Virtual screening of compounds from the patchouli oil of Pogostemon herba for COX-1 inhibition.
ABSTRACT: Our interest is to identify compounds from the patchouli oil of Pogostemon herba to inhibit the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzyme activity. The data for the major compounds (alpha-patchouli alcohol isomer (CD521903, CD442384, and/or CD6432585), alphabulnusene, seychellene and alpha-guaiene) of patchouli oil were explored from the PubChem database. The compounds to COX-1 interactions were studied using the molecular docking tools Hex 6.12 and LeadIT2 Bisolve. The interactions were further visualized using the Chimera 1.7s viewer software tool. The analysis of the major compounds of patchouli oil showed that alpha-Patchouli alcohol (CD521903) binds to COX-1 at many active sites including: Leu223B, Asp228B, Leu237B, Arg332B, Trp138A, Glu139A, Ser142A, and Asn143A. Further analysis revealed that these binding sites are maintained by hydrogen bonds with Ser142A, Glu139A, and Asp228B. The interaction energy between COX-1 and alpha-patchouli alcohol (CD521903) is -6 kJ/mol (without solvent) and -15 kJ/ mol (with solvent DMSO). These theoretical data suggests alpha-patchouli alcohol as a potential inhibitor of the COX-1 enzyme. However, these observations should be investigated and confirmed using experimental evidence.
Project description:To understand the structural features that dictate the selectivity of the two isoforms of the prostaglandin H2 synthase (PGHS/COX), the three-dimensional (3D) structure of COX-1/COX-2 was assessed by means of binding energy calculation of virtual molecular dynamic with using ligand alpha-Patchouli alcohol isomers. Molecular interaction studies with COX-1 and COX-2 were done using the molecular docking tools by Hex 8.0. Interactions were further visualized by using Discovery Studio Client 3.5 software tool. The binding energy of molecular interaction was calculated by AMBER12 and Virtual Molecular Dynamic 1.9.1 software. The analysis of the alpha-Patchouli alcohol isomer compounds showed that all alpha-Patchouli alcohol isomers were suggested as inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2. Collectively, the scoring binding energy calculation (with PBSA Model Solvent) of alpha-Patchouli alcohol isomer compounds (CID442384, CID6432585, CID3080622, CID10955174, and CID56928117) was suggested as candidate for a selective COX-1 inhibitor and CID521903 as nonselective COX-1/COX-2.
Project description:In the present study, the antimicrobial tests of patchouli oil were studied by using molecular docking technology and antimicrobial test in vitro. Five biological macromolecule enzymes, required by the bacteria in the process of biosynthesis were selected as target molecules. Five antibiotics benzylpenicillin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, rifampicin and ciprofloxacin, which are generally acknowledged as antibacterial drugs, were selected as reference compounds. The 3 three-dimensional (3D) structures of the 5 reference compounds and 26 compounds from patchouli oil were established by using surflex-dock software (8.1). And the 3D structures of five biological macromolecule enzymes derived from Protein Data Bank (PDB). Molecular docking was carried out between the 31 chemical compounds (ligands) and the 5 enzymes (receptors) by using surflex-dock function. Furthermore, the antibacterial effects of 31 chemical compounds were investigated by the scoring function after molecular docking was completed. By comparing the scoring result of 26 compounds in patchouli oil with 5 compared components, we inferred antibacterial activity in about 26 compounds in patchouli oil. On the other hand, six frequently-used pathogenic bacteria were selected for antimicrobial test in vitro, patchouli oil and its two major compounds: (-)-patchouli alcohol and pogostone, which their contents exceeded 60% in patchouli oil samples, were selected antibacterial agents. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were also determined. Molecular docking technology and antimicrobial test in vitro proved that patchouli oil had strong antimicrobial effects. Particularly, pogostone and (-)-patchouli alcohol have potent antimicrobial activity.
Project description:The JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins act as negative regulators in the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways of plants, and these proteins have been reported to play key roles in plant secondary metabolism mediated by JA. In this study, we firstly isolated one JAZ from P. cablin, PatJAZ6, which was characterized and revealed based on multiple alignments and a phylogenic tree analysis. The result of subcellular localization indicated that the PatJAZ6 protein was located in the nucleus of plant protoplasts. The expression level of PatJAZ6 was significantly induced by the methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Furthermore, by means of yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified two transcription factors that interact with the PatJAZ6, the PatMYC2b1 and PatMYC2b2. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of PatJAZ6 caused a decrease in expression abundance, resulting in a significant increase in the accumulation of patchouli alcohol. Moreover, we overexpressed PatJAZ6 in P. cablin, which down-regulated the patchoulol synthase expression, and then suppressed the biosynthesis of patchouli alcohol. The results demonstrate that PatJAZ6 probably acts as a repressor in the regulation of patchouli alcohol biosynthesis, contributed to a model proposed for the potential JA signaling pathway in P. cablin.
Project description:Patchouli alcohol (PA), a tricyclic sesquiterpene, is a dominant bioactive component in oil extracted from the aerial parts of Pogostemon cablin (patchouli). Diverse beneficial activities have been reported, including anti-influenza virus, anti-depressant, anti-nociceptive, vasorelaxation, lung protection, brain protection, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-colitis, pre-biotic-like, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and protective activities against metabolic diseases. However, detailed mechanistic studies are required to explore the possibility of developing PA as a functional food material or promising drug for the prevention and treatment of human diseases. This review highlights multiple molecular targets and working mechanisms by which PA mediates health benefits.
