Occurrence of regulated and emerging iodinated DBPs in the Shanghai drinking water.
ABSTRACT: Drinking water chlorination plays a pivotal role in preventing pathogen contamination against water-borne disease. However, chemical disinfection leads to the formation of halogenated disinfection by products (DBPs). Many DBPs are highly toxic and are of health concern. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive measurements of DBPs, including iodoacetic acid (IAA), iodoform (IF), nine haloacetic acids and four trihalomethanes in drinking waters from 13 water plants in Shanghai, China. The results suggested that IAA and IF were found in all the water treatment plants, with maximum levels of 1.66 µg/L and 1.25 µg/L for IAA and IF, respectively. Owing to deterioration of water quality, the Huangpu River has higher IAA and IF than the Yangtze River. Our results also demonstrated that low pH, high natural organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, and iodide in source waters increased IAA and IF formation. Compared to chlorine, chloramines resulted in higher concentration of iodinated DBP, but reduced the levels of trihalomethanes. This is the first study to reveal the widespread occurrence of IAA and IF in drinking water in China. The data provide a better understanding on the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts and the findings should be useful for treatment process improvement and disinfection byproducts controls.
Project description:The HIWATE (Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection byproducts in drinking WATEr) project was a systematic analysis that combined the epidemiology on adverse pregnancy outcomes and other health effects with long-term exposure to low levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in the European Union. The present study focused on the relationship of the occurrence and concentration of DBPs with in vitro mammalian cell toxicity. Eleven drinking water samples were collected from five European countries. Each sampling location corresponded with an epidemiological study for the HIWATE program. Over 90 DBPs were identified; the range in the number of DBPs and their levels reflected the diverse collection sites, different disinfection processes, and the different characteristics of the source waters. For each sampling site, chronic mammalian cell cytotoxicity correlated highly with the numbers of DBPs identified and the levels of DBP chemical classes. Although there was a clear difference in the genotoxic responses among the drinking waters, these data did not correlate as well with the chemical analyses. Thus, the agents responsible for the genomic DNA damage observed in the HIWATE samples may be due to unresolved associations of combinations of identified DBPs, unknown emerging DBPs that were not identified, or other toxic water contaminants. This study represents the first to integrate quantitative in vitro toxicological data with analytical chemistry and human epidemiologic outcomes for drinking water DBPs.
Project description:Iodinated contrast media (ICM) are nonmutagenic agents administered for X-ray imaging of soft tissues. ICM can reach ?g/L levels in surface waters because they are administered in high doses, excreted largely unmetabolized, and poorly removed by wastewater treatment. Iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) are highly genotoxic and have been reported in disinfected waters containing ICM. We assessed the mutagenicity in Salmonella of extracts of chlorinated source water containing one of four ICM (iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, and diatrizoate). We quantified 21 regulated and nonregulated DBPs and 11 target I-DBPs and conducted a nontarget, comprehensive broad-screen identification of I-DBPs. We detected one new iodomethane (trichloroiodomethane), three new iodoacids (dichloroiodoacetic acid, chlorodiiodoacetic acid, bromochloroiodoacetic acid), and two new nitrogenous I-DBPs (iodoacetonitrile and chloroiodoacetonitrile). Their formation depended on the presence of iopamidol as the iodine source; identities were confirmed with authentic standards when available. This is the first identification in simulated drinking water of chloroiodoacetonitrile and iodoacetonitrile, the latter of which is highly cytotoxic and genotoxic in mammalian cells. Iopamidol (5 ?M) altered the concentrations and relative distribution of several DBP classes, increasing total haloacetonitriles by >10-fold. Chlorination of ICM-containing source water increased I-DBP concentrations but not mutagenicity, indicating that such I-DBPs were either not mutagenic or at concentrations too low to affect mutagenicity.
