Novel role of copper transport protein antioxidant-1 in neointimal formation after vascular injury.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration is critically important for neointimal formation after vascular injury and atherosclerosis lesion formation. Copper (Cu) chelator inhibits neointimal formation, and we previously demonstrated that Cu transport protein antioxidant-1 (Atox1) is involved in Cu-induced cell growth. However, role of Atox1 in VSMC migration and neointimal formation after vascular injury is unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS:Here, we show that Atox1 expression is upregulated in injured vessel, and it is colocalized with the Cu transporter ATP7A, one of the downstream targets of Atox1, mainly in neointimal VSMCs at day 14 after wire injury. Atox1(-/-) mice show inhibition of neointimal formation and extracellular matrix expansion, which is associated with a decreased VSMCs accumulation within neointima and lysyl oxidase activity. Mechanistically, in cultured VSMC, Atox1 depletion with siRNA inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-induced Cu-dependent VSMC migration by preventing translocation of ATP7A and small G protein Rac1 to the leading edge, as well as Cu- and Rac1-dependent lamellipodia formation. Furthermore, Atox1(-/-) mice show decreased perivascular macrophage infiltration in wire-injured vessels, as well as thioglycollate-induced peritoneal macrophage recruitment. CONCLUSIONS:Atox1 is involved in neointimal formation after vascular injury through promoting VSMC migration and inflammatory cell recruitment in injured vessels. Thus, Atox1 is a potential therapeutic target for VSMC migration and inflammation-related vascular diseases.
Project description:RATIONALE:Copper, an essential nutrient, has been implicated in vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis with unknown mechanism. Bioavailability of intracellular copper is regulated not only by the copper importer CTR1 (copper transporter 1) but also by the copper exporter ATP7A (Menkes ATPase), whose function is achieved through copper-dependent translocation from trans-Golgi network (TGN). Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) promotes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, a key component of neointimal formation. OBJECTIVE:To determine the role of copper transporter ATP7A in PDGF-induced VSMC migration. METHODS AND RESULTS:Depletion of ATP7A inhibited VSMC migration in response to PDGF or wound scratch in a CTR1/copper-dependent manner. PDGF stimulation promoted ATP7A translocation from the TGN to lipid rafts, which localized at the leading edge, where it colocalized with PDGF receptor and Rac1, in migrating VSMCs. Mechanistically, ATP7A small interfering RNA or CTR small interfering RNA prevented PDGF-induced Rac1 translocation to the leading edge, thereby inhibiting lamellipodia formation. In addition, ATP7A depletion prevented a PDGF-induced decrease in copper level and secretory copper enzyme precursor prolysyl oxidase (Pro-LOX) in lipid raft fraction, as well as PDGF-induced increase in LOX activity. In vivo, ATP7A expression was markedly increased and copper accumulation was observed by synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy at neointimal VSMCs in wire injury model. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that ATP7A plays an important role in copper-dependent PDGF-stimulated VSMC migration via recruiting Rac1 to lipid rafts at the leading edge, as well as regulating LOX activity. This may contribute to neointimal formation after vascular injury. Our findings provide insight into ATP7A as a novel therapeutic target for vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Copper (Cu) is essential micronutrient, and its dysregulation is implicated in aortic aneurysm (AA) development. The Cu exporter ATP7A (copper-transporting P-type ATPase/Menkes ATPase) delivers Cu via the Cu chaperone Atox1 (antioxidant 1) to secretory Cu enzymes, such as lysyl oxidase, and excludes excess Cu. Lysyl oxidase is shown to protect against AA formation. However, the role and mechanism of ATP7A in AA pathogenesis remain unknown. Approach and Results: Here, we show that Cu chelator markedly inhibited Ang II (angiotensin II)-induced abdominal AA (AAA) in which ATP7A expression was markedly downregulated. Transgenic ATP7A overexpression prevented Ang II-induced AAA formation. Conversely, Cu