The HARP-like domain-containing protein AH2/ZRANB3 binds to PCNA and participates in cellular response to replication stress.
ABSTRACT: Proteins with annealing activity are newly identified ATP-dependent motors that can rewind RPA-coated complementary single-stranded DNA bubbles. AH2 (annealing helicase 2, also named as ZRANB3) is the second protein with annealing activity, the function of which is still unknown. Here, we report that AH2 is recruited to stalled replication forks and that cells depleted of AH2 are hypersensitive to replication stresses. Furthermore, AH2 binds to PCNA, which is crucial for its function at stalled replication forks. Interestingly, we identified a HARP-like (HPL) domain in AH2 that is indispensible for its annealing activity in vitro and its function in vivo. Moreover, searching of HPL domain in SNF2 family of proteins led to the identification of SMARCA1 and RAD54L, both of which possess annealing activity. Thus, this study not only demonstrates the in vivo functions of AH2, but also reveals a common feature of this new subfamily of proteins with annealing activity.
Project description:Mutations in HepA-related protein (HARP, or SMARCAL1) cause Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD). HARP has ATP-dependent annealing helicase activity, which helps to stabilize stalled replication forks and facilitate DNA repair during replication. Here, we show that the conserved tandem HARP (2HP) domain dictates this annealing helicase activity. Furthermore, chimeric proteins generated by fusing the 2HP domain of HARP with the SNF2 domain of BRG1 or HELLS show annealing helicase activity in vitro and, when targeted to replication forks, mimic the functions of HARP in vivo. We propose that the HARP domain endows HARP with this ATP-driven annealing helicase activity.
Project description:Strategies to resolve replication blocks are critical for the maintenance of genome stability. Among the factors implicated in the replication stress response is the ATP-dependent endonuclease ZRANB3. Here, we present the structure of the ZRANB3 HNH (His-Asn-His) endonuclease domain and provide a detailed analysis of its activity. We further define PCNA as a key regulator of ZRANB3 function, which recruits ZRANB3 to stalled replication forks and stimulates its endonuclease activity. Finally, we present the co-crystal structures of PCNA with two specific motifs in ZRANB3: the PIP box and the APIM motif. Our data provide important structural insights into the PCNA-APIM interaction, and reveal unexpected similarities between the PIP box and the APIM motif. We propose that PCNA and ATP-dependency serve as a multi-layered regulatory mechanism that modulates ZRANB3 activity at replication forks. Importantly, our findings allow us to interpret the functional significance of cancer associated ZRANB3 mutations.
Project description:Completion of DNA replication after replication stress depends on PCNA, which undergoes monoubiquitination to stimulate direct bypass of DNA lesions by specialized DNA polymerases or is polyubiquitinated to promote recombination-dependent DNA synthesis across DNA lesions by template switching mechanisms. Here we report that the ZRANB3 translocase, a SNF2 family member related to the SIOD disorder SMARCAL1 protein, is recruited by polyubiquitinated PCNA to promote fork restart following replication arrest. ZRANB3 depletion in mammalian cells results in an increased frequency of sister chromatid exchange and DNA damage sensitivity after treatment with agents that cause replication stress. Using in vitro biochemical assays, we show that recombinant ZRANB3 remodels DNA structures mimicking stalled replication forks and disassembles recombination intermediates. We therefore propose that ZRANB3 maintains genomic stability at stalled or collapsed replication forks by facilitating fork restart and limiting inappropriate recombination that could occur during template switching events.
Project description:HARP (SMARCAL1, MARCAL1) is an annealing helicase that functions in the repair and restart of damaged DNA replication forks through its DNA branch migration and replication fork regression activities. HARP is conserved among metazoans. HARP from invertebrates differs by the absence of one of the two HARP-specific domain repeats found in vertebrates. The annealing helicase and branch migration activity of invertebrate HARP has not been documented. We found that HARP from Drosophila melanogaster retains the annealing helicase activity of human HARP, the ability to disrupt D-loops and to branch migrate Holliday junctions, but fails to regress model DNA replication fork structures. A comparison of human and Drosophila HARP on additional substrates revealed that both HARPs are competent in branch migrating a bidirectional replication bubble composed of either DNA:DNA or RNA:DNA hybrid. Human, but not Drosophila, HARP is also capable of regressing a replication fork structure containing a highly stable poly rG:dC hybrid. Persistent RNA:DNA hybrids in vivo can lead to replication fork arrest and genome instability. The ability of HARP to strand transfer hybrids may signify a hybrid removal function for this enzyme, in vivo.
Project description:Pif-1 proteins are 5'-->3' superfamily 1 (SF1) helicases that in yeast have roles in the maintenance of mitochondrial and nuclear genome stability. The functions and activities of the human enzyme (hPif1) are unclear, but here we describe its DNA binding and DNA remodeling activities. We demonstrate that hPif1 specifically recognizes and unwinds DNA structures resembling putative stalled replication forks. Notably, the enzyme requires both arms of the replication fork-like structure to initiate efficient unwinding of the putative leading replication strand of such substrates. This DNA structure-specific mode of initiation of unwinding is intrinsic to the conserved core helicase domain (hPifHD) that also possesses a strand annealing activity as has been demonstrated for the RecQ family of helicases. The result of hPif1 helicase action at stalled DNA replication forks would generate free 3' ends and ssDNA that could potentially be used to assist replication restart in conjunction with its strand annealing activity.
