Occurrence of regulated and emerging iodinated DBPs in the Shanghai drinking water.
ABSTRACT: Drinking water chlorination plays a pivotal role in preventing pathogen contamination against water-borne disease. However, chemical disinfection leads to the formation of halogenated disinfection by products (DBPs). Many DBPs are highly toxic and are of health concern. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive measurements of DBPs, including iodoacetic acid (IAA), iodoform (IF), nine haloacetic acids and four trihalomethanes in drinking waters from 13 water plants in Shanghai, China. The results suggested that IAA and IF were found in all the water treatment plants, with maximum levels of 1.66 µg/L and 1.25 µg/L for IAA and IF, respectively. Owing to deterioration of water quality, the Huangpu River has higher IAA and IF than the Yangtze River. Our results also demonstrated that low pH, high natural organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, and iodide in source waters increased IAA and IF formation. Compared to chlorine, chloramines resulted in higher concentration of iodinated DBP, but reduced the levels of trihalomethanes. This is the first study to reveal the widespread occurrence of IAA and IF in drinking water in China. The data provide a better understanding on the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts and the findings should be useful for treatment process improvement and disinfection byproducts controls.
Project description:Introduction of oil and gas extraction wastewaters (OGWs) to surface water leads to elevated halide levels from geogenic bromide and iodide, as well as enhanced formation of brominated and iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) when treated. OGWs contain high levels of chemical additives used to optimize extraction activities, such as surfactants, which have the potential to serve as organic DBP precursors in OGW-impacted water sources. We report the first identification of olefin sulfonate surfactant-derived DBPs from laboratory-disinfected gas extraction wastewater. Over 300 sulfur-containing DBPs, with 43 unique molecular formulas, were found by high-resolution mass spectrometry, following bench-scale chlor(am)ination. DBPs consisted of mostly brominated species, including bromohydrin sulfonates, dihalo-bromosulfonates, and bromosultone sulfonates, with chlorinated/iodinated analogues formed to a lesser extent. Disinfection of a commercial C<sub>12</sub>-olefin sulfonate surfactant mixture revealed dodecene sulfonate as a likely precursor for most detected DBPs; disulfur-containing DBPs, like bromosultone sulfonate and bromohydrin disulfonate, originated from olefin disulfonate species, present as side-products of olefin sulfonate production. Disinfection of wastewaters increased mammalian cytotoxicity several orders of magnitude, with chloraminated water being more toxic. This finding is important to OGW-impacted source waters because drinking water plants with high-bromide source waters may switch to chloramination to meet DBP regulations.
Project description:The HIWATE (Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection byproducts in drinking WATEr) project was a systematic analysis that combined the epidemiology on adverse pregnancy outcomes and other health effects with long-term exposure to low levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in the European Union. The present study focused on the relationship of the occurrence and concentration of DBPs with in vitro mammalian cell toxicity. Eleven drinking water samples were collected from five European countries. Each sampling location corresponded with an epidemiological study for the HIWATE program. Over 90 DBPs were identified; the range in the number of DBPs and their levels reflected the diverse collection sites, different disinfection processes, and the different characteristics of the source waters. For each sampling site, chronic mammalian cell cytotoxicity correlated highly with the numbers of DBPs identified and the levels of DBP chemical classes. Although there was a clear difference in the genotoxic responses among the drinking waters, these data did not correlate as well with the chemical analyses. Thus, the agents responsible for the genomic DNA damage observed in the HIWATE samples may be due to unresolved associations of combinations of identified DBPs, unknown emerging DBPs that were not identified, or other toxic water contaminants. This study represents the first to integrate quantitative in vitro toxicological data with analytical chemistry and human epidemiologic outcomes for drinking water DBPs.
Project description:Iodinated contrast media (ICM) are nonmutagenic agents administered for X-ray imaging of soft tissues. ICM can reach ?g/L levels in surface waters because they are administered in high doses, excreted largely unmetabolized, and poorly removed by wastewater treatment. Iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) are highly genotoxic and have been reported in disinfected waters containing ICM. We assessed the mutagenicity in Salmonella of extracts of chlorinated source water containing one of four ICM (iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, and diatrizoate). We quantified 21 regulated and nonregulated DBPs and 11 target I-DBPs and conducted a nontarget, comprehensive broad-screen identification of I-DBPs. We detected one new iodomethane (trichloroiodomethane), three new iodoacids (dichloroiodoacetic acid, chlorodiiodoacetic acid, bromochloroiodoacetic acid), and two new nitrogenous I-DBPs (iodoacetonitrile and chloroiodoacetonitrile). Their formation depended on the presence of iopamidol as the iodine source; identities were confirmed with authentic standards when available. This is the first identification in simulated drinking water of chloroiodoacetonitrile and iodoacetonitrile, the latter of which is highly cytotoxic and genotoxic in mammalian cells. Iopamidol (5 ?M) altered the concentrations and relative distribution of several DBP classes, increasing total haloacetonitriles by >10-fold. Chlorination of ICM-containing source water increased I-DBP concentrations but not mutagenicity, indicating that such I-DBPs were either not mutagenic or at concentrations too low to affect mutagenicity.
Project description:Disinfection is an essential process of drinking water treatment to eliminate harmful pathogens, but it generates potentially toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Ferrate (FeO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>, Fe(VI)) was used to pre-oxidize natural organic matter (NOM, the precursor of DBPs) in source water to control DBP formation in subsequent chlorine or chloramine disinfection. Currently, it is unclear how Fe(VI) changes the structure of NOM, and no information details the effect of Fe(VI) pretreatment on the aromatic DBPs or the speciation of overall DBPs generated in subsequent disinfection of drinking water. In the present paper, Fe(VI) was applied to pretreat simulated