Project description:Disinfection of drinking water protects public health against waterborne pathogens. However, during disinfection, toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are formed. Exposure to DBPs was associated with increased risk of bladder cancer in humans. DBPs are generated at concentrations below their carcinogenic potencies; it is unclear how exposure leads to adverse health outcomes. We used computational estimates of the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO) to predict thiol reactivity and additive toxicity among soft electrophile DBPs. Bromoacetic acid (BAA) was identified as non-thiol-reactive, which was supported by in chemico and in vitro data. Bromoacetonitrile (BAN) and bromoacetamide (BAM) were thiol-reactive. Genotoxicity induced by these compounds was reduced by increasing the thiol pool with N-acetyl L-cysteine (NAC), while NAC had little effect on BAA. BAN and BAM shared depletion of glutathione (GSH) or cellular thiols as a molecular initiating event (MIE), whereas BAA induces toxicity through another pathway. Binary mixtures of BAM and BAN expressed a potentiating effect in genotoxicity. We found that soft electrophile DBPs could be an important predictor of common mechanism groups that demonstrated additive toxicity. In silico estimates of ELUMO could be used to identify the most relevant DBPs that are the forcing factors of the toxicity of finished drinking waters.
Project description:The reaction between organic matter and disinfectants leads to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water. With the improvement of detection technology and in-depth research, more than 1000 kinds of DBPs have been detected in drinking water. Nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs) are more genotoxic and cytotoxic than the regulated DBPs. The main methods are enhanced coagulation, pretreatment, and depth technologies which based are on conventional technology. Amino acids (AAs) are widely found in surface waters and play an important role by providing precursors from which toxic nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) are generated in chlorinated drinking water. The formation of N-DBPs, including dichloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, and trichloronitromethane (TCNM), was investigated by analyzing chlorinated water using ozone (OZ), permanganate (PM), and ferrate (Fe(VI)) pre-oxidation processes. This paper has considered the control of pre-oxidation over N-DBPs formation of AAs, OZ, PM, and Fe(VI) pre-oxidation reduced the haloacetonitrile formation in the downstream chlorination. PM pre-oxidation decreased the TCNM formation during the subsequent chlorination, while Fe(VI) pre-oxidation had no significant influence on the TCNM formation, and OZ pre-oxidation increased the formation. OZ pre-oxidation formed the lowest degree of bromine substitution during subsequent chlorination of aspartic acid in the presence of bromide. Among the three oxidants, PM pre-oxidation was expected to be the best choice for reducing the estimated genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the sum of the measured haloacetonitriles (HANs) and TCNM without bromide. Fe(VI) pre-oxidation had the best performance in the presence of bromide.
Project description:This data article reports the relationship between of the bromide ion concentration and the formation potential of disinfectant byproducts (DBPs) including, trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and haloacetonitriles (HANs) upon chlorination and monochloramination of the raw water of Karoon River water in Iran. Water samples were collected at an intake of a drinking water treatment plant during July 2014. All tests were performed in triplicate (n=3) and the mean of three measurements reported herein. The data of the formation potential of DBPs was determined under different bromide ions content. The data show the relationship between bromide concentration and DBPs formation that will be useful in the future management, operation and design of water treatment plants.
Project description:The introduction of drinking water disinfection greatly reduced waterborne diseases. However, the reaction between disinfectants and natural organic matter in the source water leads to an unintended consequence, the formation of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs). The haloacetaldehydes (HALs) are the third largest group by weight of identified DBPs in drinking water. The primary objective of this study was to analyze the occurrence and comparative toxicity of the emerging HAL DBPs. A new HAL DBP, iodoacetaldehyde (IAL) was identified. This study provided the first systematic, quantitative comparison of HAL toxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The rank order of HAL cytotoxicity is tribromoacetaldehyde (TBAL) ? chloroacetaldehyde (CAL) > dibromoacetaldehyde (DBAL) ? bromochloroacetaldehyde (BCAL) ? dibromochloroacetaldehyde (DBCAL) > IAL > bromoacetaldehyde (BAL) ? bromodichloroacetaldehyde (BDCAL) > dichloroacetaldehyde (DCAL) > trichloroacetaldehyde (TCAL). The HALs were highly cytotoxic compared to other DBP chemical classes. The rank order of HAL genotoxicity is DBAL > CAL ? DBCAL > TBAL ? BAL > BDCAL>BCAL ? DCAL>IAL. TCAL was not genotoxic. Because of their toxicity and abundance, further research is needed to investigate their mode of action to protect the public health and the environment.
