N-terminal acetylation of the yeast Derlin Der1 is essential for Hrd1 ubiquitin-ligase activity toward luminal ER substrates.
ABSTRACT: Two conserved ubiquitin ligases, Hrd1 and Doa10, mediate most endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) in yeast. Degradation signals (degrons) recognized by these ubiquitin ligases remain poorly characterized. Doa10 recognizes the Deg1 degron from the MAT?2 transcription factor. We previously found that deletion of the gene (NAT3) encoding the catalytic subunit of the NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase weakly stabilized a Deg1-fusion protein. By contrast, a recent analysis of several MAT?2 derivatives suggested that N-terminal acetylation of these proteins by NatB was crucial for recognition by Doa10. We now analyze endogenous MAT?2 degradation in cells lacking NatB and observe minimal perturbation relative to wild-type cells. However, NatB mutation strongly impairs degradation of ER-luminal Hrd1 substrates. This unexpected defect derives from a failure of Der1, a Hrd1 complex subunit, to be N-terminally acetylated in NatB mutant yeast. We retargeted Der1 to another acetyltransferase to show that it is the only ERAD factor requiring N-terminal acetylation. Preventing Der1 acetylation stimulates its proteolysis via the Hrd1 pathway, at least partially accounting for the ERAD defect observed in the absence of NatB. These results reveal an important role for N-terminal acetylation in controlling Hrd1 ligase activity toward a specific class of ERAD substrates.
Project description:Little is known about quality control of proteins that aberrantly or persistently engage the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized translocon en route to membrane localization or the secretory pathway. Hrd1 and Doa10, the primary ubiquitin ligases that function in ER-associated degradation (ERAD) in yeast, target distinct subsets of misfolded or otherwise abnormal proteins based primarily on degradation signal (degron) location. We report the surprising observation that fusing Deg1, a cytoplasmic degron normally recognized by Doa10, to the Sec62 membrane protein rendered the protein a Hrd1 substrate. Hrd1-dependent degradation occurred when Deg1-Sec62 aberrantly engaged the Sec61 translocon channel and underwent topological rearrangement. Mutations that prevent translocon engagement caused a reversion to Doa10-dependent degradation. Similarly, a variant of apolipoprotein B, a protein known to be cotranslocationally targeted for proteasomal degradation, was also a Hrd1 substrate. Hrd1 therefore likely plays a general role in targeting proteins that persistently associate with and potentially obstruct the translocon.
Project description:Aberrant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins are eliminated by ER-associated degradation (ERAD). This process involves protein retrotranslocation into the cytosol, ubiquitylation, and proteasomal degradation. ERAD substrates are classified into three categories based on the location of their degradation signal/degron: ERAD-L (lumen), ERAD-M (membrane), and ERAD-C (cytosol) substrates. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the membrane proteins Hrd1 and Doa10 are the predominant ERAD ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s). The current notion is that ERAD-L and ERAD-M substrates are exclusively handled by Hrd1, whereas ERAD-C substrates are recognized by Doa10. In this paper, we identify the transmembrane (TM) protein Sec61 ?-subunit homologue 2 (Sbh2) as a Doa10 substrate. Sbh2 is part of the trimeric Ssh1 complex involved in protein translocation. Unassembled Sbh2 is rapidly degraded in a Doa10-dependent manner. Intriguingly, the degron maps to the Sbh2 TM region. Thus, in contrast to the prevailing view, Doa10 (and presumably its human orthologue) has the capacity for recognizing intramembrane degrons, expanding its spectrum of substrates.
