Progesterone supplementation in women with otherwise unexplained recurrent miscarriages.
ABSTRACT: CONTEXT:Recurrent miscarriages, the loss of three or more consecutive intrauterine pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation with the same partner, affect 1%-1.5% of the pregnant population. The inadequate secretion of progesterone in early pregnancy has been proposed as a cause of recurrent miscarriages. AIMS:The aim was to investigate the efficacy of progesterone supplementation in patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriages. SETTINGS AND DESIGN:This was a 9-year cohort study of women with otherwise unexplained recurrent miscarriages who attended a recurrent miscarriage clinic in a tertiary care university hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Women with at least three unexplained recurrent miscarriages were included in the study. They were divided into three groups according to their initial and 48-h repeat progesterone levels. For women with inadequate endogenous progesterone secretion, natural progesterone vaginal pessaries 400 mg 12-hourly were offered until 12 weeks gestation. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:Proportions and 95% confidence intervals calculated for categorical variables and the chi-square test were used to show statistical significance. Medians and ranges were calculated for noncontinuous variables. RESULTS:Pregnancy cycles (n = 203) were analyzed to examine the miscarriage rate following progesterone supplementation. Overall live birth and miscarriage rates were 63% and 36%, respectively. When analyzed by the number of previous miscarriages there was a reduction in the miscarriage rate following progesterone supplementation in women with 4 previous miscarriages when compared with historical data. CONCLUSIONS:Progesterone supplementation may have beneficial effects in women with otherwise unexplained recurrent miscarriages.
Project description:It is common practice in many centers to offer antithrombotic medications to women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage, in the presence or absence of inherited thrombophilia. Although no benefit of aspirin vs placebo has been clearly demonstrated, a double-blind placebo-controlled trial on the effect of low-molecular-weight heparin is lacking. We enrolled 258 pregnant women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage (≥2 consecutive miscarriages before 15 weeks' gestation) and a negative thrombophilia workup. They were randomly assigned to receive one daily subcutaneous injection of enoxaparin 40 mg or placebo until 35 weeks' gestation. We included 256 women (mean age 32 years, ≥3 miscarriages: 72%; mean gestational age 39 days of amenorrhea) in the intention-to-treat analysis; 66.6% of 138 who received enoxaparin had a live birth vs 72.9% of 118 who received placebo. The absolute difference was -6% (95% CI, -17.1 to 5.1), excluding a 10% increase in the rate of live-birth on enoxaparin (P = .34). In this first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, enoxaparin (40 mg once daily) did not improve the chance of a live birth in nonthrombophilic women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage. This trial is registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov as #NCT00740545 and the French National Health and Drug Safety Agency (EudraCT #2006-003350-18).
Project description:Threatened miscarriage is the most common gynecological emergency, occurring in about 20% of pregnant women. Approximately one in four of these patients go on to have spontaneous miscarriage and the etiology of miscarriage still remains elusive. In a bid to identify possible biomarkers and novel treatment targets, many studies have been undertaken to elucidate the pathways that lead to a miscarriage. Luteal phase deficiency has been shown to contribute to miscarriages, and the measurement of serum progesterone as a prognostic marker and the prescription of progesterone supplementation has been proposed as possible diagnostic and treatment methods. However, luteal phase deficiency only accounts for 35% of miscarriages. In order to understand the other causes of spontaneous miscarriage and possible novel urine biomarkers for miscarriage, we looked at the changes in urinary metabolites in women with threatened miscarriage. To this end, we performed a case-control study of eighty patients who presented with threatened miscarriage between 6 and 10 weeks gestation. Urine metabolomics analyses of forty patients with spontaneous miscarriages and forty patients with ongoing pregnancies at 16 weeks gestation point to an impaired placental mitochondrial ?-oxidation of fatty acids as the possible cause of spontaneous miscarriage. This study also highlighted the potential of urine metabolites as a non-invasive screening tool for the risk stratification of women presenting with threatened miscarriage.
