Intracellular delivery and trafficking dynamics of a lymphoma-targeting antibody-polymer conjugate.
ABSTRACT: Ratiometric fluorescence and cellular fractionation studies were employed to characterize the intracellular trafficking dynamics of antibody-poly(propylacrylic acid) (PPAA) conjugates in CD22+ RAMOS-AW cells. The HD39 monoclonal antibody (mAb) directs CD22-dependent, receptor-mediated uptake in human B-cell lymphoma cells, where it is rapidly trafficked to the lysosomal compartment. To characterize the intracellular-release dynamics of the polymer-mAb conjugates, HD39-streptavidin (HD39/SA) was dual-labeled with pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor 488 and pH-sensitive pHrodo fluorophores. The subcellular pH distribution of the HD39/SA-polymer conjugates was quantified as a function of time by live-cell fluorescence microscopy, and the average intracellular pH value experienced by the conjugates was also characterized as a function of time by flow cytometry. PPAA was shown to alter the intracellular trafficking kinetics strongly relative to HD39/SA alone or HD39/SA conjugates with a control polymer, poly(methacryclic acid) (PMAA). Subcellular trafficking studies revealed that after 6 h, only 11% of the HD39/SA-PPAA conjugates had been trafficked to acidic lysosomal compartments with values at or below pH 5.6. In contrast, the average intracellular pH of HD39/SA alone dropped from 6.7 ± 0.2 at 1 h to 5.6 ± 0.5 after 3 h and 4.7 ± 0.6 after 6 h. Conjugation of the control polymer PMAA to HD39/SA showed an average pH drop similar to that of HD39/SA. Subcellular fractionation studies with tritium-labeled HD39/SA demonstrated that after 6 h, 89% of HD39/SA was associated with endosomes (Rab5+) and lysosomes (Lamp2+), while 45% of HD39/SA-PPAA was translocated to the cytosol (lactate dehydrogenase+). These results demonstrate the endosomal-releasing properties of PPAA with antibody-polymer conjugates and detail their intracellular trafficking dynamics and subcellular compartmental distributions over time.
Project description:Protein-based vaccines have significant potential as infectious disease and anticancer therapeutics, but clinical impact has been limited in some applications by their inability to generate a coordinated cellular immune response. Here, a pH-responsive carrier incorporating poly(propylacrylic acid) (PPAA) was evaluated to test whether improved cytosolic delivery of a protein antigen could enhance CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocyte generation and prophylactic tumor vaccine responses. PPAA was directly conjugated to the model ovalbumin antigen via reducible disulfide linkages and was also tested in a particulate formulation after condensation with cationic poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). Intracellular trafficking studies revealed that both PPAA-containing formulations were stably internalized and evaded exocytotic pathways, leading to increased intracellular accumulation and potential access to the cytosolic MHC-1 antigen presentation pathway. In an EG.7-OVA mouse tumor protection model, both PPAA-containing carriers robustly inhibited tumor growth and led to an approximately 3.5-fold increase in the longevity of tumor-free survival relative to controls. Mechanistically, this response was attributed to the 8-fold increase in production of ovalbumin-specific CD8+ T-lymphocytes and an 11-fold increase in production of antiovalbumin IgG. Significantly, this is one of the first demonstrated examples of in vivo immunotherapeutic efficacy using soluble protein-polymer conjugates. These results suggest that carriers enhancing cytosolic delivery of protein antigens could lead to more robust CD8+ T-cell response and demonstrate the potential of pH-responsive PPAA-based carriers for therapeutic vaccine applications.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The cell-penetrating peptide derived from the Human immunodeficiency virus-1 transactivator protein Tat possesses the capacity to promote the effective uptake of various cargo molecules across the plasma membrane in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to characterize the uptake and delivery mechanisms of a novel streptavidin fusion construct, TAT47-57-streptavidin (TAT-SA, 60 kD). SA represents a potentially useful TAT-fusion partner due to its ability to perform as a versatile intracellular delivery vector for a wide array of biotinylated molecules or cargoes.<h4>Results</h4>By confocal and immunoelectron microscopy the majority of internalized TAT-SA was shown to accumulate in perinuclear vesicles in both cancer and non-cancer cell lines. The uptake studies in living cells with various fluorescent endocytic markers and inhibiting agents suggested that TAT-SA is internalized into cells efficiently, using both clathrin-mediated endocytosis and lipid-raft-mediated macropinocytosis. When endosomal release of TAT-SA was enhanced through the incorporation of a biotinylated, pH-responsive polymer poly(propylacrylic acid) (PPAA), nuclear localization of TAT-SA and TAT-SA bound to biotin was markedly improved. Additionally, no significant cytotoxicity was detected in the TAT-SA constructs.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study demonstrates that TAT-SA-PPAA is a potential non-viral vector to be utilized in protein therapeutics to deliver biotinylated molecules both into cytoplasm and nucleus of human cells.