Project description:Conserved homologues of the Hrd1 ubiquitin ligase target for degradation proteins that persistently or aberrantly engage the endoplasmic reticulum translocon, including mammalian apolipoprotein B (apoB; the major protein component of low-density lipoproteins) and the artificial yeast protein Deg1-Sec62. A complete understanding of the molecular mechanism by which translocon-associated proteins are recognized and degraded may inform the development of therapeutic strategies for cholesterol-related pathologies. Both apoB and Deg1-Sec62 are extensively post-translationally modified. Mass spectrometry of a variant of Deg1-Sec62 revealed that the protein is acetylated at the N-terminal methionine and two internal lysine residues. N-terminal and internal acetylation regulates the degradation of a variety of unstable proteins. However, preventing N-terminal and internal acetylation had no detectable consequence for Hrd1-mediated proteolysis of Deg1-Sec62. Our data highlight the importance of empirically validating the role of post-translational modifications and sequence motifs on protein degradation, even when such elements have previously been demonstrated sufficient to destine other proteins for destruction.
Project description:Misfolded luminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins undergo ER-associated degradation (ERAD-L): They are retrotranslocated into the cytosol, polyubiquitinated, and degraded by the proteasome. ERAD-L is mediated by the Hrd1 complex (composed of Hrd1, Hrd3, Der1, Usa1, and Yos9), but the mechanism of retrotranslocation remains mysterious. Here, we report a structure of the active Hrd1 complex, as determined by cryo-electron microscopy analysis of two subcomplexes. Hrd3 and Yos9 jointly create a luminal binding site that recognizes glycosylated substrates. Hrd1 and the rhomboid-like Der1 protein form two "half-channels" with cytosolic and luminal cavities, respectively, and lateral gates facing one another in a thinned membrane region. These structures, along with crosslinking and molecular dynamics simulation results, suggest how a polypeptide loop of an ERAD-L substrate moves through the ER membrane.
Project description:Substrate discrimination in the ubiquitin-proteasome system is believed to be dictated by specific combinations of ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s). Here we identify Doa10/Ssm4 as a yeast E3 that is embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/nuclear envelope yet can target the soluble transcription factor Matalpha2. Doa10 contains an unusual RING finger, which has ubiquitin-ligase activity in vitro and is essential in vivo for degradation of alpha2 via its Deg1 degradation signal. Doa10 functions with two E2s, Ubc6 and Ubc7, to ubiquitinate Deg1-bearing substrates, and it is also required for the degradation of at least one ER membrane protein. Interestingly, different short-lived ER proteins show distinct requirements for Doa10 and another ER-localized E3, Hrd1. Nevertheless, the two E3s overlap in function: A doa10Delta hrd1Delta mutant is far more sensitive to cadmium relative to either single mutant and displays strong constitutive induction of the unfolded protein response; this suggests a role for both E3s in eliminating aberrant ER proteins. The likely human ortholog of DOA10 is in the cri-du-chat syndrome critical region on chromosome 5p, suggesting that defective ubiquitin ligation might contribute to this common genetic disorder.
Project description:A significant portion of ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent cellular protein quality control takes place at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a process termed "ER-associated degradation" (ERAD). Yeast ERAD employs two integral ER membrane E3 Ub ligases: Hrd1 (also termed "Der3") and Doa10, which recognize a distinct set of substrates. However, both E3s bind to and activate a common E2-conjugating enzyme, Ubc7. Here we describe a novel feature of the ERAD system that entails differential activation of Ubc7 by its cognate E3s. We found that residues within helix ?2 of Ubc7 that interact with donor Ub were essential for polyUb conjugation. Mutagenesis of these residues inhibited the in vitro activity of Ubc7 by preventing the conjugation of donor Ub to the acceptor. Unexpectedly, Ub chain formation by mutant Ubc7 was restored selectively by the Hrd1 RING domain but not by the Doa10 RING domain. In agreement with the in vitro data, Ubc7 ?2 helix mutations selectively impaired the in vivo degradation of Doa10 substrates but had no apparent effect on the degradation of Hrd1 substrates. To our knowledge, this is the first example of distinct activation requirements of a single E2 by two E3s. We propose a model in which the RING domain activates Ub transfer by stabilizing a transition state determined by noncovalent interactions between the ?2 helix of Ubc7 and Ub and that this transition state may be stabilized further by some E3 ligases, such as Hrd1, through additional interactions outside the RING domain.