Project description:To evaluate the predictive value of the progesterone level at the beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) check day for ongoing pregnancy maintenance in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles in women with previous unexplained repeated miscarriages.One hundred and forty-eight women, with visible gestational sac after IVF, were recruited in this observational study. All subjects had unexplained recurrent miscarriages in more than two previous IVF cycles. The progesterone level at the β-hCG check day (i.e. 14 days after oocyte retrieval) was assessed. The area under the curve (AUC) of the progesterone level was evaluated to predict the ongoing pregnancy or miscarriage outcomes.The overall ongoing pregnancy rate was 60.8% (90/148). The cut-off value with β-hCG levels higher than 126.5 mIU/mL and with progesterone levels higher than 25.2 ng/mL could be the predictive factors for ongoing pregnancy maintenance (AUC = 0.788 and 0.826; sensitivity = 0.788 and 0.723; specificity = 0.689 and 0.833; P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The miscarriage rates were 19.5% (15/77) in the women with β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL and 13.0% (10/77) in those with > 25.2 ng/mL. In the comparison of the ROC curves between both values, a similar significance was found. The subjects with β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL and progesterone > 25.2 ng/mL showed higher ongoing pregnancy rates [98.0% (49/50) vs. 41.8% (41/98)] than those with β-hCG ≤ 126.5 mIU/mL or progesterone ≤ 25.2 ng/mL.The progesterone level at 14 days after oocyte retrieval can be a good predictive marker for ongoing pregnancy maintenance in women with repeated IVF failure with miscarriage, together with the β-hCG level. The combined cut-off value of progesterone > 25.2 ng/mL and β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL may suggest a good prognosis.
Project description:Idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage may be associated with an abnormal maternal immune response to subsequent pregnancies. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been studied in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with conflicting results. Therefore, a definitive trial was proposed.We conducted an investigator-initiated, multicentered, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial comparing IVIG with saline in women with idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage, defined as a history of at least one prior ongoing pregnancy followed by three or more consecutive unexplained miscarriages. Subjects received either IVIG 500 mg/kg or the equivalent volume of normal saline. Preconception infusions were administered 14-21 days from the projected next menstrual period. With documentation of pregnancy, the subject received the same infusion every 4 weeks until 18-20 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was an ongoing pregnancy of at least 20 weeks of gestation.A total of 82 patients enrolled, of whom 47 had an index pregnancy. All ongoing pregnancies resulted in live births. Therefore, the live birth rates were 70% (16/23) in the IVIG group and 63% (15/24) in the control group (P = 0.760); odds ratio (OR) 1.37 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-4.61]. Including only clinical pregnancies (embryo with cardiac activity at 6 weeks of gestation), the live birth rates were equivalent, 94% (16/17) and (15/16), respectively (P > 0.999); OR 1.07 (95% CI 0.06-18.62). Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating IVIG for idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage revealed live birth rates of 70% (31/44) in the IVIG group and 62% (28/45) in the control group (P = 0.503); common OR 1.44 (95% CI 0.59-3.48).This is the largest RCT to date in which IVIG was evaluated in women with idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage; no treatment benefit was found. The meta-analysis, which combined our study results with two prior RCTs, also showed no significant effect of treatment with IVIG.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To assess the cost-effectiveness of progesterone compared with placebo in preventing pregnancy loss in women with early pregnancy vaginal bleeding. DESIGN:Economic evaluation alongside a large multi-centre randomised placebo-controlled trial. SETTING:Forty-eight UK NHS early pregnancy units. POPULATION:Four thousand one hundred and fifty-three women aged 16-39 years with bleeding in early pregnancy and ultrasound evidence of an intrauterine sac. METHODS:An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from National Health Service (NHS) and NHS and Personal Social Services perspectives. Subgroup analyses were carried out on women with one or more and three or more previous miscarriages. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Cost per additional live birth at ?34 weeks of gestation. RESULTS:Progesterone intervention led to an effect difference of 0.022 (95% CI -0.004 to 0.050) in the trial. The mean cost per woman in the progesterone group was £76 (95% CI -£559 to £711) more than the mean cost in the placebo group. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for progesterone compared with placebo was £3305 per additional live birth. For women with at least one previous miscarriage, progesterone was more effective than placebo with an effect difference of 0.055 (95% CI 0.014-0.096) and this was associated with a cost saving of £322 (95% CI -£1318 to £673). CONCLUSIONS:The results suggest that progesterone is associated with a small positive impact and a small additional cost. Both subgroup analyses were more favourable, especially for women who had one or more previous miscarriages. Given available evidence, progesterone is likely to be a cost-effective intervention, particularly for women with previous miscarriage(s). TWEETABLE ABSTRACT:Progesterone treatment is likely to be cost-effective in women with early pregnancy bleeding and a history of miscarriage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Idiopathic recurrent miscarriage, defined as three or more consecutive miscarriages, is a distressing early pregnancy complication. Although, the etiology of recurrent miscarriage is still unknown, an aberrant regulation of the endometrial receptivity marker hyaluronan-binding protein 2 (HABP2) has been suggested. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of genetic variations of HABP2 in women with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage compared to fertile women. METHODS:This study was designed as a case-control study. In total, 165 women who had three or more consecutive miscarriages and 289 fertile women were included in the study. Polymorphisms in the HABP2 gene were analyzed using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. Three polymorphisms in the HABP2 gene, rs1157916, rs2240879 and rs7080536 (Marburg I) were studied. RESULTS:Polymorphism in HABP2 showed no significant difference in women with recurrent miscarriage compared to fertile women, except for rs1157916 minor A allele that was more prevalent among RM patients (p =?0.058). Significantly higher live birth rate was observed among women with three to four miscarriages compared to those with more miscarriages (p?=?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Variations in the HABP2 gene did not seem to be involved in the etiology of recurrent miscarriage, while, the number of previous miscarriages had an impact on the live birth rate.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate whether anti-Mullerian hormone, basal follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and female age would predict future outcomes in women with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. METHODS:One hundred and sixteen women with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage were retrospectively included. Luteal support with or without a combined treatment regimen for idiopathic recurrent miscarriage was applied in a tertiary-care center in Vienna. Occurrence and outcome of further pregnancies were analyzed. RESULTS:Within a median follow-up duration of 42.3 months, 94 women (81.0%) achieved one or more pregnancies. Further miscarriages occurred in 47 patients in whom only a higher number of previous miscarriages was predictive (OR 3.568, 95% CI 1.457-8.738; p?=?0.005). Fifty-seven women had a live birth >?23?+?0 gestational weeks. In a multivariate analysis, age (OR 0.920, 95% CI 0.859-0.986; p?=?0.019) and the number of previous miscarriages (OR 0.403, 95% CI 0.193-0.841; p?=?0.016), but not AMH (OR 1.191, 95% CI 0.972-1.461; p?=?0.091) were significantly predictive. CONCLUSION:AMH seems of either no or only minor relevance for the prediction of further miscarriages and live birth in women with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage.
Project description:Progesterone is a critical hormone in early pregnancy. A low level of serum progesterone is associated with threatened miscarriage. We aim to establish the distribution of maternal serum progesterone in normal pregnancies compared to pregnancies complicated by threatened miscarriage from 5 to 13 weeks gestation.This is a single centre, prospective cohort study of 929 patients. Women from the Normal Pregnancy [NP] cohort were recruited from antenatal clinics, and those in the Threatened Miscarriage [TM] cohort were recruited from emergency walk-in clinics. Women with multiple gestations, missed, incomplete or inevitable miscarriage were excluded from the study. Quantile regression was used to characterize serum progesterone levels in the NP and TM cohorts by estimating the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles from 5 to 13 weeks gestation. Pregnancy outcome was determined at 16 weeks of gestation. Subgroup analysis within the TM group compared progesterone levels of women who subsequently miscarried with those who had ongoing pregnancies at 16 weeks of gestation.Median serum progesterone concentration demonstrated a linearly increasing trend from 57.5 nmol/L to 80.8 nmol/L from 5 to 13 weeks gestation in the NP cohort. In the TM cohort, median serum progesterone