Project description:The application of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for cancer treatment is a promising strategy currently being explored in early phase clinical trials. However, efficient systemic delivery limits clinical implementation. We developed and tested a novel delivery system comprised of (i) an internalizing streptavidin-conjugated monoclonal antibody (mAb-SA) directed against CD22 and (ii) a biotinylated diblock copolymer containing both a positively charged siRNA condensing block and a pH-responsive block to facilitate endosome release. The modular design of the carrier facilitates the exchange of different targeting moieties and siRNAs to permit its usage in a variety of tumor types. The polymer was synthesized using the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique and formed micelles capable of binding siRNA and mAb-SA. A hemolysis assay confirmed the predicted membrane destabilizing activity of the polymer under acidic conditions typical of the endosomal compartment. Enhanced siRNA uptake was demonstrated in DoHH2 lymphoma and transduced HeLa-R cells expressing CD22 but not in CD22 negative HeLa-R cells. Gene knockdown was significantly improved with CD22-targeted vs. nontargeted polymeric micelles. Treatment of DoHH2 cells with CD22-targeted polymeric micelles containing 15 nmol/l siRNA produced 70% reduction of gene expression. This CD22-targeted polymer carrier may be useful for siRNA delivery to lymphoma cells.
Project description:The permeability barrier posed by cell membranes represents a challenge for the delivery of hydrophilic molecules into cells. We previously proposed that poly(2-alkylacrylic acid)s are endocytosed by cells into acidified vesicles and are there triggered by low pH to disrupt membranes and release the contents of endosomes/lysosomes to the cytosol. If this hypothesis is correct, these polymers could be valuable in drug-delivery applications. The present paper reports functional comparisons of a family of three poly(2-alkylacrylic acid)s. Poly(2-propylacrylic acid) (PPAA), poly(2-ethylacrylic acid) (PEAA) and poly(2-methylacrylic acid) (PMAA) were compared in red-blood-cell haemolysis assays and in a lipoplex (liposome-DNA complex) assay. We also directly examined the ability of these polymers to disrupt endosomes and lysosomes in cultured human cells. Our results show that: (i) unlike membrane-disruptive peptides, the endosomal-disruptive ability of poly(2-alkylacrylic acid)s cannot necessarily be predicted from their haemolytic activity at low pH, (ii) PPAA (but not PEAA or PMAA) potently facilitates gene transfection by cationic lipoplexes and (iii) endocytosed poly(2-alkylacrylic acid)s are triggered by luminal acidification to selectively disrupt endosomes (not lysosomes) and release their contents to the cytosol. These results will facilitate the rational design of future endosomal-disrupting polymers for drug delivery.
