Viral shedding and immune responses to respiratory syncytial virus infection in older adults.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Comprehensive analyses of host, viral, and immune factors associated with severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in adults have not been performed. METHODS:Adults with RSV infection identified in both outpatient and inpatient settings were evaluated. Upper and lower respiratory tract virus load, duration of virus shedding, select mucosal chemokine and cytokine levels, humoral and mucosal immunoglobulin responses, and systemic T-cell responses were measured. RESULTS:A total of 111 RSV-infected adults (61 outpatients and 50 hospitalized patients) were evaluated. Hospitalized subjects shed virus in nasal secretions at higher titers and for longer durations than less ill outpatients, had greater mucosal interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels throughout infection, and had higher macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?) levels early in infection. Persons >64 years old and those with more severe disease had a higher frequency of activated T cells in the blood than younger, less ill subjects at infection. Multivariate analysis found that the presence of underlying medical conditions, female sex, increased mucosal IL-6 level, and longer duration of virus shedding were associated with severe disease. Older age and increased nasal MIP-1? levels were of borderline statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS:Multiple factors, but not older age, are independently associated with severe RSV infection in adults. The presence of underlying medical conditions had the greatest influence on disease severity.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide. Although mucosal RSV vaccines can reduce RSV disease burden, little is known about mucosal immune response capabilities in children. Neonatal or adult mice were infected with RSV; a subset of neonatal mice received interferon alpha (IFN-?) (intranasal) prior to RSV infection. B cells, B cell activating factor (BAFF) and IgA were measured by flow cytometry. RSV specific IgA was measured in nasal washes. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and lungs were stained for BAFF and IgA. Herein, we show in a mouse model of RSV infection that IFN-? plays a dual role as an antiviral and immune modulator and age-related differences in IgA production upon RSV infection can be overcome by IFN-? administration. IFN-? administration before RSV infection in neonatal mice increased RSV-specific IgA production in the nasal mucosa and induced expression of the B-cell activating factor BAFF in NALT. These findings are important, as mucosal antibodies at the infection site, and not serum antibodies, have been shown to protect human adults from experimental RSV infection.
Project description:The capacity of live or inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) to induce B-cell memory in respiratory-associated lymphoid tissues of mice was examined. Eight weeks after primary inoculation with either live or inactivated RSV, adult BALB/c mice were challenged with 4x10(5) PFU of RSV. Protection from viral shedding and mucosal production of RSV-specific antibodies were examined at various time points after challenge. We found that primary immunization with live, but not inactivated, RSV induced complete and durable protection upon challenge within the upper and lower respiratory tract. Also, primary immunization with live, but not inactivated, RSV enhanced the production of mucosal RSV-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) upon challenge. Secondary mucosal IgA responses were characterized by (i) the early production of mucosal IgA by B cells that reside in organized nasal-associated lymphoid tissues, cervical lymph nodes, and bronchial lymph nodes, and (ii) the subsequent production of RSV-specific IgA by mucosal effector tissues, such as the tracheal lamina propria and lung. These findings suggest that primary infection of mice with live RSV might induce mucosal IgA-committed memory B cells. A greater understanding of the characteristics of RSA-specific mucosal memory B cells may facilitate the development of an RSV vaccine.