Project description:In the present study, the anti-influenza A (H2N2) virus activity of patchouli alcohol was studied in vitro, in vivo and in silico. The CC?? of patchouli alcohol was above 20 µM. Patchouli alcohol could inhibit influenza virus with an IC?? of 4.03 ± 0.23 µM. MTT assay showed that the inhibition by patchouli alcohol appears strongly after penetration of the virus into the cell. In the influenza mouse model, patchouli alcohol showed obvious protection against the viral infection at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day. Flexible docking and molecular dynamic simulations indicated that patchouli alcohol was bound to the neuraminidase protein of influenza virus, with an interaction energy of -40.38 kcal mol?¹. The invariant key active-site residues Asp151, Arg152, Glu119, Glu276 and Tyr406 played important roles during the binding process. Based on spatial and energetic criteria, patchouli alcohol interfered with the NA functions. Results presented here suggest that patchouli alcohol possesses anti-influenza A (H2N2) virus properties, and therefore is a potential source of anti-influenza agents for the pharmaceutical industry.
Project description:Continuous cropping (CC) restricts the development of the medicinal plant cultivation industry because it alters soil properties and the soil microbial micro-ecological environment. It can also lead to reductions in the chemical contents of medicinal plants. In this study, we intercropped continuously cropped Pogostemon cablin (patchouli) with turmeric or ginger. High-throughput sequencing was used to study the soil bacteria and fungi. Community composition, diversity, colony structure, and colony differences were also analyzed. A redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to study the interactions between soil physical and chemical factors, and the bacteria and fungi. The correlations between the soil community and the soil physical and chemical properties were also investigated. The results showed that intercropping turmeric and ginger with patchouli can improve soil microbial abundance, diversity, and community structure by boosting the number of dominant bacteria, and by improving soil bacterial metabolism and the activities of soil enzymes. They also modify the soil physical and chemical properties through changes in enzyme activity, soil pH, and soil exchangeable Ca (Ca). In summary, turmeric and ginger affect the distribution of dominant bacteria, and increase the contents of the active ingredient in patchouli. The results from this study suggested that the problems associated with continuously cropping patchouli can be ameliorated by intercropping it with turmeric and ginger.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many commercially important drug and flavor compounds are secondary metabolites of terpenoid origin. Pogostemon cablin, a commercially important industrial and medicinal crop, accumulates abundant patchouli oil comprised of more than 24 unique sesquiterpene compounds, with the most abundant being patchouli alcohol. RESULTS:In this study, we analyzed the P. cablin transcriptome library, obtaining 74 terpenoid biosynthesis-related genes, and identified their expression patterns in leaves, stems, and flowers. These genes are members of 15 different families, and we detected all the enzymes involved in the sesquiterpenes pathway that are responsible for patchoulol biosynthesis. Sequence structure, homology, conserved domain properties, and phylogeny of certain identified genes were systematically investigated. Color complementation assay was used to verify the functional activity of the MEP pathway proteins. Exogenous hormone treatment revealed that patchoulol synthesis is induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR analysis indicated that the MVA pathway genes (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase) participate in patchoulol biosynthesis and are mediated by MeJA. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, this is the first report of integrated analysis of P. cablin MVA and MEP pathway related genes, providing a better understanding of terpenoid and/or patchoulol biosynthesis in P. cablin, and the basis for improving patchoulol production through genetic engineering.
Project description:Pogostemon Desf., the largest genus of the tribe Pogostemoneae (Lamiaceae), consists of ca. 80 species distributed mainly from South and Southeast Asia to China. The genus contains many patchouli plants, which are of great economic importance but taxonomically difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to characterize more chloroplast (cp) genomes for infrageneric phylogeny analyses and species identification of Pogostemon, especially for patchouli plants. In this study, we newly generated four cp genomes for three patchouli plants (i.e., Pogostemon plectranthoides Desf., P. septentrionalis C. Y. Wu et Y. C. Huang, and two cultivars of P. cablin (Blanoco) Benth.). Comparison of all samples (including online available cp genomes of P. yatabeanus (Makino) Press and P. stellatus (Lour.) Kuntze) suggested that Pogostemon cp genomes are highly conserved in terms of genome size and gene content, with a typical quadripartite circle structure. Interspecific divergence of cp genomes has been maintained at a relatively low level, though seven divergence hotspot regions were identified by stepwise window analysis. The nucleotide diversity (Pi) value was correlated significantly with gap proportion (indels), but significantly negative with GC content. Our phylogenetic analyses based on 80 protein-coding genes yielded high-resolution backbone topologies for the Lamiaceae and Pogostemon. For the overall mean substitution rates, the synonymous (dS) and nonsynonymous (dN) substitution rate values of protein-coding genes varied approximately threefold, while the dN values among different functional gene groups showed a wider variation range. Overall, the cp genomes of Pogostemon will be useful for phylogenetic reconstruction, species delimitation and identification in the future.
Project description:According to the GC-MS analysis, compositional variation was observed between samples of patchouli oil, of which an unknown compound identified as patchoulene epoxide (PAO) was found only in the long-stored oil, whose biological activity still remains unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory activity with three in vivo inflammatory models: xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, and carrageenan-induced paw edema. Further investigation into its underlying mechanism on carrageenan-induced paw edema was conducted. Results demonstrated that PAO significantly inhibited the ear edema induced by xylene, lowered vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and decreased the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, PAO markedly decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO), but increased levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). PAO was also shown to significantly downregulate the protein and mRNA expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS). Western blot analysis revealed that PAO remarkably inhibited p50 and p65 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus by suppressing IKKβ and IκBα phosphorylation. In conclusion, PAO exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity probably by suppressing the activation of iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB signaling pathways.
Project description:Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS - PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78-82% and 91-95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV.