Fecal microbiota composition differs between children with β-cell autoimmunity and those without.
ABSTRACT: The role of the intestinal microbiota as a regulator of autoimmune diabetes in animal models is well-established, but data on human type 1 diabetes are tentative and based on studies including only a few study subjects. To exclude secondary effects of diabetes and HLA risk genotype on gut microbiota, we compared the intestinal microbiota composition in children with at least two diabetes-associated autoantibodies (n = 18) with autoantibody-negative children matched for age, sex, early feeding history, and HLA risk genotype using pyrosequencing. Principal component analysis indicated that a low abundance of lactate-producing and butyrate-producing species was associated with β-cell autoimmunity. In addition, a dearth of the two most dominant Bifidobacterium species, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, and an increased abundance of the Bacteroides genus were observed in the children with β-cell autoimmunity. We did not find increased fecal calprotectin or IgA as marker of inflammation in children with β-cell autoimmunity. Functional studies related to the observed alterations in the gut microbiome are warranted because the low abundance of bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing species could adversely affect the intestinal epithelial barrier function and inflammation, whereas the apparent importance of the Bacteroides genus in development of type 1 diabetes is insufficiently understood.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that the cross-talk between the gut microbiota and human immune system during the first year of life is an important regulator of the later development of atopic diseases. We explored the changes in the gut microbiota, blood regulatory T cells, and atopic sensitization in a birth-cohort of Estonian and Finnish children followed from 3 to 36 months of age. We describe here an infant Treg phenotype characterized by high Treg frequency, the maturation of Treg population characterized by a decrease in their frequency accompanied with an increase in the highly activated Treg cells. These changes in Treg population associated first with the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum followed by increasing colonization with butyrate producing bacteria. High bifidobacterial abundance in the neonatal microbiota appeared to be protective, while colonization with Bacteroides and E. coli was associated with later risk of allergy. Estonian children with lower risk of IgE mediated allergic diseases than Finnish children showed an earlier maturation of the gut microbiota, detected as earlier switch to an increasing abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria, combined with an earlier maturation of Treg cell phenotype and total IgE production. The children with established allergic diseases by age 3 showed a decreased abundance of butyrate producing Faecalibacterium. These results suggest that as well as the maintenance of a bifidobacterial dominated gut microbiota is important during the first weeks of life, the overtake by butyrate producing bacteria seems to be a beneficial shift, which should not be postponed.
Project description:The gut microbiota has been implicated in glucose intolerance and its progression towards type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Relevant randomized clinical trial with prebiotic intervention was inadequate. We sought to evaluate the impact of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on glycemia during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intestinal microbiota. A randomized double-blind cross-over study was performed with 35 adults treated with FOS and GOS for 14 days (16?g/day). Faeces sampling, OGTT and anthropometric parameters were performed. Short-term intake of high-dose prebiotics had adverse effect on glucose metabolism, as in FOS intervention demonstrated by OGTT (P?<?0.001), and in GOS intervention demonstrated by fasting glucose (P?<?0.05). A significant increase in the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium was observed both in FOS and GOS group, while the butyrate-producing bacteria like Phascolarctobacterium in FOS group and Ruminococcus in GOS group were decreased. A random forest model using the initial microbiota was developed to predict OGTT levels after prebiotic intervention with relative success (R?=?0.726). Our study alerted even though FOS and GOS increased Bifidobacterium, they might have adverse effect on glucose metabolism by reducing butyrate-producing microbes. Individualized prebiotics intervention based on gut microbiome needs to be evaluated in future.
Project description:Current blood-based approach for gout diagnosis can be of low sensitivity and hysteretic. Here via a 68-member cohort of 33 healthy and 35 diseased individuals, we reported that the intestinal microbiota of gout patients are highly distinct from healthy individuals in both organismal and functional structures. In gout, Bacteroides caccae and Bacteroides xylanisolvens are enriched yet Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum depleted. The established reference microbial gene catalogue for gout revealed disorder in purine degradation and butyric acid biosynthesis in gout patients. In an additional 15-member validation-group, a diagnosis model via 17 gout-associated bacteria reached 88.9% accuracy, higher than the blood-uric-acid based approach. Intestinal microbiota of gout are more similar to those of type-2 diabetes than to liver cirrhosis, whereas depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and reduced butyrate biosynthesis are shared in each of the metabolic syndromes. Thus the Microbial Index of Gout was proposed as a novel, sensitive and non-invasive strategy for diagnosing gout via fecal microbiota.
