ABSTRACT: Highly toxic bacterial ionophores are commonly used in veterinary medicine, but their therapeutic index is too narrow for human usage. With the goal of developing ionophores with a broader therapeutic index, we constructed highly derivatized synthetic ionophores. The toxicities of crown ether host-rotaxanes (CEHR's) against the SKOV-3 cell line were measured. The effect of Mg2+ or Ca2+ on toxicity was explored because changes in the intracellular concentration of these cations can cause cell death through apoptosis. We found Boc-CEHR is highly toxic and Arg-CEHR is slightly less toxic with IC50 values of 0.5 ?M and 6 ?M, respectively, in standard growth medium. Increasing the concentration of Ca2+ resulted in greater toxicity of the CEHRs, whereas increasing the concentration of Mg2+ was less effective on reducing IC50. Cell death occurs mainly through apoptosis. Although preliminary, these results suggest that the CEHRs deliver Ca2+ and perhaps Mg2+ into cells inducing apoptosis.
Project description:New therapies are needed to eradicate androgen resistant, prostate cancer. Prostate cancer usually metastasizes to bone where the concentration of calcium is high, making Ca2+ a promising toxin. Ionophores can deliver metal cations into cells, but are currently too toxic for human use. We synthesized a new rotaxane (CEHR2) that contains a benzyl 15-crown-5 ether as a blocking group to efficiently bind Ca2+. CEHR2 transfers Ca2+ from an aqueous solution into CHCl3 to greater extent than alkali metal cations and Mg2+. It also transfers Ca2+ to a greater extent than CEHR1, which is a rotaxane with an 18-crown-6 ether as a blocking group. CEHR2 was more toxic against the prostate cancer cell lines PC-3, 22Rv1, and C4-2 than CEHR1. This project demonstrates that crown ether rotaxanes can be designed to bind a targeted metal cation, and this selective cation association can result in enhanced toxicity.
Project description:Eight fluorescent squaraine rotaxanes with deep-red absorption/emission wavelengths were prepared and assessed for chemical stability and suitability as water-soluble, fluorescent tracers. The most stable squaraine rotaxanes have four large stopper groups attached to the ends of the encapsulated squaraine, and two members of this structural class have promise as highly fluorescent tracers with rapid renal clearance and very low tissue uptake in living mice.
Project description:Active metal template Glaser coupling has been used to synthesize a series of rotaxanes consisting of a polyyne, with up to 24 contiguous sp-hybridized carbon atoms, threaded through a variety of macrocycles. Cadiot-Chodkiewicz cross-coupling affords higher yields of rotaxanes than homocoupling. This methodology has been used to prepare rotaxanes with two polyyne chains locked through the same macrocycle. The crystal structure of one of these rotaxanes shows that there is extremely close contact between the central carbon atoms of the threaded hexayne chains (C···C distance 3.29 Å vs 3.4 Å for the sum of van der Waals radii) and that the bond-length-alternation is perturbed in the vicinity of this contact. However, despite the close interaction between the hexayne chains, the rotaxane is remarkably stable under ambient conditions, probably because the two polyynes adopt a crossed geometry. In the solid state, the angle between the two polyyne chains is 74°, and this crossed geometry appears to be dictated by the bulk of the "supertrityl" end groups. Several rotaxanes have been synthesized to explore gem-dibromoethene moieties as "masked" polyynes. However, the reductive Fritsch-Buttenberg-Wiechell rearrangement to form the desired polyyne rotaxanes has not yet been achieved. X-ray crystallographic analysis on six rotaxanes and two rotaxanes provides insight into the noncovalent interactions in these systems. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) reveals that the longer polyyne rotaxanes (C16, C18, and C24) decompose at higher temperatures than the corresponding unthreaded polyyne axles. The stability enhancement increases as the polyyne becomes longer, reaching 60 °C in the C24 rotaxane.
