The Arf6 GEF GEP100/BRAG2 regulates cell adhesion by controlling endocytosis of beta1 integrins.
ABSTRACT: The small GTPase Arf6 has been shown to regulate the post-endocytic trafficking of a subset of membrane proteins, including beta1 integrins, and inhibition of Arf6 function impairs both cell adhesion and motility. The activity of Arf GTPases is regulated by a large family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Arf-GEP100/BRAG2 is a GEF with reported specificity for Arf6 in vitro, but it is otherwise poorly characterized. Here we report that BRAG2 exists in two ubiquitously expressed isoforms, which we call BRAG2a and BRAG2b, both of which can activate Arf6 in vivo. Depletion of endogenous BRAG2 by siRNA leads to dramatic effects in the cell periphery; one such effect is an accumulation of beta1 integrin on the cell surface and a corresponding enhancement of cell attachment and spreading on fibronectin-coated substrates. In contrast, depletion of Arf6 leads to intracellular accumulation of beta1 integrin and reduced adhesion and spreading. These findings suggest that Arf6 regulates both endocytosis and recycling of beta1 integrins and that BRAG2 functions selectively to activate Arf6 during integrin internalization.
Project description:ADP ribosylation factors (Arfs) are small GTP-binding proteins known for their role in vesicular transport, where they nucleate the assembly of coat protein complexes at sites of carrier vesicle formation. Similar to other GTPases, Arfs require guanine nucleotide exchange factors to catalyze GTP loading and activation. One subfamily of ArfGEFs, the BRAGs, has been shown to activate Arf6, which acts in the endocytic pathway to control the trafficking of a subset of cargo proteins including integrins. We have previously shown that BRAG2 modulates cell adhesion by regulating integrin surface expression. Here, we show that, in addition to Arf6, endogenous BRAG2 also activates the class II Arfs, Arf4 and Arf5, and that surprisingly, it is Arf5 that mediates integrin internalization. We observed that cell spreading on fibronectin is enhanced upon inhibition of BRAG2 or Arf5 but not Arf6. Similarly, spreading in BRAG2-depleted cells is reverted by expression of a rapid cycling Arf5 mutant (T161A) but not by a corresponding Arf6 construct (T157A). We also show that BRAG2 binds clathrin and the AP-2 adaptor complex and that both BRAG2 and Arf5 localize to clathrin-coated pits at the plasma membrane. Consistent with these observations, depletion of Arf5, but not Arf6 or Arf4, slows internalization of ?1 integrins without affecting transferrin receptor uptake. Together, these findings indicate that BRAG2 acts at clathrin-coated pits to promote integrin internalization by activating Arf5 and suggest a previously unrecognized role for Arf5 in clathrin-mediated endocytosis of specific cargoes.
Project description:The maturation of glutamatergic synapses in the CNS is regulated by NMDA receptors (NMDARs) that gradually change from a GluN2B- to a GluN2A-dominated subunit composition during postnatal development. Here we show that NMDARs control the activity of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) by consecutively recruiting two related brefeldin A-resistant Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors, BRAG1 and BRAG2, in a GluN2 subunit-dependent manner. In young cortical cultures, GluN2B and BRAG1 tonically activated Arf6. In mature cultures, Arf6 was activated through GluN2A and BRAG2 upon NMDA treatment, whereas the tonic Arf6 activation was not detectable any longer. This shift in Arf6 regulation and the associated drop in Arf6 activity were reversed by a knockdown of BRAG2. Given their sequential recruitment during development, we examined whether BRAG1 and BRAG2 influence synaptic currents in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons using patch clamp recordings in acute slices from mice at different ages. The number of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) miniature events was reduced by depletion of BRAG1 but not by depletion of BRAG2 during the first 2 weeks after birth. In contrast, depletion of BRAG2 during postnatal weeks 4 and 5 reduced the number of AMPAR miniature events and compromised the quantal sizes of both AMPAR and NMDAR currents evoked at Schaffer collateral synapses. We conclude that both Arf6 activation through GluN2B-BRAG1 during early development and the transition from BRAG1- to BRAG2-dependent Arf6 signaling induced by the GluN2 subunit switch are critical for the development of mature glutamatergic synapses.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling is implicated in the invasion and metastasis of hepatoma cells. However, the signaling pathways for EGF-induced motility of hepatoma cells remain undefined.