Functional impact of ABCB1 variants on interactions between P-glycoprotein and methadone.
ABSTRACT: Methadone is a widely used substitution therapy for opioid addiction. Large inter-individual variability has been observed in methadone maintenance dosages and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was considered to be one of the major contributors. To investigate the mechanism of P-gp's interaction with methadone, as well as the effect of genetic variants on the interaction, Flp-In™-293 cells stably transfected with various genotypes of human P-gp were established in the present study. The RNA and protein expression levels of human P-gp were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Utilizing rhodamine 123 efflux assay and calcein-AM uptake study, methadone was demonstrated to be an inhibitor of wild-type human P-gp via non-competitive kinetic (IC50?=?2.17±0.10 µM), while the variant-type human P-gp, P-gp with 1236T-2677T-3435T genotype and P-gp with 1236T-2677A-3435T genotype, showed less inhibition potency (IC50?=?2.97±0.09 µM and 4.43±1.10 µM, respectively) via uncompetitive kinetics. Methadone also stimulated P-gp ATPase and inhibited verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity under therapeutic concentrations. These results may provide a possible explanation for higher methadone dosage requirements in patients carrying variant-type of P-gp and revealed the possible drug-drug interactions in patients who receive concomitant drugs which are also P-gp substrates.
Project description:Antrodia cinnamomea is a traditional healthy food that has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anticacer effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the ethanolic extract of A. cinnamomea (EEAC) can affect the efflux function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the effect of ABCB1 genetic variants on the interaction between EEAC and P-gp. To investigate the mechanism of this interaction, Flp-In™-293 cells stably transfected with various genotypes of human P-gp were established and the expression of P-gp was confirmed by Western blot. The results of the rhodamine 123 efflux assay demonstrated that EEAC efficiently inhibited wild-type P-gp function at an IC50 concentration of 1.51 ± 0.08 µg/mL through non-competitive inhibition. The IC50 concentrations for variant-type 1236T-2677T-3435T P-gp and variant-type 1236T-2677A-3435T P-gp were 5.56 ± 0.49 µg/mL and 3.33±0.67 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the inhibition kinetics of EEAC also changed to uncompetitive inhibition in variant-type 1236T-2677A-3435T P-gp. The ATPase assay revealed that EEAC was an ATPase stimulator and was capable of reducing verapamil-induced ATPase levels. These results indicate that EEAC may be a potent P-gp inhibitor and higher dosages may be required in subjects carrying variant-types P-gp. Further studies are required to translate this basic knowledge into clinical applications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genetic variability in ABCB1, encoding the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter, has been linked to altered methadone maintenance treatment dose requirements. However, subsequent studies have indicated that additional environmental or genetic factors may confound ABCB1 pharmacogenetics in different methadone maintenance treatment settings. There is evidence that genetic variability in OPRM1, encoding the mu opioid receptor, and ABCB1 may interact to affect morphine response in opposite ways. This study aimed to examine whether a similar gene-gene interaction occurs for methadone in methadone maintenance treatment. METHODS:Opioid-dependent subjects (n = 119) maintained on methadone (15-300 mg/day) were genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCB1 (61A > G; 1199G > A; 1236C > T; 2677G > T; 3435C > T), as well as for the OPRM1 118A > G single nucleotide polymorphism. Subjects' methadone doses and trough plasma (R)-methadone concentrations (C(trough)) were compared between ABCB1 haplotypes (with and without controlling for OPRM1 genotype), and between OPRM1 genotypes (with and without controlling for ABCB1 haplotype). RESULTS:Among wild-type OPRM1 subjects, an ABCB1 variant haplotype group (subjects with a wild-type and 61A:1199G:1236C:2677T:3435T haplotype combination, or homozygous for the 61A:1199G:1236C:2677T:3435T haplotype) had significantly lower doses (median ± standard deviation 35 ± 5 versus 180 ± 65 mg/day, P < 0.01) and C(trough) (78 ± 22 versus 177 ± 97 ng/mL, P < 0.05) than ABCB1 wild-type subjects. Among subjects with the most common ABCB1 haplotype combination (wild-type with 61A:1199G:1236T:2677T:3435T), the OPRM1 118 A/G genotype was associated with a significantly higher C(trough) than 118 A/A (250 ± 126 versus 108 ± 36 ng/mL, P = 0.016). No ABCB1 haplotype group or OPRM1 genotype was associated with dose or C(trough) without taking into account confounding genetic variability at the other locus. Therefore, two interacting pharmacogenetic determinants of methadone maintenance treatment response were identified, ie, ABCB1, where variants are associated with lower methadone requirements, and OPRM1, where the variant is associated with higher methadone requirements. CONCLUSION:These opposing pharmacogenetic effects therefore need to be considered in combination when assessing methadone maintenance treatment pharmacogenetics.
