LDL receptor-related protein-1 is a sialic-acid-independent receptor for myelin-associated glycoprotein that functions in neurite outgrowth inhibition by MAG and CNS myelin.
ABSTRACT: In the injured adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), products are generated that inhibit neuronal sprouting and regeneration. In recent years, most attention has focused on the myelin-associated inhibitory proteins (MAIs) Nogo-A, OMgp, and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Binding of MAIs to neuronal cell-surface receptors leads to activation of RhoA, growth cone collapse, and neurite outgrowth inhibition. In the present study, we identify low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) as a high-affinity, endocytic receptor for MAG. In contrast with previously identified MAG receptors, binding of MAG to LRP1 occurs independently of terminal sialic acids. In primary neurons, functional inactivation of LRP1 with receptor-associated protein, depletion by RNA interference (RNAi) knock-down, or LRP1 gene deletion is sufficient to significantly reverse MAG and myelin-mediated inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Similar results are observed when LRP1 is antagonized in PC12 and N2a cells. By contrast, inhibiting LRP1 does not attenuate inhibition of neurite outgrowth caused by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Mechanistic studies in N2a cells showed that LRP1 and p75NTR associate in a MAG-dependent manner and that MAG-mediated activation of RhoA may involve both LRP1 and p75NTR. LRP1 derivatives that include the complement-like repeat clusters CII and CIV bind MAG and other MAIs. When CII and CIV were expressed as Fc-fusion proteins, these proteins, purified full-length LRP1 and shed LRP1 all attenuated the inhibition of neurite outgrowth caused by MAG and CNS myelin in primary neurons. Collectively, our studies identify LRP1 as a novel MAG receptor that functions in neurite outgrowth inhibition.
Project description:MAG (Myelin-associated glycoprotein) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes, that has been implicated in the control of axonal growth in many neuronal populations including cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). However, it is unclear whether MAG has other functions in central nervous system, in particular, in cerebellar development and patterning. We find that MAG expression in the cerebellum is compartmentalised resulting in increased MAG protein levels in the cerebellar white matter. MAG induces apoptosis in developing CGNs through p75NTR signalling. Deletion of p75NTR in vivo reduced the number of apoptotic neurons in cerebellar white matter during development leading to reduction in the size of white matter in the adulthood. Furthermore, we show that MAG impairs CGNs neurite outgrowth as consequence of MAG-induced apoptosis in CGNs. Mechanistically, we find that MAG/NgR1-induced cell death is dependent of p75NTR-mediated activation of JNK/cell death signalling pathway. Together, these findings identify the mechanisms by which MAG induces CGNs apoptotic activity, a crucial event that facilitates cerebellar layer refinement during development.
Project description:Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) binds to the nerve cell surface and inhibits nerve regeneration. The nerve cell surface ligand(s) for MAG are not established, although sialic acid-bearing glycans have been implicated. We identify the nerve cell surface gangliosides GD1a and GT1b as specific functional ligands for MAG-mediated inhibition of neurite outgrowth from primary rat cerebellar granule neurons. MAG-mediated neurite outgrowth inhibition is attenuated by (i) neuraminidase treatment of the neurons; (ii) blocking neuronal ganglioside biosynthesis; (iii) genetically modifying the terminal structures of nerve cell surface gangliosides; and (iv) adding highly specific IgG-class antiganglioside mAbs. Furthermore, neurite outgrowth inhibition is mimicked by highly multivalent clustering of GD1a or GT1b by using precomplexed antiganglioside Abs. These data implicate the nerve cell surface gangliosides GD1a and GT1b as functional MAG ligands and suggest that the first step in MAG inhibition is multivalent ganglioside clustering.
Project description:Several myelin-derived proteins have been identified as components of the CNS myelin that prevents axonal regeneration in the adult vertebrate CNS. Activation of RhoA has been shown to be an essential part of the signaling mechanism of these proteins. Here we report an additional signal, which determines whether these proteins promote or inhibit axon outgrowth. Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and Nogo trigger the intracellular elevation of Ca2+ as well as the activation of PKC, presumably mediated by G(i)/G. Neurite outgrowth inhibition and growth cone collapse by MAG or Nogo can be converted to neurite extension and growth cone spreading by inhibiting conventional PKC, but not by inhibiting inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3). Conversely, neurite growth of immature neurons promoted by MAG is abolished by inhibiting IP3. Activation of RhoA is independent of PKC. Thus, a balance between PKC and IP3 is important for bidirectional regulation of axon regeneration by the myelin-derived proteins.