Project description:The nuclear envelope is a double membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. The inner nuclear membrane (INM) functions in essential nuclear processes including chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression. The outer nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and is the site of membrane protein synthesis. Protein homeostasis in this compartment is ensured by endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathways that in yeast involve the integral membrane E3 ubiquitin ligases Hrd1 and Doa10 operating with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc6 and Ubc7 (refs 2, 3). However, little is known about protein quality control at the INM. Here we describe a protein degradation pathway at the INM in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mediated by the Asi complex consisting of the RING domain proteins Asi1 and Asi3 (ref. 4). We report that the Asi complex functions together with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc6 and Ubc7 to degrade soluble and integral membrane proteins. Genetic evidence suggests that the Asi ubiquitin ligase defines a pathway distinct from, but complementary to, ERAD. Using unbiased screening with a novel genome-wide yeast library based on a tandem fluorescent protein timer, we identify more than 50 substrates of the Asi, Hrd1 and Doa10 E3 ubiquitin ligases. We show that the Asi ubiquitin ligase is involved in degradation of mislocalized integral membrane proteins, thus acting to maintain and safeguard the identity of the INM.
Project description:The yeast Doa10 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/nuclear envelope (NE), where it functions in ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Doa10 substrates include non-ER proteins such as the transcription factor Mat alpha2. Here, we expand the range of Doa10 substrates to include a defective kinetochore component, a mutant NE membrane protein, and a substrate-regulated human ER enzyme. For all these substrates, Doa10 requires two Ub-conjugating enzymes, Ubc6 and Ubc7, as well as the Ubc7 cofactor Cue1. Based on a novel genomic screen of a comprehensive gene deletion library and other data, these four proteins appear to be the only nonessential and nonredundant factors generally required for Doa10-mediated ubiquitination. Notably, the Cdc48 ATPase facilitates degradation of membrane-embedded Doa10 substrates, but is not required for any tested soluble Doa10 substrates. This distinction is maintained even when comparing membrane and soluble proteins bearing the same degradation signal. Thus, while Doa10 ubiquitinates both membrane and soluble proteins, the mechanisms of subsequent proteasome targeting differ.
Project description:Misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are retrotranslocated into the cytosol and polyubiquitinated before being degraded by the proteasome. The multi-spanning ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 forms the retrotranslocation channel and associates with three other membrane proteins (Hrd3, Usa1, Der1) of poorly defined function. The Hrd1 channel is gated by autoubiquitination, but how Hrd1 escapes degradation by the proteasome and returns to its inactive ground state is unknown. Here, we show that autoubiquitination of Hrd1 is counteracted by Ubp1, a deubiquitinating enzyme that requires its N-terminal transmembrane segment for activity towards Hrd1. The Hrd1 partner Hrd3 serves as a brake for autoubiquitination, while Usa1 attenuates Ubp1's deubiquitination activity through an inhibitory effect of its UBL domain. These results lead to a model in which the Hrd1 channel is regulated by cycles of autoubiquitination and deubiquitination, reactions that are modulated by the other components of the Hrd1 complex.
Project description:Misfolded proteins of the secretory pathway are extracted from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), polyubiquitylated by a protein complex termed the Hmg-CoA reductase degradation ligase (HRD-ligase), and degraded by cytosolic 26S proteasomes. This process is termed ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). We previously showed that the membrane protein Der1, which is a subunit of the HRD-ligase, is involved in the export of aberrant polypeptides from the ER. Unexpectedly, we also uncovered a close spatial proximity of Der1 and the substrate receptor Hrd3 in the ER lumen. We report here on a mutant Hrd3KR that is selectively defective for ERAD of soluble proteins. Hrd3KR displays subtle structural changes that affect its positioning toward Der1. Furthermore, increased quantities of the ER-resident Hsp70-type chaperone Kar2 and the Hsp40-type cochaperone Scj1 bind to Hrd3KR. Of note, deletion of SCJ1 impairs ERAD of model substrates and causes the accumulation of client proteins at Hrd3. Our data imply a function of Scj1 in the removal of malfolded proteins from the receptor Hrd3, which facilitates their delivery to downstream-acting components like Der1.