Project description:Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a substrate for cytochrome P450 3A and the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1), both abundantly expressed in the kidney. In a long-term follow-up of a cohort of patients who had received kidney transplants between the years 1990 and 2005, we retrospectively investigated the effect of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 polymorphisms in kidney graft donors on recipients' renal function and risk of subsequent graft loss. DNA samples from 227 donors and clinical data from the 259 respective recipients were analyzed. Graft loss was significantly associated with the presence of the ABCB1 variant haplotype 1236T/2677T/3435T in the donor (1236T/2677T/3435T vs. other haplotypes: hazard ratio = 9.346; 95% confidence interval (CI) (2.278-38.461); P = 0.0019) and with previous episodes of acute organ rejection (hazard ratio = 3.077; 95% CI (1.213-7.812); P = 0.0178). The variant haplotype was also associated with a greater decrease in renal function (homozygotes for TTT -3.047 mlxmin(-1)/year; heterozygotes for TTT -4.435 mlxmin(-1)/year; others -2.186 mlxmin(-1)/year; P = 0.0240). The study showed that the presence of ABCB1 polymorphisms in donors influences long-term graft outcome adversely with decrease in renal function and graft loss in transplant recipients receiving CsA.
Project description:Overexpression of ABCB1 (also called P-glycoprotein) confers resistance to multiple anticancer drugs, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Several ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms affect the transporter activity. The most common ABCB1 variants are 1236C?>?T, 2677G?>?T, 3435C?>?T and have been associated with clinical response to imatinib in chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) in some studies. We evaluated the impact of these polymorphisms on the anti-proliferative effect and the intracellular accumulation of TKIs (imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib and ponatinib) in transfected HEK293 and K562 cells. ABCB1 overexpression increased the resistance of cells to doxorubicin, vinblastine and TKIs. Imatinib anti-proliferative effect and accumulation were decreased to a larger extent in cells expressing the ABCB1 wild-type protein compared with the 1236T-2677T-3435T variant relatively to control cells. By contrast, ABCB1 polymorphisms influenced the activity of nilotinib, dasatinib and ponatinib to a much lesser extent. In conclusion, our data suggest that wild-type ABCB1 exports imatinib more efficiently than the 1236T-2677T-3435T variant protein, providing a molecular basis for the reported association between ABCB1 polymorphisms and the response to imatinib in CML. Our results also point to a weaker impact of ABCB1 polymorphisms on the activity of nilotinib, dasatinib and ponatinib.
Project description:The role of the multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1 or ABCB1) gene polymorphisms 1236T>C, 2677T>G, and 3435T>C was studied in relation to susceptibility, demographics, and pathological characteristics, as well as their role in the therapeutic response (TR) to prednisone treatment in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS).The polymorphisms were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 46 children with INS and in 100 healthy controls. Different genetic models (codominant, dominant, recessive, and overdominant) were used for testing of associations between polymorphisms and phenotypes.Statistical analysis showed a significantly increased chance of TR in children carrying 3435TC genotype (OR=5.13, 95% CI=1.18-22.25; overdominant model). Moreover, INS patients under 6 years of age had significantly decreased frequencies of MDR1 1236CC (7.7% vs. 35%, p=0.029) or 2677GG (3.8% vs. 30.0%, p=0.033) genotypes. We also observed that patients with minimal change in disease and patients under 6 years of age at the onset of INS were initial responders more frequently when compared with children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and patients ≥6 years old at the onset (p=0.0001, p=0.027, respectively).These data suggest that prednisone TR may be influenced by histology, age at the onset of INS, and MDR1 3435T>C polymorphism. The MDR1 1236T>C and 2677T>G polymorphisms were significantly associated with age at onset. Larger multicenter studies and studies across other ethnic groups are needed to elucidate the contradictory implications of MDR1 polymorphisms with INS in children.