Project description:Prebiotics are selectively fermented ingredients that result in specific changes in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon the host health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a ?(1-4)galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) formulation consisting of 90% pure GOS (GOS90), on the composition and activity of the mouse gut microbiota. Germ-free mice were colonised with microbiota from four pathogen-free wt 129 mice donors (SPF), and stools were collected during a feeding trial in which GOS90 was delivered orally for 14 days. Pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons showed that Bifidobacterium and specific Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Clostridiales were more prevalent in GOS90-fed mice after 14 days, although the prebiotic impact on Bifidobacterium varied among individual mice. Prebiotic feeding also resulted in decreased abundance of Bacteroidales, Helicobacter and Clostridium. High-throughput quantitative PCR showed an increased abundance of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium lactis and Bifidobacterium gallicum in the prebiotic-fed mice. Control female mice showed a higher diversity (phylogenetic diversity (PD) = 15.1 ± 3.4 in stools and PD = 13.0 ± 0.6 in intestinal contents) than control males (PD = 7.8 ± 1.6 in stool samples and PD = 9.5 ± 1.0 in intestinal contents). GOS90 did not modify inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, IL-1?, interferon gamma and tumour necrosis factor alpha). Decreased butyrate, acetate and lactate concentrations in stools of prebiotic fed mice suggested an increase in colonic absorption and reduced excretion. Overall, our results demonstrate that GOS90 is capable of modulating the intestinal microbiome resulting in expansion of the probiome (autochtonous commensal intestinal bacteria considered to have a beneficial influence on health).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous study reported that patients who suffered coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) had worse cardiac function and clinical outcomes than patients with CHD only. Notably, the mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the changes and roles of intestinal bacterial microbiota in CHD-NAFLD patients. METHODS AND RESULTS:People were recruited and divided into three groups, including CHD patients (without NAFLD), CHD-NAFLD patients and healthy controls (HCs). Each group contained 24 people. Fecal samples and clinical information were carefully collected. The Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA was applied to profile the overall structure of the fecal bacterial microbiota and the characteristics of the bacterial microbiota based on the Operational Taxonomic Units. In clinical information, the CHD-NAFLD patients showed an increase in BMI, uric acid and triglyceride. There was a significant reduction in the abundance of Parabacteroides and Collinsella in overall CHD patients (including CHD-NAFLD and CHD patients). The intestinal bacterial microbiota in CHD-NAFLD patients showed an increase in the abundance of Copococcus and Veillonella, and a reduction in the abundance of Parabacteroides, Bacteroides fragilis, Ruminococcus gnavus, Bacteroides dorei, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp infantis. Among them, the abundance of Ruminococcus gnavus and Bacteroides dorei was significantly lower than that in CHD patients. Additionally, BMI positively correlated with the abundance of Copococcus and negatively correlated with the abundance of Bifidobacterium longum subsp infantis. The abundance of Veillonella positively correlated with AST. The abundance of Bacteroides dorei negatively correlated with ALT and AST. It indicates that the abundance of intestinal microbiota was related to the changes in clinical indexes. CONCLUSIONS:Changes of intestinal bacterial microbiota in CHD-NAFLD patients may be important factors affecting the degree of metabolic disorder, which may be one of the important reasons for the worse clinical outcome and disease progression in CHD-NAFLD patients than in CHD patients.
Project description:Emerging evidence has suggested the association of the gut microbiome with some human diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we analyzed the gut microbiota from a cohort of healthy and diabetic Chinese individuals from Northern China. Pyrosequencing of the V4V5 region of 16S rRNA genes revealed a significant decrease in the gut microbiota diversity of diabetic patients as compared to healthy individuals. Butyrate-producing bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia were significantly decreased in diabetic patients. Furthermore, the abundance of Dorea was significantly increased in T2D individuals and negatively correlated with the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria. The increase of Dorea could play a role in the development of T2D and has been previously overlooked. Importantly, functional analysis of the gut microbiome revealed for the first time that increased levels of butyrate production via transferases and the degradation of several amino acids due to gut microbial metabolism have strong correlations with T2D in Northern China. Moreover, the potential of gut microbiota-based classifiers to identify individuals with a high risk for T2D has been demonstrated in this study. Taken together, our findings have revealed a previously unappreciated association of the gut microbiome with T2D and have also suggested that changes in gut microbiota may be used to identify individuals at high risk for T2D.
