Hepatic growth hormone resistance after acute injury.
ABSTRACT: Severe injury and infection are often followed by accelerated protein catabolism and acute insulin resistance. This results in several effects that complicate and prolong recovery, including weakness, immobility, impaired wound healing, and organ dysfunction. Recent studies have demonstrated the development of GH resistance during severe inflammation, providing a potential mechanism for the protein loss that follows injury and infection. To understand this GH resistance, we recently developed a murine model of acute injury. Mice were subjected to soft-tissue injury, alone or combined with hemorrhage, and injected iv with GH 30, 60, or 90 minutes later. Hepatic GH signaling was measured via Western analysis. GH-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 phosphorylation was decreased immediately after completion of the trauma procedure, and at 30 and 60 minutes, but further decreased by 90 minutes after trauma. Combined trauma and hemorrhage resulted in severely decreased GH-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 phosphorylation compared with trauma alone, and this was true at all time points studied. Western analysis revealed an apparent decrease in the molecular weight of the hepatic GH receptor (GHR) after trauma and hemorrhage, but not trauma alone. Additional studies determined that the hemorrhage-induced decrease in receptor size was not due to changes in GHR N-linked glycosylation. These results suggest that GH sensitivity is rapidly impaired after acute injury and that trauma combined with hemorrhage results in a more severe form of GH resistance resulting from alteration or inactivation of hepatic GHR.
Project description:Diminished growth hormone (GH) is associated with impaired endothelial function and fibrinolysis. GH-releasing hormone is the primary stimulus for GH secretion and a substrate of dipeptidyl peptidase-4. We tested the hypothesis that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition with sitagliptin increases stimulated GH secretion, vasodilation, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity.Healthy adults participated in a 2-part double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. First, 39 patients (29 women) received sitagliptin or placebo on each of 2 days separated by a washout. One hour after study drug, blood was sampled and then arginine (30 g IV) was given to stimulate GH. Vasodilation was assessed by plethysmography and blood sampled for 150 minutes. Following a washout, 19 of the original 29 women received sitagliptin alone versus sitagliptin plus antagonist to delineate GH receptor (GHR)- (n=5), nitric oxide- (n=7), or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor- (n=7) dependent effects. Sitagliptin enhanced stimulated GH secretion (P<0.01 versus placebo, for 30 minutes) and free insulin-like growth factor-1 (P<0.001 versus placebo, after adjustment for baseline) in women. Vasodilation and tPA increased in all patients, but sitagliptin enhanced vasodilation (P=0.01 versus placebo) and increased tPA (P<0.001) in women only. GHR blockade decreased free insulin-like growth factor-1 (P=0.04 versus sitagliptin alone) and increased stimulated GH (P<0.01), but decreased vascular resistance (P=0.01) such that nadir vascular resistance correlated inversely with GH (rs=-0.90, P<0.001). GHR blockade suppressed tPA. Neither nitric oxide nor glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor blockade affected vasodilation or tPA.Sitagliptin enhances stimulated GH, vasodilation, and fibrinolysis in women. During sitagliptin, increases in free insulin-like growth factor-1 and tPA occur via the GHR, whereas vasodilation correlates with GH but occurs through a GHR-independent mechanism.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01701973.
Project description:In humans, low levels of growth hormone (GH) and its mediator, IGF-1, associate with hepatic lipid accumulation. In mice, congenital liver-specific ablation of the GH receptor (GHR) results in reductions in circulating IGF-1 and hepatic steatosis, associated with systemic insulin resistance. Due to the intricate relationship between GH and IGF-1, the relative contribution of each hormone to the development of hepatic steatosis is unclear. Our goal was to dissect the mechanisms by which hepatic GH resistance leads to steatosis and overall insulin resistance, independent of IGF-1. We have generated a combined mouse model with liver-specific ablation of GHR in which we restored liver IGF-1 expression via the hepatic IGF-1 transgene. We found that liver GHR ablation leads to increases in lipid uptake, de novo lipogenesis, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia accompanied with severe insulin resistance and increased body adiposity and serum lipids. Restoration of IGF-1 improved overall insulin sensitivity and lipid profile in serum and reduced body adiposity, but was insufficient to protect against steatosis-induced hepatic inflammation or oxidative stress. We conclude that the impaired metabolism in states of GH resistance results from direct actions of GH on lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis, whereas its actions on extrahepatic tissues are mediated by IGF-1.
