The yeast KRE5 gene encodes a probable endoplasmic reticulum protein required for (1----6)-beta-D-glucan synthesis and normal cell growth.
ABSTRACT: Yeast kre mutants define a pathway of cell wall (1----6)-beta-D-glucan synthesis, and mutants in genes KRE5 and KRE6 appear to interact early in such a pathway. We have cloned KRE5, and the sequence predicts the product to be a large, hydrophilic, secretory glycoprotein which contains the COOH-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retention signal, HDEL. Deletion of the KRE5 gene resulted in cells with aberrant morphology and extremely compromised growth. Suppressors to the KRE5 deletions arose at a frequency of 1 in 10(7) to 1 in 10(8) and permitted an analysis of deletions which were found to contain no alkali-insoluble (1----6)-beta-D-glucan. These results indicate a role for (1----6)-beta-D-glucan in normal cell growth and suggest a model for sequential assembly of (1----6)-beta-D-glucan in the yeast secretory pathway.
Project description:The Saccharomyces cerevisiae KRE1 gene encodes a Ser/Thr-rich protein, that is directed into the yeast secretory pathway, where it is highly modified, probably through addition of O-linked mannose residues. Gene disruption of the KRE1 locus leads to a 40% reduced level of cell wall (1----6)-beta-glucan. Structural analysis of the (1----6)-beta-glucan fraction, isolated from a strain with a krel disruption mutation, showed that it had an altered structure with a smaller average polymer size. Mutations in two other loci, KRE5 and KRE6 also lead to a defect in cell wall (1----6)-beta-glucan production and appear to be epistatic to KRE1. These findings outline a possible pathway of assembly of yeast cell wall (1----6)-beta-glucan.
Project description:Recessive mutations leading to killer resistance identify the KRE9, KRE10 and KRE11 genes. Mutations in both the KRE9 and KRE11 genes lead to reduced levels of (1-->6)-beta-glucan in the yeast cell wall. The KRE11 gene encodes a putative 63-kD cytoplasmic protein, and disruption of the KRE11 locus leads to a 50% reduced level of cell wall (1-->6)-glucan. Structural analysis of the (1-->6)-beta-glucan remaining in a kre11 mutant indicates a polymer smaller in size than wild type, but containing a similar proportion of (1-->6)- and (1-->3)-linkages. Genetic interactions among cells harboring mutations at the KRE11, KRE6 and KRE1 loci indicate lethality of kre11 kre6 double mutants and that kre11 is epistatic to kre1, with both gene products required to produce the mature glucan polymer at wild-type levels. Analysis of these KRE genes should extend knowledge of the beta-glucan biosynthetic pathway, and of cell wall synthesis in yeast.
Project description:The yeast KRE9 gene encodes a 30-kDa secretory pathway protein involved in the synthesis of cell wall (1-->6)-beta-glucan. Disruption of KRE9 leads to serious growth impairment and an altered cell wall containing less than 20% of the wild-type amount of (1-->6)-beta-glucan. Analysis of the glucan material remaining in a kre9 delta null mutant indicated a polymer with a reduced average molecular mass. kre9 delta null mutants also displayed several additional cell-wall-related phenotypes, including an aberrant multiply budded morphology, a mating defect, and a failure to form projections in the presence of alpha-factor. Double mutants were generated by crossing kre9 delta strains with strains harboring a null mutation in the KRE1, KRE6, or KRE11 gene, and each of these double mutants was found to be inviable in the SEY6210 background. Similar crosses with null mutations in the KRE5 and SKN1 genes indicated that these double mutants were no more severely affected than kre5 delta or kre9 delta single mutants alone. Antibodies were generated against Kre9p and detected an O glycoprotein of approximately 55 to 60 kDa found in the extracellular medium of a strain overproducing Kre9p.