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>We found that EGF dose-dependently stimulated the migration of human hepatoma cells HepG2, with the maximal effect at 10 ng/mL. Additionally, EGF increased Arf6 activity, and ectopic expression of Arf6 T27N, a dominant negative Arf6 mutant, largely abolish EGF-induced cell migration. Blocking GEP100 with GEP100 siRNA or GEP100-?PH, a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain deletion mutant of GEP100, blocked EGF-induced Arf6 activity and cell migration. EGF also increased ERK and Rac1 activity. Ectopic expression GEP100 siRNA, GEP100-?PH, or Arf6-T27N suppressed EGF-induced ERK and Rac1 activity. Furthermore, blocking ERK signaling with its inhibitor U0126 remarkably inhibited both EGF-induced Rac1 activation as well as cell migration, and ectopic expression of inactive mutant form of Rac1 (Rac1-T17N) also largely abolished EGF-induced cell migration.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Taken together, this study highlights the function of the PH domain of GEP100 and its regulated Arf6/ERK/Rac1 signaling cascade in EGF-induced hepatoma cell migration. These findings could provide a rationale for designing new therapy based on inhibition of hepatoma metastasis.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation actor 6 (ARF6) regulates the endocytosis and recycling of a variety of proteins and also promotes peripheral actin rearrangements and cell motility. ARF6 is activated by a large number of guanine nucleotide exchange factors, which likely regulate ARF6 at different locations and during different processes. In this study we investigate the roles of the cytohesin ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-guanine nucleotide exchange factors during the recycling of integrin beta1. Intriguingly, we find that knockdown and overexpression of ARNO/cytohesin 2 and GRP1/cytohesin 3 have opposing effects on cell adhesion and spreading on fibronectin and on cell migration. We find that ARNO/cytohesin 2 is required for integrin beta1 recycling, whereas GRP1/cytohesin 3 is dispensable for this process. This is the first demonstration of unique roles for these proteins.
Project description:Angiogenesis and cancer invasiveness greatly contribute to cancer malignancy.Arf6 and its effector, AMAP1, are frequently overexpressed in breast cancer, and constitute a central pathway to induce the invasion and metastasis. In this pathway, Arf6 is activated by EGFR via GEP100. Arf6 is highly expressed also in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and is implicated in angiogenesis. Here, we found that HUVECs also highly express AMAP1, and that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) recruits GEP100 to activate Arf6. AMAP1 functions by binding to cortactin in cancer invasion and metastasis. We demonstrate that the same GEP100-Arf6-AMAP1-cortactin pathway is essential for angiogenesis activities, including cell migration and tubular formation, as well as for the enhancement of cell permeability and VE-cadherin endocytosis of VEGF-stimulated HUVECs. Components of this pathway are highly expressed in pathologic angiogenesis, and blocking of this pathway effectively inhibits VEGF- or tumor-induced angiogenesis and choroidal neovascularization. The GEP100-Arf6-AMAP1-cortactin pathway, activated by receptor tyrosine kinases, appears to be common in angiogenesis and cancer invasion and metastasis, and provides their new therapeutic targets.
Project description:Brag2, a Sec7 domain (sec7d)-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factor, regulates cell adhesion and tumor cell invasion. Brag2 catalyzes nucleotide exchange, converting Arf·GDP to Arf·GTP. Brag2 contains a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, and its nucleotide exchange activity is stimulated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). Here we determined kinetic parameters for Brag2 and examined the basis for regulation by phosphoinositides. Using myristoylated Arf1·GDP as a substrate, the k(cat) was 1.8 ± 0.1/s as determined by single turnover kinetics, and the K(m) was 0.20 ± 0.07 ?m as determined by substrate saturation kinetics. PIP(2) decreased the K(m) and increased the k(cat) of the reaction. The effect of PIP(2) required the PH domain of Brag2 and the N terminus of Arf and was largely independent of Arf myristoylation. Structural analysis indicated that the linker between the sec7d and the PH domain in Brag2 may directly contact Arf. In support, we found that a Brag2 fragment containing the sec7d and the linker was more active than sec7d alone. We conclude that Brag2 is allosterically regulated by PIP(2) binding to the PH domain and that activity depends on the interdomain linker. Thus, the PH domain and the interdomain linker of Brag2 may be targets for selectively regulating the activity of Brag2.