Project description:Growth hormone (GH) has an important function as an insulin antagonist with elevated insulin sensitivity evident in humans and mice lacking a functional GH receptor (GHR). We sought the molecular basis for this sensitivity by utilizing a panel of mice possessing specific deletions of GHR signaling pathways. Metabolic clamps and glucose homeostasis tests were undertaken in these obese adult C57BL/6 male mice, which indicated impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin sensitivity and glucose disappearance rate were enhanced in muscle and adipose of mice lacking the ability to activate the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5 via the GHR (Ghr-391-/-) as for GHR-null (GHR-/-) mice. These changes were associated with a striking inhibition of hepatic glucose output associated with altered glycogen metabolism and elevated hepatic glycogen content during unfed state. The enhanced hepatic insulin sensitivity was associated with increased insulin receptor ? and insulin receptor substrate 1 activation along with activated downstream protein kinase B signaling cascades. Although phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck)-1 expression was unchanged, its inhibitory acetylation was elevated because of decreased sirtuin-2 expression, thereby promoting loss of PCK1. Loss of STAT5 signaling to defined chromatin immunoprecipitation targets would further increase lipogenesis, supporting hepatosteatosis while lowering glucose output. Finally, up-regulation of IL-15 expression in muscle, with increased secretion of adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor 1 from adipose tissue, is expected to promote insulin sensitivity.-Chhabra, Y., Nelson, C. N., Plescher, M., Barclay, J. L., Smith, A. G., Andrikopoulos, S., Mangiafico, S., Waxman, D. J., Brooks, A. J., Waters, M. J. Loss of growth hormone-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling in mice results in insulin sensitivity with obesity.
Project description:Dysfunction and destruction of pancreatic islet ?-cells is a hallmark of diabetes. Better understanding of cell signals regulating ?-cell growth and antiapoptosis will allow development of therapeutic strategies for diabetes by preservation and expansion of ?-cell mass. GH and IGF-I share a complicated physiological relationship and have both been implicated in ?-cell function. GH and IGF-I exert their biological effects through binding to respective receptors (GHR and IGF-IR) and subsequently engaging downstream signaling pathways. However, their collaborative roles in modulation of ?-cell mass and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that cultured ?-cells are appealing systems for investigating potential GH-IGF-I signaling cross talk. We uncover that GH specifically promotes formation of a protein complex containing GHR, Janus kinase 2 (a nonreceptor kinase coupled to GH/GHR signaling), and IGF-IR. More importantly, GH and IGF-I synergistically activate both signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 and Akt pathways. Concomitantly, ?-cells proliferate more robustly and are better protected from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis when exposed to GH and IGF-I in combination vs. GH or IGF-I alone. The augmented proliferative effects by GH and IGF-I are confirmed in isolated islets. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that there exists a novel signaling relationship between GH/GHR and IGF-I/IGF-IR systems in ?-cells, i.e. IGF-IR may serve as a proximal component of GH/GHR signaling, contributing to enhancement of ?-cell mass and function. In support of this, IGF-IR knockdown in ?-cells resulted in the desensitization of acute GH-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 activation.