Project description:Stalled replication forks are sources of genetic instability. Multiple fork-remodeling enzymes are recruited to stalled forks, but how they work to promote fork restart is poorly understood. By combining ensemble biochemical assays and single-molecule studies with magnetic tweezers, we show that SMARCAL1 branch migration and DNA-annealing activities are directed by the single-stranded DNA-binding protein RPA to selectively regress stalled replication forks caused by blockage to the leading-strand polymerase and to restore normal replication forks with a lagging-strand gap. We unveil the molecular mechanisms by which RPA enforces SMARCAL1 substrate preference. E. coli RecG acts similarly to SMARCAL1 in the presence of E. coli SSB, whereas the highly related human protein ZRANB3 has different substrate preferences. Our findings identify the important substrates of SMARCAL1 in fork repair, suggest that RecG and SMARCAL1 are functional orthologs, and provide a comprehensive model of fork repair by these DNA translocases.
Project description:Initially discovered in Escherichia coli, RuvAB proteins are ubiquitous in bacteria and play a dual role as molecular motor proteins responsible for branch migration of the Holliday junction(s) and reversal of stalled replication forks. Despite mounting genetic evidence for a crucial role of RuvA and RuvB proteins in reversal of stalled replication forks, the mechanistic aspects of this process are still not fully understood. Here, we elucidate the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RuvAB (MtRuvAB) complex to catalyze the reversal of replication forks using a range of DNA replication fork substrates. Our studies show that MtRuvAB, unlike E. coli RuvAB, is able to drive replication fork reversal via the formation of Holliday junction intermediates, suggesting that RuvAB-catalyzed fork reversal involves concerted unwinding and annealing of nascent leading and lagging strands. We also demonstrate the reversal of replication forks carrying hemi-replicated DNA, indicating that MtRuvAB complex-catalyzed fork reversal is independent of symmetry at the fork junction. The fork reversal reaction catalyzed by MtRuvAB is coupled to ATP hydrolysis, is processive, and culminates in the formation of an extended reverse DNA arm. Notably, we found that sequence heterology failed to impede the fork reversal activity of MtRuvAB. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of recognition and processing of varied types of replication fork structures by RuvAB proteins.
Project description:DNA damage and other forms of replication stress can cause replication forks to stall. Replication stress response proteins stabilize and resolve stalled forks by mechanisms that include fork remodeling to facilitate repair or bypass of damaged templates. Several enzymes including SMARCAL1, HLTF, and ZRANB3 catalyze these reactions. SMARCAL1 and HLTF utilize structurally distinct accessory domains attached to an ATPase motor domain to facilitate DNA binding and catalysis of fork remodeling reactions. Here we describe a substrate recognition domain within ZRANB3 that is needed for it to recognize forked DNA structures, hydrolyze ATP, catalyze fork remodeling, and act as a structure-specific endonuclease. Thus, substrate recognition domains are a common feature of fork remodeling, SNF2-family, DNA-dependent ATPases, and our study provides further mechanistic understanding of how these enzymes maintain genome integrity during DNA replication.
Project description:SMARCAL1 is an ATPase in the SNF2 family that functions at damaged replication forks to promote their stability and restart. It acts by translocating on DNA to catalyze DNA strand annealing, branch migration, and fork regression. Many SNF2 enzymes work as motor subunits of large protein complexes. To determine if SMARCAL1 is also a member of a protein complex and to further understand how it functions in the replication stress response, we used a proteomics approach to identify interacting proteins. In addition to the previously characterized interaction with replication protein A (RPA), we found that SMARCAL1 forms complexes with several additional proteins including DNA-PKcs and the WRN helicase. SMARCAL1 and WRN co-localize at stalled replication forks independently of one another. The SMARCAL1 interaction with WRN is indirect and is mediated by RPA acting as a scaffold. SMARCAL1 and WRN act independently to prevent MUS81 cleavage of the stalled fork. Biochemical experiments indicate that both catalyze fork regression with SMARCAL1 acting more efficiently and independently of WRN. These data suggest that RPA brings a complex of SMARCAL1 and WRN to stalled forks, but that they may act in different pathways to promote fork repair and restart.
Project description:During replication arrest, the DNA replication checkpoint plays a crucial role in the stabilization of the replisome at stalled forks, thus preventing the collapse of active forks and the formation of aberrant DNA structures. How this checkpoint acts to preserve the integrity of replication structures at stalled fork is poorly understood. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the DNA replication checkpoint kinase Cds1 negatively regulates the structure-specific endonuclease Mus81/Eme1 to preserve genomic integrity when replication is perturbed. Here, we report that, in response to hydroxyurea (HU) treatment, the replication checkpoint prevents S-phase-specific DNA breakage resulting from Mus81 nuclease activity. However, loss of Mus81 regulation by Cds1 is not sufficient to produce HU-induced DNA breaks. Our results suggest that unscheduled cleavage of stalled forks by Mus81 is permitted when the replisome is not stabilized by the replication checkpoint. We also show that HU-induced DNA breaks are partially dependent on the Rqh1 helicase, the fission yeast homologue of BLM, but are independent of its helicase activity. This suggests that efficient cleavage of stalled forks by Mus81 requires Rqh1. Finally, we identified an interplay between Mus81 activity at stalled forks and the Chk1-dependent DNA damage checkpoint during S-phase when replication forks have collapsed.