Project description:AIMS: This study aimed to investigate possible effects of ABCB1 genotype on fluvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin, and rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics. METHODS: In a fixed-order crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers with the ABCB1 c.1236C/C-c.2677G/G-c.3435C/C (CGC/CGC) genotype and 10 with the c.1236T/T-c.2677T/T-c.3435T/T (TTT/TTT) genotype ingested a single 20-mg dose of fluvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin, and rosuvastatin. Plasma fluvastatin, pravastatin, and lovastatin concentrations were measured up to 12 h and plasma and urine rosuvastatin concentrations up to 48 and 24 h, respectively. RESULTS: The ABCB1 genotype had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of any of the investigated statins. The geometric mean ratio (95% confidence interval) of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) in participants with the TTT/TTT genotype to that in those with the CGC/CGC genotype was 0.96 (0.77, 1.20; P= 0.737) for fluvastatin, 0.92 (0.53, 1.62; P= 0.772) for pravastatin, 0.83 (0.36, 1.90; P= 0.644) for lovastatin, 1.25 (0.72, 2.17; P= 0.400) for lovastatin acid, and 1.10 (0.73, 1.65; P= 0.626) for rosuvastatin. The AUC(0-infinity) of lovastatin acid correlated significantly with that of rosuvastatin (r= 0.570, P= 0.009), but none of the other AUC(0-infinity) pairs showed a significant correlation. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the ABCB1 c.1236C-c.2677G-c.3435C and c.1236T-c.2677T-c.3435T haplotypes play no significant role in the interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin, and rosuvastatin.
Project description:Bullous pemphigoid (BP) constitutes the most prevalent disease in the group of bullous dermatoses with the autoimmune background. Some authors suggest that certain cytokines (IL-2, IFN-?) may be transported by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the product of the ABCB1 gene. ABCB1 polymorphism might affect not only the effectiveness of treatment with drugs that are P-gp substrates but also contribute to the development of diseases, including BP. In the present work, we resolved to conduct a haplotype analysis of ABCB1 in patients with BP and to answer the question of whether any of the haplotypes are able to affect the incidence of this entity. The study involved 71 patients with BP and 100 healthy volunteers. Determination of polymorphisms 1236C?>?T and 3435C?>?T in ABCB1 was carried out with the PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) method. The 2677G?>?T/A ABCB1 polymorphism was analyzed with the allele-specific PCR method. It was observed that the 1236T-2677G-3435T haplotype occurred with a statistically significantly lower frequency in patients with BP than in controls (1.4 vs. 10.0%). Carriers of this haplotype were also shown to have had a low relative risk for BP (OR?=?0.13, p?=?0.003). Haplotype analysis of ABCB1 conducted in patients with BP demonstrated that the 1236T-2677G-3435T haplotype may protect against development of this entity.