Project description:During inflammation, the liver becomes resistant to growth hormone (GH) actions, leading to downregulation of the GH target gene IGF-I and activation of catabolism. Proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-1? are critically involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic GH resistance. However, the mechanisms used by endogenous IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-1? to inhibit the hepatic GH-IGF-I pathway during inflammation are not fully understood. Here, we show that TNF-? and IL-1? inhibited GH receptor (GHR) expression but had minor effects on the downstream suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)3, while IL-6 induced SOCS3 expression but had no effect on GHR expression in Huh-7 cells. Consistent with the in vitro observations, neutralization of TNF-? and IL-1? in mouse models of inflammation did not significantly alter SOCS3 expression stimulated by inflammation but restored GHR and IGF-I expression suppressed by inflammation. Neutralization of IL-6 did not alter inflammation-suppressed GHR expression but drastically reduced the inflammation-stimulated SOCS3 expression and restored IGF-I expression. Interestingly, when the GH-IGF-I pathway was turned off by maximal inhibition of GHR expression, IL-6 and SOCS3 were no longer able to regulate IGF-I expression. Taken together, our results suggest that TNF-?/IL-1? and IL-6 use distinct mechanisms to induce hepatic GH resistance, with TNF-? and IL-1? acting primarily on GHR and IL-6 acting primarily on SOCS3. IL-6 action may be superseded by factors such as TNF-? and IL-1? that inhibit GHR expression.
Project description:Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are reported to have low growth hormone (GH) production and/or hepatic GH resistance. GH replacement can resolve the fatty liver condition in diet-induced obese rodents and in GH-deficient patients. However, it remains to be determined whether this inhibitory action of GH is due to direct regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Therefore, an adult-onset, hepatocyte-specific, GH receptor (GHR) knockdown (aLivGHRkd) mouse was developed to model hepatic GH resistance in humans that may occur after sexual maturation. Just 7 days after aLivGHRkd, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) was increased in male and female chow-fed mice, compared with GHR-intact littermate controls. However, hepatosteatosis developed only in male and ovariectomized female aLivGHRkd mice. The increase in DNL observed in aLivGHRkd mice was not associated with hyperactivation of the pathway by which insulin is classically considered to regulate DNL. However, glucokinase mRNA and protein levels as well as fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels were increased in aLivGHRkd mice, suggesting that enhanced glycolysis drives DNL in the GH-resistant liver. These results demonstrate that hepatic GH actions normally serve to inhibit DNL, where loss of this inhibitory signal may explain, in part, the inappropriate increase in hepatic DNL observed in NAFLD patients.
Project description:Transgenic fish for growth hormone (GH) has been considered as a potential technological improvement in aquaculture. In this study, a double-transgenic zebrafish was used to evaluate the effect of GH and its receptor (GHR) on muscle growth. Double transgenics reached the same length of GH transgenic, but with significantly less weight, featuring an unbalanced growth. The condition factor of GH/GHR-transgenic fish was lower than the other genotypes. Histological analysis showed a decrease in the percentage of thick muscle fibers in GH/GHR genotype of ? 80% in comparison to GH-transgenic line. The analysis of gene expression showed a significant decrease in genes related to muscle growth in GH/GHR genotype. It seems that concomitant overexpression of GH and GHR resulted in a strong decrease of the somatotrophic axis intracellular signaling by diminishing its principal transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5.1 (STAT5.1).