Project description:A major problem of current cancer research and therapy is prediction of tumor recurrence after initial treatment, rather than the simple biological characterization of the malignancy and proliferative properties of tumors. Breast conservation therapy (BCT) is a well-approved, standard treatment for patients with early stages of breast cancer, which consists of lumpectomy and whole-breast irradiation. In spite of extensive studies, only 'age' and 'Ki-67 positivity' have been identified to be well correlated with local recurrence after BCT. An Arf6 pathway, activated by GEP100 under receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and employs AMAP1 as its effector, is crucial for invasion and metastasis of some breast cancer cells. This pathway activates ?1 integrins and perturbs E-cadherin-based adhesions, hence appears to be integral for epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT). We here show that expression of the Arf6 pathway components statistically correlates with rapid local recurrence after BCT. We retrospectively analyzed four hundred seventy-nine patients who received BCT in Hokkaido University Hospital, and found 20 patients had local recurrence. We then analyzed pathological samples of patients who experienced local recurrence by use of Kaplan-Meier analysis, Stepwise regression analysis and the t-test, coupled with immunostaining, and found that co-overexpression of GEP100 and AMAP1 correlates with rapidity of the local recurrence. Their margin-status, node-positivity, and estrogen receptor (ER)- or progesterone receptor (PgR)-positivity did not correlated with the rapidity. This study is the first to show that expression of a certain set of proteins correlates with the rapidity of local recurrence. Our results are useful not only for prediction, but highlight the possibility of developing novel strategies to block local recurrence. We also discuss why mRNAs encoding these proteins have not been identified to correlate with local recurrence by previous conventional gene expression profiling analyses.
Project description:The mechanisms whereby guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) coordinate their subcellular targeting to their activation of small GTPases remain poorly understood. Here we analyzed how membranes control the efficiency of human BRAG2, an ArfGEF involved in receptor endocytosis, Wnt signaling, and tumor invasion. The crystal structure of an Arf1-BRAG2 complex that mimics a membrane-bound intermediate revealed an atypical PH domain that is constitutively anchored to the catalytic Sec7 domain and interacts with Arf. Combined with the quantitative analysis of BRAG2 exchange activity reconstituted on membranes, we find that this PH domain potentiates nucleotide exchange by about 2,000-fold by cumulative conformational and membrane-targeting contributions. Furthermore, it restricts BRAG2 activity to negatively charged membranes without phosphoinositide specificity, using a positively charged surface peripheral to but excluding the canonical lipid-binding pocket. This suggests a model of BRAG2 regulation along the early endosomal pathway that expands the repertoire of GEF regulatory mechanisms. Notably, it departs from the auto-inhibitory and feedback loop paradigm emerging from studies of SOS and cytohesins. It also uncovers a novel mechanism of unspecific lipid-sensing by PH domains that may allow sustained binding to maturating membranes.
Project description:GEP(100) (p100) was identified as an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) guanine nucleotide-exchange protein (GEP) that partially colocalized with ARF6 in the cell periphery. p100 preferentially accelerated guanosine 5[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTPgammaS) binding by ARF6, which participates in protein trafficking near the plasma membrane, including receptor recycling, cell adhesion, and cell migration. Here we report that yeast two-hybrid screening of a human fetal brain cDNA library using p100 as bait revealed specific interaction with alpha-catenin, which is known as a regulator of adherens junctions and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Interaction of p100 with alpha-catenin was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of the endogenous proteins from human HepG2 or CaSki cells, although colocalization was difficult to demonstrate microscopically. alpha-Catenin enhanced GTPgammaS binding by ARF6 in vitro in the presence of p100. Depletion of p100 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment in HepG2 cells resulted in E-cadherin content 3-fold that in control cells and blocked hepatocyte growth factor-induced redistribution of E-cadherin, consistent with a known role of ARF6 in this process. F-actin was markedly decreased in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells overexpressing wild-type p100, but not its GEP-inactive mutants, also consistent with the conclusion that p100 has an important role in the activation of ARF6 for its functions in both E-cadherin recycling and actin remodeling.
Project description:ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) 6 anchors to the plasma membrane, where it coordinates membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton remodelling, but how it assembles actin filaments is unknown. By reconstituting membrane-associated actin assembly mediated by the WASP family veroprolin homolog (WAVE) regulatory complex (WRC), we recapitulated an Arf6-driven actin polymerization pathway. We show that Arf6 is divergent from other Arf members, as it was incapable of directly recruiting WRC. We demonstrate that Arf6 triggers actin assembly at the membrane indirectly by recruiting the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARNO that activates Arf1 to enable WRC-dependent actin assembly. The pathogen Salmonella usurped Arf6 for host cell invasion by recruiting its canonical GEFs EFA6 and BRAG2. Arf6 and its GEFs facilitated membrane ruffling and pathogen invasion via ARNO, and triggered actin assembly by generating an Arf1-WRC signaling hub at the membrane in vitro and in cells. This study reconstitutes Arf6-dependent actin assembly to reveal a mechanism by which related Arf GTPases orchestrate distinct steps in the WRC cytoskeleton remodelling pathway.