Project description:Broadly applicable disinfection by-product (DBP) precursor surrogate parameters could be leveraged at drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) to curb formation of regulated DBPs, such as trihalomethanes (THMs). In this study, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254?nm (UV254), fluorescence excitation/emission wavelength pairs (IEx/Em), and the maximum fluorescence intensities (FMAX) of components from parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis were evaluated as total THM formation potential (TTHMFP) precursor surrogate parameters. A diverse set of source waters from eleven DWTPs located within watersheds underlain by six different soil orders were coagulated with alum at pH 6, 7, and 8, resulting in 44 sample waters. DOC, UV254, IEx/Em, and FMAX values were measured to characterize dissolved organic matter in raw and treated waters and THMs were quantified following formation potential tests with free chlorine. For the 44 sample waters, the linear TTHMFP correlation with UV254 was stronger (r(2)=0.89) than I240/562 (r(2)=0.81, the strongest surrogate parameter from excitation/emission matrix pair picking), FMAX from a humic/fulvic acid-like PARAFAC component (r(2)=0.78), and DOC (r(2)=0.75). Results indicate that UV254 was the most accurate TTHMFP precursor surrogate parameter assessed for a diverse group of raw and alum-coagulated waters.
Project description:The occurrence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has become an issue of concern during the past decades. The DBPs pose health risks and are suspected to cause various cancer forms, be genotoxic, and have negative developmental effects. The vast chemical diversity of DBPs makes comprehensive monitoring challenging. Only few of the DBPs are regulated and included in analytical protocols. In this study, a method for simultaneous measurement of 20 DBPs from five different structural classes (both regulated and non-regulated) was investigated and further developed for 11 DBPs using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled with a halogen-specific detector (XSD). The XSD was highly selective towards halogenated DBPs, providing chromatograms with little noise. The method allowed detection down to 0.05 μg L-1 and showed promising results for the simultaneous determination of a range of neutral DBP classes. Compounds from two classes of emerging DBPs, more cytotoxic than the "traditional" regulated DBPs, were successfully determined using this method. However, haloacetic acids (HAAs) should be analyzed separately as some HAA methyl esters may degrade giving false positives of trihalomethanes (THMs). The method was tested on real water samples from two municipal waterworks where the target DBP concentrations were found below the regulatory limits of Sweden.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Few epidemiological studies that have assessed the relation between water disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the risk of stillbirth provide inconsistent results. The objective was to assess the relation between exposure to water disinfection by-products and the risk of stillbirth. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of 3,289 cases of stillbirth and a random sample of 32,890 control subjects from 396,049 Taiwanese newborns in 2001-2003 using information from the Birth Registry and Waterworks Registry in Taiwan. We compared the risk of stillbirth in four disinfection by-product exposure categories based on the levels of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) representing high (TTHMs 20+ µg/L), medium (TTHMs 10-19 µg/L), low exposure (TTHMs 5-9 µg/L), and 0-4 µg/L as the reference category. In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis of the results from the present and 5 previous studies focusing on stillbirth. FINDINGS: In logistic regression analysis adjusting for gender, maternal age, plurality, conception of season and population density of the municipality where the mother lived during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for stillbirth was 1.10 (95% CI 1.00-1.21) for medium exposure and 1.06 (95% 0.96-1.17) for high exposure compared to reference category. In the meta-analysis, the summary odds ratio for stillbirth (1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.19) was consistently elevated. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is consistent with the hypothesis that the risk of stillbirth is related to prenatal exposure to disinfection by-products. This finding on stillbirth is consistent with previous epidemiologic studies, which strengthens the weight of evidence.
Project description:The formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, associated with monochloramine, requires further research due to the growing interest in using this biocide for the secondary disinfection of water in public and private buildings. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible formation of N-nitrosamines and other toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) in hospital hot water networks treated with monochloramine. The effectiveness of this biocide in controlling Legionella spp. contamination was also verified. For this purpose, four different monochloramine-treated networks, in terms of the duration of treatment and method of biocide injection, were investigated. Untreated hot water, municipal cold water and, limited to N-nitrosamines analysis, hot water treated with chlorine dioxide were analyzed for comparison. Legionella spp. contamination was successfully controlled without any formation of N-nitrosamines. No nitrification or formation of the regulated DBPs, such as chlorites and trihalomethanes, occurred in monochloramine-treated water networks. However, a stable formulation of hypochlorite, its frequent replacement with a fresh product, and the routine monitoring of free ammonia are recommended to ensure a proper disinfection. Our study confirms that monochloramine may be proposed as an effective and safe strategy for the continuous disinfection of building plumbing systems, preventing vulnerable individuals from being exposed to legionellae and dangerous DBPs.