Project description:The polysaccharide beta-1,6-glucan is a major component of the cell wall of Cryptococcus neoformans, but its function has not been investigated in this fungal pathogen. We have identified and characterized seven genes, belonging to the KRE family, which are putatively involved in beta-1,6-glucan synthesis. The H99 deletion mutants kre5Delta and kre6Deltaskn1Delta contained less cell wall beta-1,6-glucan, grew slowly with an aberrant morphology, were highly sensitive to environmental and chemical stress and were avirulent in a mouse inhalation model of infection. These two mutants displayed alterations in cell wall chitosan and the exopolysaccharide capsule, a primary cryptococcal virulence determinant. The cell wall content of the GPI-anchored phospholipase B1 (Plb1) enzyme, which is required for cryptococcal cell wall integrity and virulence, was reduced in kre5Delta and kre6Deltaskn1Delta. Our results indicate that KRE5, KRE6 and SKN1 are involved in beta-1,6-glucan synthesis, maintenance of cell wall integrity and retention of mannoproteins and known cryptococcal virulence factors in the cell wall of C. neoformans. This study sets the stage for future investigations into the function of this abundant cell wall polymer.
Project description:Cell wall beta-glucan in a pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans, is highly branched with beta-1,3 and beta-1,6 linkages. We have isolated the C. albicans cDNAs for KRE6 and SKN1, the genes required for beta-1,6-glucan synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results of Northern blot analysis revealed that C. albicans KRE6 was expressed at a higher level than SKN1 in the yeast phase, while SKN1 expression was strongly induced upon induction of hyphal formation. In addition, the C. albicans KRE6 and SKN1 mRNAs but not the actin mRNA were shortened during the yeast-hypha transition. Unlike S. cerevisiae, more than 50% of cell wall glucan was beta-1,6 linked in C. albicans. Neither beta-1,3-glucan nor beta-1,6-glucan was affected by the homozygous C. albicans skn1 delta null mutation. Although we never succeeded in generating the homozygous C. albicans kre6 delta null mutant, the hemizygous kre6 delta mutation decreased the KRE6 mRNA level by about 60% and also caused a more than 80% reduction of beta-1,6-glucan without affecting beta-1,3-glucan. The physiological function of KRE6 was further examined by studying gene regulation in C. albicans. When KRE6 transcription was suppressed by using the HEX1 promoter, C. albicans cells exhibited the partial defect in cell separation and increased susceptibility to Calcofluor White. These results demonstrate that KRE6 plays important roles in beta-1,6-glucan synthesis and budding in C. albicans.
Project description:Despite its essential role in the yeast cell wall, the exact composition of the beta-(1,6)-glucan component is not well characterized. While solubilizing the cell wall alkali-insoluble fraction from a wild type strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a recombinant beta-(1,3)-glucanase followed by chromatographic characterization of the digest on an anion exchange column, we observed a soluble polymer that eluted at the end of the solvent gradient run. Further characterization indicated this soluble polymer to have a molecular mass of approximately 38 kDa and could be hydrolyzed only by beta-(1,6)-glucanase. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) analyses confirmed it to be a beta-(1,6)-glucan polymer with, on average, branching at every fifth residue with one or two beta-(1,3)-linked glucose units in the side chain. This polymer peak was significantly reduced in the corresponding digests from mutants of the kre genes (kre9 and kre5) that are known to play a crucial role in the beta-(1,6)-glucan biosynthesis. In the current study, we have developed a biochemical assay wherein incubation of UDP-[(14)C]glucose with permeabilized S. cerevisiae yeasts resulted in the synthesis of a polymer chemically identical to the branched beta-(1,6)-glucan isolated from the cell wall. Using this assay, parameters essential for beta-(1,6)-glucan synthetic activity were defined.
Project description:The KRE6 gene product is required for synthesis of the major beta-glucans of the yeast cell wall, as mutations in this gene confer reduced levels of both the (1----6)- and (1----3)-beta-D-glucan polymers. Cloning and sequencing of KRE6 reveals a gene encoding a predicted 80-kDa protein with a central transmembrane domain and the topology of a type II membrane protein. Null mutants of KRE6 grow slowly, have larger cells, and show a reduction in alkali-insoluble wall glucans. The mutants show good viability and are not osmotically sensitive, but they are more susceptible to beta-glucanase digestion and mechanical stress than wild-type cells. The specific activity of the GTP-dependent, membrane-associated, in vitro (1----3)-beta-glucan synthase is reduced 50% in kre6 null mutants, and this reduction correlates with the mutation in meiotic tetrads. Transformants of kre6 null mutants with a KRE6 gene expressed from a centomere-based vector show a 4- to 5-fold increase in in vitro (1----3)-beta-glucan synthase activity over transformants with the vector alone. The phenotype and structure of the KRE6 product, Kre6p, suggest that Kre6p may be a beta-glucan synthase, and if so, it implies that beta-glucan synthases are functionally redundant in yeast. Alternatively, Kre6p may be part of a single multiprotein glucan synthase or modulate its activity. Use of KRE6 should permit a genetic analysis of eukaryotic (1----3)-beta-glucan synthesis.