Project description:Intestinal inflammation is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF). Administration of probiotics can reduce intestinal inflammation and the incidence of pulmonary exacerbations. We investigated the composition of intestinal microbiota in children with CF and analyzed its relationship with intestinal inflammation. We also investigated the microflora structure before and after Lactobacillus GG (LGG) administration in children with CF with and without antibiotic treatment.The intestinal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Intestinal inflammation was assessed by measuring fecal calprotectin (CLP) and rectal nitric oxide (rNO) production in children with CF as compared with healthy controls. We then carried out a small double-blind randomized clinical trial with LGG.Twenty-two children with CF children were enrolled in the study (median age, 7 years; range, 2-9 years). Fecal CLP and rNO levels were higher in children with CF than in healthy controls (184±146 µg/g vs. 52±46 µg/g; 18±15 vs. 2.6±1.2 µmol/L NO2 (-), respectively; P<0.01). Compared with healthy controls, children with CF had significantly different intestinal microbial core structures. The levels of Eubacterium rectale, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were reduced in children with CF. A similar but more extreme pattern was observed in children with CF who were taking antibiotics. LGG administration reduced fecal CLP and partially restored intestinal microbiota. There was a significant correlation between reduced microbial richness and intestinal inflammation.CF causes qualitative and quantitative changes in intestinal microbiota, which may represent a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of CF. Administration of probiotics restored gut microbiota, supporting the efficacy of probiotics in reducing intestinal inflammation and pulmonary exacerbations.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01961661.
Project description:The prebiotic potential of herbal medicines has been scarcely studied.The authors therefore used anaerobic human fecal cultivation to investigate whether three herbal medicines commonly used in gastrointestinal health and disease in Ayurveda alter the growth and abundance of specific bacterial species.Profiling of cultures supplemented with Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ulmus rubra, or triphala formulation by 16S rDNA sequencing revealed profound changes in diverse taxa in human gut microbiota. Principal coordinate analysis highlights that each herbal medicine drives the formation of unique microbial communities. The relative abundance of approximately one-third of the 299 species profiled was altered by all 3 medicines, whereas additional species displayed herb-specific alterations. Herb supplementation increased the abundance of many bacteria known to promote human health, including Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Bacteroides spp. Herb supplementation resulted in the reduced relative abundance of many species, including potential pathogens such as Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Herbal medicines induced blooms of butyrate- and propionate-producing species. U. rubra and triphala significantly increased the relative abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria, whereas G. glabra induced the largest increase in propionate-producing species. To achieve greater insight into the mechanisms through which herbal medicines alter microbial communities, the authors assessed the shifts in abundance of glycosyl hydrolase families induced by each herbal medicine. Herb supplementation, particularly G. glabra, significantly increased the representation and potential expression of several glycosyl hydrolase families.These studies are novel in highlighting the significant prebiotic potential of medicinal herbs and suggest that the health benefits of these herbs are due, at least in part, to their ability to modulate the gut microbiota in a manner predicted to improve colonic epithelium function, reduce inflammation, and protect from opportunistic infection. Forthcoming studies in human clinical trials will test the concordance of the results generated in vitro and the predictions made by genome analyses.
Project description:Intestinal health requires the coexistence of eukaryotic self with the gut microbiota and dysregulated host-microbial interactions can result in intestinal inflammation. Here, we show that colitis improved in T-bet(-/-)Rag2(-/-) mice that consumed a fermented milk product containing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DN-173 010 strain. A decrease in cecal pH and alterations in short chain fatty acid profiles occurred with consumption, and there were concomitant increases in the abundance of select lactate-consuming and butyrate-producing bacteria. These metabolic shifts created a nonpermissive environment for the Enterobacteriaceae recently identified as colitogenic in a T-bet(-/-)Rag2(-/-) ulcerative colitis mouse model. In addition, 16S rRNA-based analysis of the T-bet(-/-)Rag2(-/-) fecal microbiota suggest that the structure of the endogenous gut microbiota played a key role in shaping the host response to the bacterial strains studied herein. We have identified features of the gut microbiota, at the membership and functional level, associated with response to this B. lactis-containing fermented milk product, and therefore this model provides a framework for evaluating and optimizing probiotic-based functional foods.
Project description:Butyrate can modulate the immune response and energy expenditure of animals and enhance intestinal health. The present study investigated changes in the intestinal microbiota composition and serum metabolites of young broilers in response to 3,000 ppm butyrate in the form of butyrate glycerides (BG) via pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The dietary treatment did not affect the alpha diversity of intestinal microbiota, but altered its composition. Thirty-nine key operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in differentiating cecal microbiota community structures between BG treated and untreated chickens were also identified. Bifidobacterium was, in particular, affected by the dietary treatment significantly, showing an increase in not only the abundance (approximately 3 fold, P???0.05) but also the species diversity. The (NMR)-based analysis revealed an increase in serum concentrations of alanine, low-density and very low-density lipoproteins, and lipids (P???0.05) by BG. More interestingly, the dietary treatment also boosted (P???0.05) serum concentrations of bacterial metabolites, including choline, glycerophosphorylcholine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, lactate, and succinate. In conclusion, the data suggest the modulation of intestinal microbiota and serum metabolites by BG dietary treatment and potential contribution of intestinal bacteria to lipid metabolism/energy homeostasis in broilers.