Project description:Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are substrates for the ABCB1 transporter (also called P-glycoprotein), an active efflux pump. ABCB1 polymorphisms have been previously reported to influence the pharmacokinetics of several drugs such as immunosuppressants and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Recently, in vivo studies have suggested that genetic variants might contribute to the inter-individual variability in DOAC plasma concentrations. Therefore, we evaluated the in vitro effect of the most common coding ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), 1236?C?>?T-2677G?>?T-3435C?>?T, and the coding ABCB1 1199?G?>?A SNP on the transport activity towards rivaroxaban. HEK293 cells were transfected to overexpress the ABCB1 wild-type (1236C-2677G-3435C, 1199?G) or variant proteins (1236C-2677G-3435T, 1236T-2677T-3435T or 1199?A). ABCB1 expression decreased the intracellular accumulation of rivaroxaban, when compared to control cells. This confirms the involvement of ABCB1 in the active transport of rivaroxaban. However, the ABCB1 1236?C?>?T-2677G?>?T-3435C?>?T and 1199?G?>?A SNPs had no significant influence on the intracellular accumulation of rivaroxaban when compared to the wild-type protein. These results suggest that the ABCB1 coding SNPs investigated in the present study are unlikely to contribute to the inter-individual variability in rivaroxaban plasma concentrations.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The human multidrug resistance gene ATP-binding cassette B1 (ABCB1) codes for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an important membrane-bound efflux transporter known to confer anticancer drug resistance as well as affect the pharmacokinetics of many drugs and xenobiotics. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified throughout the ABCB1 gene that may have an effect on P-gp expression levels and function. Haplotype as well as genotype analysis of SNPs is becoming increasingly important in identifying genetic variants underlying susceptibility to human disease. Three SNPs, 1236C-->T, 2677G-->T and 3435C-->T, have been repeatedly shown to predict changes in the function of P-gp. The frequencies with which these polymorphisms exist in a population have also been shown to be ethnically related. METHODS:In this study, 95 individuals representative of the entire ethnic make-up of the USA were compared with 101 individuals from an Ashkenazi-Jewish population. These individuals were analyzed by genomic sequencing and polymerase chain reaction, using restriction fragment length polymorphisms, to calculate their genotype frequencies. RESULTS:A total of 25 SNPs were located in the exons of the ABCB1 gene. All of the polymorphisms identified were in parts of the ABCB1 gene product predicted to be intracellular, and 16 appear to be novel as compared with those listed by the National Center for Biotechnological Information. Frequencies of the 1236C-->T and 2677G-->T/A/C SNPs were similar for the US and Ashkenazi populations (64.2 and 60.4%, respectively for 1236C-->T [chi2: 0.30; p < or = 1]; 55.8 and 64.4%, respectively for 2677G-->T/A/C [chi2: 1.49; p < or = 1]), but were different for 3435C-->T (24.2% for the US population and 69.3% for the Ashkenazi population [chi2: 39.927; p < or = 0.001]). The 1236T/ 2677T/3435T haplotype occurred in 23.6% (standard error: 0.013) of the Ashkenazi population. CONCLUSION:The SNP at location 3435C-->T plays a significant role in the ABCB1 gene. The haplotype and genotype analysis from these data may be used as a basis for studies on the relationship between ABCB1 genotypes and drug efficacy, drug toxicity, disease susceptibility or other phenotypes.
Project description:Irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer. Irinotecan's active metabolite is inactivated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), which is deficient in Gilbert's syndrome. Irinotecan and metabolites are transported by P-glycoprotein, encoded by ABCB1. 5-FU targets folate metabolism through inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TYMS). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) generates active folate necessary for haematopoiesis. We retrospectively genotyped 140 Swedish and Norwegian irinotecan and 5-FU-treated colorectal cancer patients from the Nordic VI clinical trial for selected variants of UGT1A1, ABCB1, TYMS and MTHFR. We found an increased risk of clinically relevant early toxicity in patients carrying the ABCB1 3435 T/T genotype, Odds ratio (OR)=3.79 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09-13.2), and in patients carrying the UGT1A1(*)28/(*)28 genotype, OR=4.43 (95% CI=1.30-15.2). Patients with UGT1A1(*)28/(*)28 had an especially high risk of neutropenia, OR=6.87 (95% CI=1.70-27.7). Patients who had reacted with toxicity during the first two cycles were in total treated with fewer cycles (P<0.001), and less often responded to treatment (P<0.001). Genetic variation in ABCB1 was associated with both early toxicity and lower response to treatment. Carriers of the ABCB1 1236T-2677T-3435T haplotype responded to treatment less frequently (43 vs 67%, P=0.027), and survived shorter time, OR=1.56 (95% CI=1.01-2.45).