Project description:Rotaxanes are unique mechanical devices that hold great promise as sensors. We report on two new rotaxanes that contain an acid or base sensitive trigger and readily disassemble in a wide range of environments. Disassemblage was observed under TLC and ¹H-NMR analysis. The axle is highly charged, which enhances solubility in aqueous environments, and can be readily derivatized with sensor components. The trigger was swapped in a one-pot method, which is promising for the rapid production of a series of sensors.
Project description:Heterobifunctional rotaxanes serve as efficient catalysts for the addition of malonates to Michael acceptors. We report a series of four different heterobifunctional rotaxanes, featuring an amine-based thread and a chiral 1,1'-binaphthyl-phosphoric-acid-based macrocycle. High-level DFT calculations provided mechanistic insights and enabled rational catalyst improvements, leading to interlocked catalysts that surpass their non-interlocked counterparts in terms of reaction rates and stereoselectivities.
Project description:A series of mono-amide-functionalized pillararenes with different lengths of N-?-aminoalkyl groups as the side chain on the rim were designed and synthesized, which all formed pseudorotaxanes in the crystal state. And these pseudorotaxanes could be transformed into rotaxanes or open forms in the crystal state. In addition, they were also studied in solution by (1)H NMR spectroscopy.
Project description:Porphyrin-polyyne - and rotaxanes have been synthesized by condensing aldehyde-rotaxanes with pyrrole or dipyrromethane. The crystal structure of a rotaxane shows that the macrocycles adopt compact conformations, holding the hexaynes near the porphyrin core, and that the phenanthroline units form intermolecular ?-stacked dimers in the solid. Fluorescence spectra reveal singlet excited-state energy transfer from the threaded hexayne to the porphyrin, from the phenanthroline to the porphyrin, and from the phenanthroline to the hexayne.
Project description:Mechanically interlocked supramolecular assemblies are appealing building blocks for creating functional nanodevices. Herein, we describe the multistep assembly of large DNA origami rotaxanes that are capable of programmable structural switching. We validated the topology and structural integrity of these rotaxanes by analyzing the intermediate and final products of various assembly routes by electrophoresis and electron microscopy. We further analyzed two structure-switching behaviors of our rotaxanes, which are both mediated by DNA hybridization. In the first mechanism, the translational motion of the macrocycle can be triggered or halted at either terminus. In the second mechanism, the macrocycle can be elongated after completion of the rotaxane assembly, giving rise to a unique structure that is otherwise difficult to access.
Project description:Despite significant advances in the last three decades towards high yielding syntheses of rotaxanes, the preparation of systems constructed from more than two components remains a challenge. Herein we build upon our previous report of an active template copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) rotaxane synthesis with a diyne in which, following the formation of the first mechanical bond, the steric bulk of the macrocycle tempers the reactivity of the second alkyne unit. We have now extended this approach to the use of 1,3,5-triethynylbenzene in order to successively prepare -, - and rotaxanes without the need for protecting group chemistry. Whilst the first two iterations proceeded in good yield, the steric shielding that affords this selectivity also significantly reduces the efficacy of the active template (AT)-CuAAC reaction of the third alkyne towards the preparation of rotaxanes, resulting in severely diminished yields.
Project description:Incorporation of 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalate as a covalent scaffold in the axis of a 30-membered all-carbon macrocycle provides access to a modular series of rotaxanes. Installment of tethered alkynes or azides onto the terephthalic phenolic hydroxyl functionalities, which are situated at opposite sides of the macrocycle, gives versatile prerotaxane building blocks. The corresponding rotaxanes are obtained by introduction of bulky stoppering ("capping") units at the tethers and subsequent cleavage of the covalent ring/thread ester linkages. Extension of this strategy via coupling of two prerotaxanes bearing complementary linker functionalities (i.e., azide and alkyne) and follow-up attachment of stopper groups provide efficient access to [n]rotaxanes. The applicability and modular nature of this novel approach were demonstrated by the synthesis of a series of -, -, and rotaxanes. Furthermore, it is shown that the prerotaxanes allow late-stage functionalization of the ring fragment introducing further structural diversity.