cerevisiae. We obtained high quality de novo sequence and assemblies using a combination of next generation sequencing technologies, established the phylogenetic position of this species and considered its phenotypic profile under multiple environmental conditions in the light of its gene content and phylogeny.We suggest that the genome of S. arboricolus will be useful in future comparative genomics analysis of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts.
Project description:Domestication of plants and animals promoted humanity's transition from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles, demographic expansion, and the emergence of civilizations. In contrast to the well-documented successes of crop and livestock breeding, processes of microbe domestication remain obscure, despite the importance of microbes to the production of food, beverages, and biofuels. Lager-beer, first brewed in the 15th century, employs an allotetraploid hybrid yeast, Saccharomyces pastorianus (syn. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis), a domesticated species created by the fusion of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale-yeast with an unknown cryotolerant Saccharomyces species. We report the isolation of that species and designate it Saccharomyces eubayanus sp. nov. because of its resemblance to Saccharomyces bayanus (a complex hybrid of S. eubayanus, Saccharomyces uvarum, and S. cerevisiae found only in the brewing environment). Individuals from populations of S. eubayanus and its sister species, S. uvarum, exist in apparent sympatry in Nothofagus (Southern beech) forests in Patagonia, but are isolated genetically through intrinsic postzygotic barriers, and ecologically through host-preference. The draft genome sequence of S. eubayanus is 99.5% identical to the non-S. cerevisiae portion of the S. pastorianus genome sequence and suggests specific changes in sugar and sulfite metabolism that were crucial for domestication in the lager-brewing environment. This study shows that combining microbial ecology with comparative genomics facilitates the discovery and preservation of wild genetic stocks of domesticated microbes to trace their history, identify genetic changes, and suggest paths to further industrial improvement.
Project description:Despite the considerable number and taxonomic breadth of past and current genome sequencing projects, many of which necessarily encompass the ribosomal DNA, detailed information on the prevalence and evolutionary significance of sequence variation in this ubiquitous genomic region are severely lacking. Here, we attempt to address this issue in two closely related yet contrasting yeast species, the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. By drawing on existing datasets from the Saccharomyces Genome Resequencing Project, we identify a rich seam of ribosomal DNA sequence variation, characterising 1,068 and 970 polymorphisms in 34 S. cerevisiae and 26 S. paradoxus strains respectively. We discover the two species sets exhibit distinct mutational profiles. Furthermore, we show for the first time that unresolved rDNA sequence variation resulting from imperfect concerted evolution of the ribosomal DNA region follows a U-shaped allele frequency distribution in each species, similar to loci that evolve under non-concerted mechanisms but arising through rather different evolutionary processes. Finally, we link differences between the shapes of these allele frequency distributions to the two species' contrasting population histories.
Project description:The gold standard in yeast population genomics has been the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the exploration of yeast species outside the Saccharomyces genus is essential to broaden the understanding of genome evolution. Here, we report the analyses of whole-genome sequences of nineisolates from the recently described yeast species Lachancea quebecensis. The genome of one isolate was assembled and annotated, and the intraspecific variability within L. quebecensis was surveyed by comparing the sequences from the eight other isolates to this reference sequence. Our study revealed that these strains harbor genomes with an average nucleotide diversity of ? = 2 × 10(-3) which is slightly lower, although on the same order of magnitude, as that previously determined for S. cerevisiae (? = 4 × 10(-3)). Our results show that even though these isolates were all obtained from a relatively isolated geographic location, the same ecological source, and represent a smaller sample size than is available for S. cerevisiae, the levels of divergence are similar to those observed in this model species. This divergence is essentially linked to the presence of two distinct clusters delineated according to geographic location. However, even with relatively similar ranges of genome divergence, L. quebecensis has an extremely low global phenotypic variance of 0.062 compared with 0.59 previously determined in S. cerevisiae.
Project description:We screened for new structural non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the genome sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using computational comparative analysis of genome sequences from five related species of Saccharomyces. The screen identified 92 candidate ncRNA genes. Thirteen showed discrete transcripts when assayed by northern blot. Of these, eight appear to be novel ncRNAs ranging in size from 268 to 775 nt, including three new H/ACA box small nucleolar RNAs.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae I-328 is a yeast strain used for production of sherry-like wine in Russia. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which will facilitate comparative genomic studies of yeast strains used for winemaking.
Project description:Comparative genomics can be used to infer the history of genomic rearrangements that occurred during the evolution of a species. We used the principle of parsimony, applied to aligned synteny blocks from 11 yeast species, to infer the gene content and gene order that existed in the genome of an extinct ancestral yeast about 100 Mya, immediately before it underwent whole-genome duplication (WGD). The reconstructed ancestral genome contains 4,703 ordered loci on eight chromosomes. The reconstruction is complete except for the subtelomeric regions. We then inferred the series of rearrangement steps that led from this ancestor to the current Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome; relative to the ancestral genome we observe 73 inversions, 66 reciprocal translocations, and five translocations involving telomeres. Some fragile chromosomal sites were reused as evolutionary breakpoints multiple times. We identified 124 genes that have been gained by S. cerevisiae in the time since the WGD, including one that is derived from a hAT family transposon, and 88 ancestral loci at which S. cerevisiae did not retain either of the gene copies that were formed by WGD. Sites of gene gain and evolutionary breakpoints both tend to be associated with tRNA genes and, to a lesser extent, with origins of replication. Many of the gained genes in S. cerevisiae have functions associated with ethanol production, growth in hypoxic environments, or the uptake of alternative nutrient sources.