Project description:Beta1,6-Glucan is a key component of the yeast cell wall, interconnecting cell wall proteins, beta1,3-glucan, and chitin. It has been postulated that the synthesis of beta1,6-glucan begins in the endoplasmic reticulum with the formation of protein-bound primer structures and that these primer structures are extended in the Golgi complex by two putative glucosyltransferases that are functionally redundant, Kre6 and Skn1. This is followed by maturation steps at the cell surface and by coupling to other cell wall macromolecules. We have reinvestigated the role of Kre6 and Skn1 in the biogenesis of beta1,6-glucan. Using hydrophobic cluster analysis, we found that Kre6 and Skn1 show significant similarities to family 16 glycoside hydrolases but not to nucleotide diphospho-sugar glycosyltransferases, indicating that they are glucosyl hydrolases or transglucosylases instead of genuine glucosyltransferases. Next, using immunogold labeling, we tried to visualize intracellular beta1,6-glucan in cryofixed sec1-1 cells which had accumulated secretory vesicles at the restrictive temperature. No intracellular labeling was observed, but the cell surface was heavily labeled. Consistent with this, we could detect substantial amounts of beta1,6-glucan in isolated plasma membrane-derived microsomes but not in post-Golgi secretory vesicles. Taken together, our data indicate that the synthesis of beta1, 6-glucan takes place largely at the cell surface. An alternative function for Kre6 and Skn1 is discussed.
Project description:The UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT) is an endoplasmic reticulum sensor for quality control of glycoprotein folding. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the only eukaryotic organism so far described lacking UGGT-mediated transient reglucosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides. The only gene in S. cerevisiae with similarity to those encoding UGGTs is KRE5. S. cerevisiae KRE5 deletion strains show severely reduced levels of cell wall beta-1,6-glucan polymer, aberrant morphology, and extremely compromised growth or lethality, depending on the strain background. Deletion of both alleles of the Candida albicans KRE5 gene gives rise to viable cells that are larger than those of the wild type (WT), tend to aggregate, have enlarged vacuoles, and show major cell wall defects. C. albicans kre5/kre5 mutants have significantly reduced levels of beta-1,6-glucan and more chitin and beta-1,3-glucan and less mannoprotein than the WT. The remaining beta-1,6-glucan, about 20% of WT levels, exhibits a beta-1,6-endoglucanase digestion pattern, including a branch point-to-linear stretch ratio identical to that of WT strains, suggesting that Kre5p is not a beta-1,6-glucan synthase. C. albicans KRE5 is a functional homologue of S. cerevisiae KRE5; it partially complements both the growth defect and reduced cell wall beta-1,6-glucan content of S. cerevisiae kre5 viable mutants. C. albicans kre5/kre5 homozygous mutant strains are unable to form hyphae in several solid and liquid media, even in the presence of serum, a potent inducer of the dimorphic transition. Surprisingly the mutants do form hyphae in the presence of N-acetylglucosamine. Finally, C. albicans KRE5 homozygous mutant strains exhibit a 50% reduction in adhesion to human epithelial cells and are completely avirulent in a mouse model of systemic infection.
Project description:CWH41 encodes a novel type II integral membrane N-glycoprotein located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Disruption of the CWH41 gene leads to a K1 killer toxin-resistant phenotype and a 50% reduction in the cell wall beta 1,6-glucan level. CWH41 also displays strong genetic interactions with KRE1 and KRE6, two genes known to be involved in the beta 1,6-glucan biosynthetic pathway. The cwh41 delta kre6 delta double mutant is nonviable; and the cwh41 delta kre1 delta double mutation results in strong synergistic defects, with a severely slow-growth phenotype, a 75% reduction in beta 1,6-glucan level, and the secretion of a cell wall glucomannoprotein, Cwp1p. These results provide strong genetic evidence indicating that Cwh41p plays a functional role, possibly as a new synthetic component, in the assembly of cell wall beta 1,6-glucan.