Project description:Axonal regeneration in the central nervous system is prevented, in part, by inhibitory proteins expressed by myelin, including myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Although injury to the corticospinal tract can result in permanent disability, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which MAG affects cortical neurons. Here, we demonstrate that cortical neurons plated on MAG expressing CHO cells, exhibit a striking reduction in process outgrowth. Interestingly, none of the receptors previously implicated in MAG signaling, including the p75 neurotrophin receptor or gangliosides, contributed significantly to MAG-mediated inhibition. However, blocking the small GTPase Rho or its downstream effector kinase, ROCK, partially reversed the effects of MAG on the neurons. In addition, we identified the lipid phosphatase PTEN as a mediator of MAG's inhibitory effects on neurite outgrowth. Knockdown or gene deletion of PTEN or overexpression of activated AKT in cortical neurons resulted in significant, although partial, rescue of neurite outgrowth on MAG-CHO cells. Moreover, MAG decreased the levels of phospho-Akt, suggesting that it activates PTEN in the neurons. Taken together, these results suggest a novel pathway activated by MAG in cortical neurons involving the PTEN/PI3K/AKT axis.
Project description:Neuronal regeneration and axonal re-growth in the injured mammalian central nervous system remains an unsolved field. To date, three myelin-associated proteins [Nogo or reticulon 4 (RTN4), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMG)] are known to inhibit axonal regeneration via activation of the neuronal glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Nogo receptor [NgR, together with p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and Lingo-1]. In the present study we describe the novel protein MANI (myelin-associated neurite-outgrowth inhibitor) that localizes to neural membranes. Functional characterization of MANI overexpressing neural stem cells (NSCs) revealed that the protein promotes differentiation into catecholaminergic neurons. Yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the cell division cycle protein 27 (Cdc27) as an interacting partner of Mani. The analyses of Mani-overexpressing PC12 cells demonstrated that Mani retards neuronal axonal growth as a positive effector of Cdc27 expression and activity. We show that knockdown of Cdc27, a component of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), leads to enhanced neurite outgrowth. Our finding describes the novel MANI-Cdc27-APC pathway as an important cascade that prevents neurons from extending axons, thus providing implications for the potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec) which has been characterized as potent myelin-derived inhibitor of neurite outgrowth. Two members of the Nogo-receptor (NgR) family, NgR1 and NgR2, have been identified as neuronal binding proteins of MAG. In addition, gangliosides have been proposed to bind to and confer the inhibitory activity of MAG on neurons. In this study, we investigated the individual contribution of NgRs and gangliosides to MAG-mediated inhibition of sensory neurons derived from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of ngr1, ngr2 or ngr1/ngr2 deletion mutants. We found no disinhibition of neurite growth in the absence of either NgR1 or NgR2. Sensory neurons deficient for both NgR proteins displayed only a moderate reduction of MAG-mediated inhibition of neurite growth. If treated with Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCN), inhibition by MAG is further attenuated but still not annulled. Thus, disrupting all known protein and ganglioside receptors for MAG in sensory neurons does not fully abolish its inhibitory activity pointing to the existence of as yet unidentified receptors for MAG. Moreover, by employing a variety of protein mutants, we identified the Ig-like domains 4 or 5 of MAG as necessary and sufficient for growth arrest, whereas abolishing MAG's ability to bind to sialic acid did not interfere with its inhibitory activity. These findings provide new insights into the inhibitory function of MAG and suggest similarities but also major differences in MAG inhibition between sensory and central nervous system (CNS) neurons.