Project description:The wealth of comparative genomics data from yeast species allows the molecular evolution of these eukaryotes to be studied in great detail. We used "proximity plots" to visually compare chromosomal gene order information from 14 hemiascomycetes, including the recent Génolevures survey, to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Contrary to the original reports, we find that the Génolevures data strongly support the hypothesis that S. cerevisiae is a degenerate polyploid. Using gene order information alone, 70% of the S. cerevisiae genome can be mapped into "sister" regions that tile together with almost no overlap. This map confirms and extends the map of sister regions that we constructed previously by using duplicated genes, an independent source of information. Combining gene order and gene duplication data assigns essentially the whole genome into sister regions, the largest gap being only 36 genes long. The 16 centromere regions of S. cerevisiae form eight pairs, indicating that an ancestor with eight chromosomes underwent complete doubling; alternatives such as segmental duplications can be ruled out. Gene arrangements in Kluyveromyces lactis and four other species agree quantitatively with what would be expected if they diverged from S. cerevisiae before its polyploidization. In contrast, Saccharomyces exiguus, Saccharomyces servazzii, and Candida glabrata show higher levels of gene adjacency conservation, and more cases of imperfect conservation, suggesting that they split from the S. cerevisiae lineage after polyploidization. This finding is confirmed by sequences around the C. glabrata TRP1 and IPP1 loci, which show that it contains sister regions derived from the same duplication event as that of S. cerevisiae.
Project description:Inter-specific hybridization leading to abrupt speciation is a well-known, common mechanism in angiosperm evolution; only recently, however, have similar hybridization and speciation mechanisms been documented to occur frequently among the closely related group of sensu stricto Saccharomyces yeasts. The economically important lager beer yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus is such a hybrid, formed by the union of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus-related yeasts; efforts to understand its complex genome, searching for both biological and brewing-related insights, have been underway since its hybrid nature was first discovered. It had been generally thought that a single hybridization event resulted in a unique S. pastorianus species, but it has been recently postulated that there have been two or more hybridization events. Here, we show that there may have been two independent origins of S. pastorianus strains, and that each independent group--defined by characteristic genome rearrangements, copy number variations, ploidy differences, and DNA sequence polymorphisms--is correlated with specific breweries and/or geographic locations. Finally, by reconstructing common ancestral genomes via array-CGH data analysis and by comparing representative DNA sequences of the S. pastorianus strains with those of many different S. cerevisiae isolates, we have determined that the most likely S. cerevisiae ancestral parent for each of the independent S. pastorianus groups was an ale yeast, with different, but closely related ale strains contributing to each group's parentage.
Project description:Large population-genomic sequencing studies can enable highly-powered analyses of sequence signatures of natural selection. Genome repositories now available for Saccharomyces yeast make it a premier model for studies of the molecular mechanisms of adaptation. We mined the genomes of hundreds of isolates of the sister species S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus to identify sequence hallmarks of adaptive divergence between the two. From the top hits we focused on a set of genes encoding membrane proteins of the peroxisome, an organelle devoted to lipid breakdown and other specialized metabolic pathways. In-depth population- and comparative-genomic sequence analyses of these genes revealed striking divergence between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus And from transcriptional profiles we detected non-neutral, directional cis-regulatory variation at the peroxisome membrane genes, with overall high expression in S. cerevisiae relative to S. paradoxus Taken together, these data support a model in which yeast species have differentially tuned the expression of peroxisome components to boost their fitness in distinct niches.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Fusarium graminearum (Fg), a major fungal pathogen of cultivated cereals, is responsible for billions of dollars in agriculture losses. There is a growing interest in understanding the transcriptional regulation of this organism, especially the regulation of genes underlying its pathogenicity. The generation of whole genome sequence assemblies for Fg and three closely related Fusarium species provides a unique opportunity for such a study. RESULTS: Applying comparative genomics approaches, we developed a computational pipeline to systematically discover evolutionarily conserved regulatory motifs in the promoter, downstream and the intronic regions of Fg genes, based on the multiple alignments of sequenced Fusarium genomes. Using this method, we discovered 73 candidate regulatory motifs in the promoter regions. Nearly 30% of these motifs are highly enriched in promoter regions of Fg genes that are associated with a specific functional category. Through comparison to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp), we observed conservation of transcription factors (TFs), their binding sites and the target genes regulated by these TFs related to pathways known to respond to stress conditions or phosphate metabolism. In addition, this study revealed 69 and 39 conserved motifs in the downstream regions and the intronic regions, respectively, of Fg genes. The top intronic motif is the splice donor site. For the downstream regions, we noticed an intriguing absence of the mammalian and Sc poly-adenylation signals among the list of conserved motifs. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first comprehensive list of candidate regulatory motifs in Fg, and underscores the power of comparative genomics in revealing functional elements among related genomes. The conservation of regulatory pathways among the Fusarium genomes and the two yeast species reveals their functional significance, and provides new insights in their evolutionary importance among Ascomycete fungi.