Project description:Electrostatic complexation of a cationic MAPKAP kinase 2 inhibitory (MK2i) peptide with the anionic, pH-responsive polymer poly(propylacrylic acid) (PPAA) yields MK2i nano-polyplexes (MK2i-NPs) that significantly increase peptide uptake and intracellular retention. This study focused on elucidating the mechanism of MK2i-NP cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking in vascular smooth muscle cells. Small molecule inhibition of various endocytic pathways showed that MK2i-NP cellular uptake involves both macropinocytosis and clathrin mediated endocytosis, whereas the free peptide exclusively utilizes clathrin mediated endocytosis for cell entry. Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that MK2i-NPs, but not free MK2i peptide, induce cellular membrane ruffling consistent with macropinocytosis. TEM confirmed that MK2i-NPs induce macropinosome formation and achieve MK2i endo-lysosomal escape and cytosolic delivery. Finally, a novel technique based on recruitment of Galectin-8-YFP was utilized to demonstrate that MK2i-NPs cause endosomal disruption within 30 minutes of uptake. These new insights on the relationship between NP physicochemical properties and cellular uptake and trafficking can potentially be applied to further optimize the MK2i-NP system and more broadly toward the rational engineering of nano-scale constructs for the intracellular delivery of biologic drugs.
Project description:Antisense technology holds tremendous potential in the research and clinical settings. However, successful delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) to the intracellular site of action requires the passage of many barriers, including survival against extracellular serum nucleases and escape from endolysosomal degradation. Previous work has shown that the effectiveness of antisense delivery by the cationic liposome, dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), is enhanced substantially by the incorporation of a pH-sensitive polymer, poly (propylacrylic acid) (PPAA), in serum-free media. To improve this system for application in serum-containing media conditions, PPAA was modified in this work by grafting onto it either poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) or a more hydrophobic analog, poly (oxyalkylene amine), known as Jeffamine. The ternary formulation of DOTAP/ODN/PPAA-g-Jeffamine resulted in 8-fold increased uptake of fluorescently-labeled ODNs compared to DOTAP/ODN/PPAA and ~80% silencing of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in CHO-d1EGFP cells treated in the presence of 10% FBS-containing media. In contrast, the carrier systems that contained PPAA or PPAA-g-PEO failed to display any significant antisense activity in the presence of serum, even though all of the delivery systems displayed moderate to high levels of antisense activity in serum-free conditions. The results reveal that the carrier system with the Jeffamine graft copolymer effectively mediates specific gene silencing in the presence of serum, while the system with the PEO graft copolymer fails to do so. While the pH-dependent lytic functionality of PPAA was found to be lost upon grafting with PEO or Jeffamine, the hydrophobicity of the latter was sufficient to mediate cellular internalization and endosomal escape. Thus, the PPAA-g-Jeffamine copolymers hold substantial promise as agents for controlled therapeutic delivery of antisense oligonucleotides.
Project description:Synthetic subunit vaccines need to induce CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses for effective vaccination against intracellular pathogens. Most subunit vaccines primarily generate humoral immune responses, with a weaker than desired CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell response. Here, a neutral, pH-responsive polymer micelle carrier that alters intracellular antigen trafficking was shown to enhance CD8(+) T cell responses with a correlated increase in cytosolic delivery and a decrease in exocytosis. Polymer diblock carriers consisted of a N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide corona block with pendent pyridyl disulfide groups for reversible conjugation of thiolated ovalbumin, and a tercopolymer ampholytic core-forming block composed of propylacrylic acid (PAA), dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and butyl methacrylate (BMA). The diblock copolymers self-assembled into 25-30nm diameter micellar nanoparticles. Conjugation of ovalbumin to the micelles significantly enhanced antigen cross-presentation in vitro relative to free ovalbumin, an unconjugated physical mixture of ovalbumin and polymer, and a non-pH-responsive micelle-ovalbumin control. Mechanistic studies in a murine dendritic cell line (DC 2.4) demonstrated micelle-mediated enhancements in intracellular antigen retention and cytosolic antigen accumulation. Approximately 90% of initially internalized ovalbumin-conjugated micelles were retained in cells after 1.5h, compared to only ~40% for controls. Furthermore, cells dosed with conjugates displayed 67-fold higher cytosolic antigen levels relative to soluble ovalbumin 4h post uptake. Subcutaneous immunization of mice with ovalbumin-polymer conjugates significantly enhanced antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses (0.4% IFN-?(+) of CD8(+)) compared to immunization with soluble protein, ovalbumin and polymer mixture, and the control micelle without endosome-releasing activity. Additionally, pH-responsive carrier facilitated antigen delivery to antigen presenting cells in the draining lymph nodes. As early as 90min post injection, ova-micelle conjugates were associated with 28% and 55% of dendritic cells and macrophages, respectively. After 24h, conjugates preferentially associated with dendritic cells, affording 30-, 3-, and 3-fold enhancements in uptake relative to free protein, physical mixture, and the non-pH-responsive conjugate controls, respectively. These results demonstrate the potential of pH-responsive polymeric micelles for use in vaccine applications that rely on CD8(+) T cell activation.