transport dysfunctional ATP7Amut/+/ApoE-/- mice exhibited robust AAA formation and dissection, excess aortic Cu accumulation as assessed by X-ray fluorescence microscopy, and reduced lysyl oxidase activity. In contrast, AAA formation was not observed in Atox1-/-/ApoE-/- mice, suggesting that decreased lysyl oxidase activity, which depends on both ATP7A and Atox1, was not sufficient to develop AAA. Bone marrow transplantation suggested importance of ATP7A in vascular cells, not bone marrow cells, in AAA development. MicroRNA (miR) array identified miR-125b as a highly upregulated miR in AAA from ATP7Amut/+/ApoE-/- mice. Furthermore, miR-125b target genes (histone methyltransferase Suv39h1 and the NF-?B negative regulator TNFAIP3 [tumor necrosis factor alpha induced protein 3]) were downregulated, which resulted in increased proinflammatory cytokine expression, aortic macrophage recruitment, MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-2/9 activity, elastin fragmentation, and vascular smooth muscle cell loss in ATP7Amut/+/ApoE-/- mice and reversed by locked nucleic acid-anti-miR-125b infusion. CONCLUSIONS:ATP7A downregulation/dysfunction promotes AAA formation via upregulating miR-125b, which augments proinflammatory signaling in a Cu-dependent manner. Thus, ATP7A is a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory vascular disease.
Project description:Hyaluronan (HA) is a primary component of the extracellular matrix of cells, and it is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of HA in neointimal formation after vascular injury and determine its tissue-specific role in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by using a cre-lox conditional transgenic (cTg) strategy.HA was found to be expressed in neointimal lesions in humans with atherosclerosis and after wire-mediated vascular injury in mice. Inhibition of HA synthesis using 4-methylumbelliferone markedly inhibited neointimal formation after injury. In vitro experiments revealed that low-molecular-weight HA (LMW-HA) induced VSMC activation, including migration, proliferation, and production of inflammatory cytokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The migration and proliferation of VSMCs were mediated by the CD44/RhoA and CD44/ERK1/2 pathways, respectively. Because HA synthase 2 (HAS2) is predominantly expressed in injured arteries, we generated cTg mice that overexpress the murine HAS2 gene specifically in VSMCs (cHAS2/CreSM22α mice) and showed that HA overexpression markedly enhanced neointimal formation after cuff-mediated vascular injury. Further, HA-overexpressing VSMCs isolated from cHAS2/CreSM22α mice showed augmented migration, proliferation, and production of inflammatory cytokines and ROS.VSMC-derived HA promotes neointimal formation after vascular injury, and HA may be a potential therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease.
Project description:Microtubule stabilizing agents (MTSA) are known to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, and effectively reduce neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. Epothilones (EPOs), non-taxane MTSA, have been found to be effective in the inhibition of VSMC proliferation and neointimal formation by cell cycle arrest. However, effect of EPOs on apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs as a possible way to reduce neointimal formation and its action mechanism related to VSMC viability has not been suited yet. Thus, the purposes of the present study was to investigate whether EPOs are able to inhibit neointimal formation by inducing apoptosis within the region of neointimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat carotid artery, as well as underlying action mechanism. Treatment of EPO-B and EPO-D significantly induced apoptotic cell death and mitotic catastrophe in hyper-proliferated VSMCs, resulting in cell growth inhibition. Further, EPOs significantly suppressed VSMC proliferation and induced apoptosis by activation of p53-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway, Bax/cytochrome c/caspase-3. We further demonstrated that the local treatment of carotid arteries with EPOs potently inhibited neointimal lesion formation by induction of apoptosis in rat carotid injury model. Our findings demonstrate a potent anti-neointimal hyperplasia property of EPOs by inducing p53-depedent apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs.