concentration increased from 41.7 nmol/L to 78.1 nmol/L. However, median progesterone levels were uniformly lower in the TM cohort by approximately 10 nmol/L at every gestation week. In the subgroup analysis, median serum progesterone concentration in women with ongoing pregnancy at 16 weeks gestation demonstrated a linearly increasing trend from 5 to 13 weeks gestation. There was a marginal and non-significant increase in serum progesterone from 19.0 to 30.3 nmol/L from 5 to 13 weeks gestation in women who eventually had a spontaneous miscarriage.Serum progesterone concentration increased linearly with gestational age from 5 to 13 weeks in women with normal pregnancies. Women with spontaneous miscarriage showed a marginal and non-significant increase in serum progesterone. This study highlights the pivotal role of progesterone in supporting an early pregnancy, with lower serum progesterone associated with threatened miscarriage and a subsequent complete miscarriage at 16 weeks gestation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Idiopathic recurrent miscarriage is defined as 3 consecutive pregnancy losses with no contributing features found on investigations. At present there are no treatments of proven efficacy for idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, the most predominant leucocyte in the endometrium are adjacent to foetal trophoblast cells and thought to be involved in implantation. The exact mechanisms of how uNK cells affect implantation are not clear but are probably through the regulation of angiogenesis. Multiple studies have shown an association between high density of uterine natural killer cells and recurrent miscarriage. We have shown that prednisolone reduces the number of uNK cells in the endometrium. The question remains as to whether reducing the number of uNK cells improves pregnancy outcome. METHODS: We propose a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of prednisolone with a pilot phase to assess feasibility of recruitment, integrity of trial procedures, and to generate data to base future power calculations. The primary aim is to investigate whether prednisolone therapy during the first trimester of pregnancy is able to improve live birth rates in patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage and raised uNK cells in the endometrium. Secondary outcomes include conception rate, karyotype of miscarriage, miscarriages (first and second trimester), stillbirths, pregnancy complications, gestational age at delivery, congenital abnormality and side effects of steroids. The trial has 2 stages: i) screening of non-pregnant women and ii) randomisation of the pregnant cohort. All patients who fit the inclusion criteria (<40 years old, > or =3 consecutive miscarriages with no cause found and no contraindications to prednisolone therapy) will be asked to consent to an endometrial biopsy in the mid-luteal phase to assess their levels of uNK cells. Women with high levels of uNK cells (> or =5%), will be randomised to either prednisolone or placebo when a pregnancy is confirmed. Follow-up includes 2 weekly ultrasound scans in the first trimester, an anomaly scan at 20 weeks gestation, growth scans at 28 and 34 weeks gestation and a postnatal follow-up at 6 weeks. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN28090716.
Project description:PURPOSE:To clarify the associations of the maternal age, history of miscarriage, and embryonic/fetal size at miscarriage with the frequencies and profiles of cytogenetic abnormalities detected in spontaneous early miscarriages. METHODS:Miscarriages before 12 weeks of gestation, whose karyotypes were evaluated by G-banding between May 1, 2005, and May 31, 2017, were included in this study. The relationships between their karyotypes and clinical findings were assessed using trend or chi-square/Fisher's exact tests and multivariate logistic analyses. RESULTS:Three hundred of 364 miscarriage specimens (82.4%) had abnormal karyotypes. An older maternal age was significantly associated with the frequency of abnormal karyotype (ptrend?<?0.001), particularly autosomal non-viable and viable trisomies (ptrend 0.001 and 0.025, respectively). Women with ??2 previous miscarriages had a significantly lower possibility of miscarriages with abnormal karyotype than women with <?2 previous miscarriages (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.48; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.27-0.85). Although viable trisomy was observed more frequently in proportion to the increase in embryonic/fetal size at miscarriage (ptrend?<?0.001), non-viable trisomy was observed more frequently in miscarriages with an embryonic/fetal size <?10 mm (aOR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.27-4.58), but less frequently in miscarriages with an embryonic/fetal size ??20 mm (aOR, 0.01; 95% CI, 0.00-0.07) than in anembryonic miscarriages. CONCLUSIONS:The maternal age, history of miscarriage, and embryonic/fetal size at miscarriage may be independently associated with the frequencies or profiles of cytogenetic abnormalities in early miscarriages.