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Semisynthetic studies identify mitochondria poisons from botanical dietary supplements--geranyloxycoumarins from Aegle marmelos.


ABSTRACT: Bioassay-guided isolation and subsequent structure elucidation of a Bael tree Aegle marmelos lipid extract yielded two unstable acylated geranyloxycoumarin mixtures (1-2), six geranyloxycoumarins (3-8), (+)-9'-isovaleroxylariciresinol (9), and dehydromarmeline (10). In a T47D cell-based reporter assay, 1 and 2 potently inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 0.18 and 1.10 ?gmL(-1), respectively). Insufficient material and chemical instability prevented full delineation of the fatty acyl side chain olefin substitution patterns in 1 and 2. Therefore, five fatty acyl geranyloxycoumarin ester derivatives (11-15) were prepared from marmin (3) and commercial fatty acyl chlorides by semisynthesis. The unsaturated C-6' linoleic acid ester derivative 14 that was structurally most similar to 1 and 2, inhibited HIF-1 activation with comparable potency (IC50 0.92 ?M). The octanoyl (11) and undecanoyl (12) ester derivatives also suppressed HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 3.1 and 0.87 ?M, respectively). Mechanistic studies revealed that these geranyloxycoumarin derivatives disrupt mitochondrial respiration, primarily at complex I. Thus, these compounds may inhibit HIF-1 activation by suppressing mitochondria-mediated hypoxic signaling. One surprising observation was that, while less potent, the purported cancer chemopreventive agent auraptene (8) was found to act as a mitochondrial poison that disrupts HIF-1 signaling in tumors.

SUBMITTER: Li J 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3602229 | BioStudies | 2013-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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