Project description:Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation are critical steps in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, post-angioplasty restenosis, neointimal hyperplasia, and chronic allograft rejection. Extracellular nucleotides are known to influence both migration and proliferation of VSMC. Although it is well established that vascular endothelial Cd39/ENTPD1 regulates blood nucleotide concentrations, whether Cd39 associated with VSMC also impacts vascular wall pathology has not been investigated. The objective of this paper is to determine levels of expression of Cd39 on VSMC and functional consequences of gene deletion in vitro and in vivo. Cd39 is the major ectonucleotidase in VSMC, as shown by substantive decreases in ecto-ATPase and -ADPase activity in Cd39-null cells compared to wild type. Significant decreases in neointimal lesion formation are observed in Cd39-null mice at 21 days post arterial balloon injury. Stimulated Cd39-null VSMC have pronounced proliferative responses in vitro. However, using Transwell systems, we show that Cd39-null VSMC fail to migrate in response to ATP, UTP, and PDGF. Cd39 is the dominant ectonucleotidase expressed by VSMC. Deletion of Cd39 in mice results in decreased neointimal formation after vascular injury and is associated with impaired VSMC migration responses in vitro.
Project description:Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and excessive accumulation of dysfunctional PVAT are hallmarks of pathogenesis after angioplasty. Recent genome-wide association studies reveal that single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in MIA3 is associated with atherosclerosis-relevant VSMC phenotypes. However, the role of MIA3 in the vascular remodeling response to injury remains unknown. Here, we found that expression of MIA3 is increased in proliferative VSMCs and knockdown of MIA3 reduces VSMCs proliferation, migration, and inflammation, whereas MIA3 overexpression promoted VSMC migration and proliferation. Moreover, knockdown of MIA3 ameliorates femoral artery wire injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia and increases brown-like perivascular adipocytes. Collectively, the data suggest that MIA3 deficiency prevents neointimal formation by decreasing VSMC proliferation, migration, and inflammation and maintaining BAT-like perivascular adipocytes in PVAT during injury-induced vascular remodeling, which provide a potential therapeutic target for preventing neointimal hyperplasia in proliferative vascular diseases.
Project description:Aging has been associated with pathological vascular remodeling and increased neointimal hyperplasia. The understanding of how aging exacerbates this process is fundamental to prevent cardiovascular complications in the elderly. This study proposes a mechanism by which aging sustains leukocyte adhesion, vascular inflammation, and increased neointimal thickness after injury. The effect of aging on vascular remodeling was assessed in the rat balloon injury model using microarray analysis, immunohistochemistry, and LINCOplex assays. The injured arteries in aging rats developed thicker neointimas than those in younger animals, and this significantly correlated with a higher number of tissue macrophages and increased vascular IL-18. Indeed, IL-18 was 23-fold more abundant in the injured vasculature of aged animals compared with young rats, while circulating levels were similar in both groups of animals. The depletion of macrophages in aged rats with clodronate liposomes ameliorated vascular accumulation of IL-18 and significantly decreased neointimal formation. IL-18 was found to inhibit apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and macrophages, thus favoring both the formation and inflammation of the neointima. In addition, injured arteries of aged rats accumulated 18-fold more fibrinogen-? than those of young animals. Incubation of rat peritoneal macrophages with immobilized IL-18 increased leukocyte adhesion to fibrinogen and suggested a proinflammatory positive feedback loop among macrophages, VSMC, and the deposition of fibrinogen during neointimal hyperplasia. In conclusion, our data reveal that concentration changes in vascular cytokine and fibrinogen following injury in aging rats contribute to local inflammation and postinjury neointima formation.