Project description:Peptides and biologics provide unique opportunities to modulate intracellular targets not druggable by conventional small molecules. Most peptides and biologics are fused with cationic uptake moieties or formulated into nanoparticles to facilitate delivery, but these systems typically lack potency due to low uptake and/or entrapment and degradation in endolysosomal compartments. Because most delivery reagents comprise cationic lipids or polymers, there is a lack of reagents specifically optimized to deliver cationic cargo. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of the cytocompatible polymer poly(propylacrylic acid) (PPAA) to potentiate intracellular delivery of cationic biomacromolecules and nano-formulations. This approach demonstrates superior efficacy over all marketed peptide delivery reagents and enhances delivery of nucleic acids and gene editing ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) formulated with both commercially-available and our own custom-synthesized cationic polymer delivery reagents. These results demonstrate the broad potential of PPAA to serve as a platform reagent for the intracellular delivery of cationic cargo.
Project description:Block copolymer nanolithography has attracted enormous interest in chip technologies, such as integrated silicon chips and biochips, due to its large-scale and mass production of uniform patterns. We further modified this technology to grow embossed nanodots, nanorods, and nanofingerprints of polymer brushes on silicon from their corresponding wet-etched nanostructures covered with pendent SiHx (X?=?1-3) species. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image the topomorphologies, and multiple transmission-reflection infrared spectroscopy (MTR-IR) was used to monitor the surface molecular films in each step for the sequential stepwise reactions. In addition, two layers of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) brush nanodots were observed, which were attributed to the circumferential convergence growth and the diffusion-limited growth of the polymer brushes. The pH response of PMAA nanodots in the same region was investigated by AFM from pH 3.0 to 9.0.
Project description:We report on naturally inspired hydrogel capsules with pH-induced transitions from discoids to oblate ellipsoids and their interactions with cells. We integrate characteristics of erythrocytes such as discoidal shape, hollow structure, and elasticity with reversible pH-responsiveness of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) to design a new type of drug delivery carrier to be potentially triggered by chemical stimuli in the tumor lesion. The capsules are fabricated from cross-linked PMAA multilayers using sacrificial discoid silicon templates. The degree of capsule shape transition is controlled by the pH-tuned volume change, which in turn is regulated by the capsule wall composition. The (PMAA)15 capsules undergo a dramatic 24-fold volume change, while a moderate 2.3-fold volume variation is observed for more rigid PMAA-(poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PMAA-PVPON)5 capsules when solution pH is varied between 7.4 and 4. Despite that both types of capsules exhibit discoid-to-oblate ellipsoid transitions, a 3-fold greater swelling in radial dimensions is found for one-component systems due to a greater degree of the circular face bulging. We also show that (PMAA-PVPON)5 discoidal capsules interact differently with J774A.1 macrophages, HMVEC endothelial cells, and 4T1 breast cancer cells. The discoidal capsules show 60% lower internalization as compared to spherical capsules. Finally, hydrogel capsules demonstrate a 2-fold decrease in size upon internalization. These capsules represent a unique example of elastic hydrogel discoids capable of pH-induced drastic and reversible variations in aspect ratios. Considering the RBC-mimicking shape, their dimensions, and their capability to undergo pH-triggered intracellular responses, the hydrogel capsules demonstrate considerable potential as novel carriers in shape-regulated transport and cellular uptake.