Project description:Growth hormone (GH) plays a pivotal role in growth and metabolism, with growth promotion mostly attributed to generation of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in liver or at local sites of GH action, whereas the metabolic effects of GH are considered to be intrinsic to GH itself. To distinguish the effects of GH from those of IGF-I, we developed a Cre-lox-mediated model of tissue-specific deletion of the growth hormone receptor (GHR). Near total deletion of the GHR in liver (GHRLD) had no effect on total body or bone linear growth despite a >90% suppression of circulating IGF-I; however, total bone density was significantly reduced. Circulating GH was increased 4-fold, and GHRLD displayed insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and increased circulating free fatty acids. Livers displayed marked steatosis, the result of increased triglyceride synthesis and decreased efflux; reconstitution of hepatic GHR signaling via adenoviral expression of GHR restored triglyceride output to normal, whereas IGF-I infusion did not correct steatosis despite restoration of circulating GH to normal. Thus, with near total absence of circulating IGF-I, GH action at the growth plate, directly and via locally generated IGF-I, can regulate bone growth, but at the expense of diabetogenic, lipolytic, and hepatosteatotic consequences. Our results indicate that IGF-I is essential for bone mineral density, whereas hepatic GH signaling is essential to regulate intrahepatic lipid metabolism. We propose that circulating IGF-I serves to amplify the growth-promoting effects of GH, while simultaneously dampening the catabolic effects of GH.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Growth hormone (GH) is important for liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx). We investigated this process in C57BL/6 mice that express different forms of the GH receptor (GHR) with deletions in key signaling domains.<h4>Approach and results</h4>PHx was performed on C57BL/6 mice lacking GHR (Ghr<sup>-/-</sup> ), disabled for all GH-dependent Janus kinase 2 signaling (Box1<sup>-/-</sup> ), or lacking only GH-dependent signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling (Ghr391<sup>-/-</sup> ), and wild-type littermates. C57BL/6 Ghr<sup>-/-</sup> mice showed striking mortality within 48 hours after PHx, whereas Box1<sup>-/-</sup> or Ghr391<sup>-/-</sup> mice survived with normal liver regeneration. Ghr<sup>-/-</sup> mortality was associated with increased apoptosis and elevated natural killer/natural killer T cell and macrophage cell markers. We identified H2-Bl, a key immunotolerance protein, which is up-regulated by PHx through a GH-mediated, Janus kinase 2-independent, SRC family kinase-dependent pathway. GH treatment was confirmed to up-regulate expression of the human homolog of H2-Bl (human leukocyte antigen G [HLA-G]) in primary human hepatocytes and in the serum of GH-deficient patients. We find that injury-associated innate immune attack by natural killer/natural killer T cell and macrophage cells are instrumental in the failure of liver regeneration, and this can be overcome in Ghr<sup>-/-</sup> mice by adenoviral delivery of H2-Bl or by infusion of HLA-G protein. Further, H2-Bl knockdown in wild-type C57BL/6 mice showed elevated markers of inflammation after PHx, whereas Ghr<sup>-/-</sup> backcrossed on a strain with high endogenous H2-Bl expression showed a high rate of survival following PHx.<h4>Conclusions</h4>GH induction of H2-Bl expression is crucial for reducing innate immune-mediated apoptosis and promoting survival after PHx in C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with HLA-G may lead to improved clinical outcomes following liver surgery or transplantation.
Project description:Growth failure remains a common complication of pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) and has been associated with small bowel involvement and need for surgery. We have reported that patients with elevated (? 1.6 ?g/mL) granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor autoantibodies (GM-CSF Ab) are more likely to experience complicated ileal disease requiring surgery. We hypothesized that concurrent GM-CSF Ab and CARD15 risk allele carriage (C15(+) GMAb(+) ) would be associated with growth failure in CD and growth hormone (GH) resistance in murine ileitis.We enrolled 229 pediatric CD patients at two sites and determined CARD15 genotype, serum GM-CSF Ab, and GH binding protein (GHBP), and height (HTz) and weight (WTz) z-scores at diagnosis. Ileitis was induced in card15-deficient mice by GM-CSF neutralization and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) exposure. Hepatic GH receptor (GHR) abundance and GH-dependent Stat5 activation were determined by western blot and Igf-I mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) HTz at diagnosis was reduced to -0.48 (-4.2, 2.3) in C15(+) GMAb(+) patients, compared to -0.07 (-4.9, 3.4) in disease controls (P ? 0.05). Circulating GHBP, as a marker for tissue GHR abundance, was reduced in C15(+) GMAb(+) patients. Hepatic GHR abundance, GH induction of Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation, and Igf-I mRNA expression were reduced in male card15-deficient mice with ileitis due to GM-CSF neutralization and NSAID exposure.Innate dysfunction due to concurrent genetic variation in CARD15 and neutralizing GM-CSF Ab is associated with linear growth failure in pediatric CD, and hepatic GH resistance in murine ileitis.