Project description:Background We have reported that cytochrome P450 1B1 ( CYP 1B1), expressed in cardiovascular tissues, contributes to angiotensin II -induced vascular smooth muscle cell ( VSMC ) migration and proliferation and development of hypertension in various experimental animal models via generation of reactive oxygen species. This study was conducted to determine the contribution of CYP 1B1 to platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced VSMC migration and proliferation in vitro and to neointimal growth in vivo. Methods and Results VSMC s isolated from aortas of male Cyp1b1 <sup>+/+</sup> and Cyp1b1 <sup>-/-</sup> mice were used for in vitro experiments. Moreover, carotid arteries of Cyp1b1 <sup>+/+</sup> and Cyp1b1 <sup>-/-</sup> mice were injured with a metal wire to assess neointimal growth after 14 days. Platelet-derived growth factor- BB -induced migration and proliferation and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> production were found to be attenuated in VSMC s from Cyp1b1 <sup>-/-</sup> mice and in VSMC s of Cyp1b1 <sup>+/+</sup> mice treated with 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl, a superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic. In addition, wire injury resulted in neointimal growth, as indicated by increased intimal area, intima/media ratio, and percentage area of restenosis, as well as elastin disorganization and adventitial collagen deposition in carotid arteries of Cyp1b1 <sup>+/+</sup> mice, which were minimized in Cyp1b1 <sup>-/-</sup> mice. Wire injury also increased infiltration of inflammatory and immune cells, as indicated by expression of CD 68<sup>+</sup> macrophages and CD 3<sup>+</sup> T cells, respectively, in the injured arteries of Cyp1b1 <sup>+/+</sup> mice, but not Cyp1b1 <sup>-/-</sup> mice. Administration of 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl attenuated neointimal growth in wire-injured carotid arteries of Cyp1b1 <sup>+/+</sup> mice. Conclusions These data suggest that CYP 1B1-dependent oxidative stress contributes to the neointimal growth caused by wire injury of carotid arteries of male mice.
Project description:Background Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is the main contributor to neointimal formation. The Arp2/3 (actin-related proteins 2 and 3) complex activates actin polymerization and is involved in lamellipodia formation during VSMC migration. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a glycoprotein expressed in VSMCs. We hypothesized that MFG-E8 regulates VSMC migration through modulation of Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization. Methods and Results To determine whether MFG-E8 is essential for VSMC migration, a model of neointimal hyperplasia was induced in the common carotid artery of wild-type and MFG-E8 knockout mice, and the extent of neointimal formation was evaluated. Genetic deletion of MFG-E8 in mice attenuated injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia. Cultured VSMCs deficient in MFG-E8 exhibited decreased cell migration. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting revealed decreased Arp2 but not Arp3 expression in the common carotid arteries and VSMCs deficient in MFG-E8. Exogenous administration of recombinant MFG-E8 biphasically and dose-dependently regulated the cultured VSMCs. At a low concentration, MFG-E8 upregulated Arp2 expression. By contrast, MFG-E8 at a high concentration reduced the Arp2 level and significantly attenuated actin assembly. Arp2 upregulation mediated by low-dose MFG-E8 was abolished by treating cultured VSMCs with β1 integrin function-blocking antibody and Rac1 inhibitors. Moreover, treatment of the artery with a high dose of recombinant MFG-E8 diminished injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia and reduced VSMC migration. Conclusions MFG-E8 plays a critical role in VSMC migration through dose-dependent regulation of Arp2-mediated actin polymerization. These findings suggest that high doses of MFG-E8 may have therapeutic potential for treating vascular occlusive diseases.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which nicotine increases vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and post-injury neointimal formation.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Vascular injury was inflicted in the right iliac artery of nicotine-treated and control rats. Nicotine increased post-injury VSMC proliferation (Ki67(+) cells) and neointimal formation (neointima/media ratio, 0.42 ± 0.23 vs. 0.14 ± 0.07, P= 0.02). To determine the mechanisms by which nicotine exacerbates VSMC proliferation, cultured cells were exposed to nicotine, and signalling pathways leading to cell proliferation were studied. Nicotine activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The blockade of this signalling axis abolished nicotine-mediated proliferation. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and Ca(2+) influx were necessary for ERK1/2 activation and nicotine-induced mitogenesis in VSMCs. Downstream to ERK1/2, nicotine induced the phosphorylation of Ets-like gene 1 in a timely co-ordinated manner with the up-regulation of the atherogenic transcription factor, early growth response 1 (Egr-1). The treatment of balloon-injured arteries with a lentivirus vector carrying a short hairpin RNA against Egr-1 abolished the deleterious effect of nicotine on vascular remodelling.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Nicotine acts through its receptors in VSMC to activate the ERK-Egr-1 signaling cascade that induces cell proliferation and exacerbates post-injury neointimal development.