Project description:Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a sialic acid-binding Ig-family lectin that functions in neuronal growth inhibition and stabilization of axon-glia interactions. The ectodomain of MAG is comprised of five Ig-like domains and uses neuronal cell-type-specific mechanisms to signal growth inhibition. We show that the first three Ig-like domains of MAG bind with high affinity and in a sialic acid-dependent manner to the Nogo-66 receptor-1 (NgR1) and its homolog NgR2. Domains Ig3-Ig5 of MAG are sufficient to inhibit neurite outgrowth but fail to associate with NgR1 or NgR2. Nogo receptors are sialoglycoproteins comprised of 8.5 canonical leucine-rich repeats (LRR) flanked by LRR N-terminal (NT) and C-terminal (CT)-cap domains. The LRR cluster is connected through a stalk region to a membrane lipid anchor. The CT-cap domain and stalk region of NgR2, but not NgR1, are sufficient for MAG binding, and when expressed in neurons, exhibit constitutive growth inhibitory activity. The LRR cluster of NgR1 supports binding of Nogo-66, OMgp, and MAG. Deletion of disulfide loop Cys(309)-Cys(336) of NgR1 selectively increases its affinity for Nogo-66 and OMgp. A chimeric Nogo receptor variant (NgR(OMNI)) in which Cys(309)-Cys(336) is deleted and followed by a 13 aa MAG-binding motif of the NgR2 stalk, shows superior binding of OMgp, Nogo-66, and MAG compared with wild-type NgR1 or NgR2. Soluble NgR(OMNI) (NgR(OMNI)-Fc) binds strongly to membrane-bound inhibitors and promotes neurite outgrowth on both MAG and CNS myelin substrates. Thus, NgR(OMNI)-Fc may offer therapeutic opportunities following nervous system injury or disease where myelin inhibits neuronal regeneration.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neurons extend their dendrites and axons to build functional neural circuits, which are regulated by both positive and negative signals during development. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a positive regulator for neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival but the functions of its precursor (proBDNF) are less characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Here we show that proBDNF collapses neurite outgrowth in murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and cortical neurons by activating RhoA via the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). We demonstrated that the receptor proteins for proBDNF, p75NTR and sortilin, were highly expressed in cultured DRG or cortical neurons. ProBDNF caused a dramatic neurite collapse in a dose-dependent manner and this effect was about 500 fold more potent than myelin-associated glycoprotein. Neutralization of endogenous proBDNF by using antibodies enhanced neurite outgrowth in vitro and in vivo, but this effect was lost in p75NTR(-/-) mice. The neurite outgrowth of cortical neurons from p75NTR deficient (p75NTR(-/-)) mice was insensitive to proBDNF. There was a time-dependent reduction of length and number of filopodia in response to proBDNF which was accompanied with a polarized RhoA activation in growth cones. Moreover, proBDNF treatment of cortical neurons resulted in a time-dependent activation of RhoA but not Cdc42 and the effect was absent in p75NTR(-/-) neurons. Rho kinase (ROCK) and the collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) were also involved in the proBDNF action. CONCLUSIONS:proBDNF has an opposing role in neurite outgrowth to that of mature BDNF. Our observations suggest that proBDNF collapses neurites outgrowth and filopodial growth cones by activating RhoA through the p75NTR signaling pathway.
Project description:Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) inhibits the growth of neurites from nerve cells. Extraction and purification of MAG require complex operations; therefore, we attempted to determine whether commercially available MAG-Fc can replace endogenous MAG for research purposes. Immunofluorescence using specific antibodies against MAG, Nogo receptor (NgR) and paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB) was used to determine whether MAG-Fc can be endocytosed by neuro-2a cells. In addition, neurite outgrowth of neuro-2a cells treated with different doses of MAG-Fc was evaluated. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure RhoA activity. Western blot assays were conducted to assess Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) phosphorylation. Neuro-2a cells expressed NgR and PirB, and MAG-Fc could be endocytosed by binding to NgR and PirB. This activated intracellular signaling pathways to increase RhoA activity and ROCK phosphorylation, ultimately inhibiting neurite outgrowth. These findings not only verify that MAG-Fc can inhibit the growth of neural neurites by activating RhoA signaling pathways, similarly to endogenous MAG, but also clearly demonstrate that commercial MAG-Fc is suitable for experimental studies of neurite outgrowth.
Project description:CNS myelin is strongly inhibitory to growing axons and is thought to be a major contributor to CNS axon regenerative failure. Although a number of proteins present in myelin, including Nogo, MAG, and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), have been identified as myelin-associated inhibitors, studies of mice lacking these genes suggest that additional inhibitors present in CNS myelin remain to be identified. Here we have investigated the hypothesis that myelin lipids contribute to CNS regenerative failure. We identified sulfatide, a major constituent of CNS myelin, as a novel myelin-associated inhibitor of neurite outgrowth. Sulfatide, but not galactocerebroside or ceramide, strongly inhibited the neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) when used as a purified lipid substrate. The mechanism involved in sulfatide-mediated inhibition may share features with other known inhibitors, because the Rho inhibitor C3 transferase lessened these effects. Myelin in which sulfatide was lacking or blocked using specific antibodies was significantly less inhibitory to RGC neurite outgrowth in vitro than was wild-type myelin, indicating that sulfatide is a major component of the inhibitory activity of CNS myelin. Mice unable to make sulfatide did not regenerate RGC axons more robustly after optic nerve crush than wild-type littermates under normal conditions but did exhibit a small but significant enhancement in the extent of zymosan-induced regeneration. These results demonstrate that specific lipids can powerfully inhibit axon growth, identify sulfatide as a novel myelin-associated axon growth inhibitor, and provide evidence that sulfatide inhibition contributes to axon regenerative failure in vivo.