Project description:Systemic glucocorticosteroids (steroids) are commonly prescribed for patients with exacerbations of COPD during acute viral infections such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The effects of short-term high-dose steroid treatment on viral load and adaptive immunity to RSV have not been examined in adults.The objectives of this study were to measure peak viral load and duration of viral shedding, serum and nasal cytokines, RSV-specific antibody response, and lymphocyte subsets in patients admitted to the hospital with RSV infection and to compare patients treated with steroids to patients untreated with steroids.Hospitalized adults who tested positive for RSV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on admission had respiratory samples collected for quantitative RT-PCR and cytokine analysis. Serum and nasal secretions were tested for RSV antibody and lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry at 2 days, 2 weeks, and 1 month.Thirty-three of 50 (66%) patients hospitalized with RSV received systemic steroids for a mean duration of 11 days. Those who received steroids more frequently wheezed and were less often febrile. There were no serious adverse events related to steroids and no significant differences in peak viral load, duration of RSV shedding, nasal cytokines, or lymphocyte subsets in patients treated with steroids and patients untreated with steroids. Antibody responses to RSV were slightly blunted in the steroid-treated group.Short courses of systemic steroids in patients hospitalized with RSV infection did not affect viral load or shedding. Humoral immunity may be mildly diminished, and thus potential benefits of systemic steroids must be balanced against potential risks.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children under 1 y of age in the USA. The host immune response is believed to contribute to RSV-induced disease. We hypothesize that severe RSV infection in infants is mediated by insufficient regulation of the host immune response of regulatory T cells (Tregs) resulting in immunopathology. METHODS:Blood and nasal aspirates from 23 RSV-infected and 17 control infants under 1 y of age were collected. Treg frequencies were determined by flow cytometry from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Analysis of 24 cytokines was measured by multiplex assay on nasal aspirates. RESULTS:We demonstrate that the frequency of activated Tregs is significantly reduced in the peripheral blood of RSV-infected infants compared with age-matched controls. Surprisingly, T helper (Th)17 related cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-17A, and IL-23 were associated with a reduction in clinical symptoms of respiratory distress. In addition, the amount of IL-33 protein in nasal washes, a cytokine important in maintaining Treg homeostasis in mucosal tissues, was decreased in RSV-infected children. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that decreased Treg numbers and an inability to properly control the host inflammatory response results in severe RSV infection.
Project description:The mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes severe central nervous system diseases and cycles between Culex mosquitoes and different vertebrates. For JEV and some other flaviviruses, oronasal transmission is described, but the mode of infection is unknown. Using nasal mucosal tissue explants and primary porcine nasal epithelial cells (NEC) at the air-liquid interface (ALI) and macrophages as ex vivo and in vitro models, we determined that the nasal epithelium could represent the route of entry and exit for JEV in pigs. Porcine NEC at the ALI exposed to with JEV resulted in apical and basolateral virus shedding and release of monocyte recruiting chemokines, indicating infection and replication in macrophages. Moreover, macrophages stimulated by alarmins, including interleukin-25, interleukin-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin, were more permissive to the JEV infection. Altogether, our data are important to understand the mechanism of non-vector-borne direct transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus in pigs.IMPORTANCE JEV, a main cause of severe viral encephalitis in humans, has a complex ecology composed of a mosquito-waterbird cycle and a cycle involving pigs, which amplifies virus transmission to mosquitoes, leading to increased human cases. JEV can be transmitted between pigs by contact in the absence of arthropod vectors. Moreover, virus or viral RNA is found in oronasal secretions and the nasal epithelium. Using nasal mucosa tissue explants and three-dimensional porcine nasal epithelial cells cultures and macrophages as ex vivo and in vitro models, we determined that the nasal epithelium could be a route of entry as well as exit for the virus. Infection of nasal epithelial cells resulted in apical and basolateral virus shedding and release of monocyte recruiting chemokines and therefore infection and replication in macrophages, which is favored by epithelial-cell-derived cytokines. The results are relevant to understand the mechanism of non-vector-borne direct transmission of JEV.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the major cause of bronchiolitis in young children. The factors that contribute to the increased propensity of RSV-induced distal airway disease compared with other commonly encountered respiratory viruses remain unclear. Here, we identified the RSV-encoded nonstructural 2 (NS2) protein as a viral genetic determinant for initiating RSV-induced distal airway obstruction. Infection of human cartilaginous airway epithelium (HAE) and a hamster model of disease with recombinant respiratory viruses revealed that NS2 promotes shedding of infected epithelial cells, resulting in two consequences of virus infection. First, epithelial cell shedding accelerated the reduction of virus titers, presumably by clearing virus-infected cells from airway mucosa. Second, epithelial cells shedding into the narrow-diameter bronchiolar airway lumens resulted in rapid accumulation of detached, pleomorphic epithelial cells, leading to acute distal airway obstruction. Together, these data indicate that RSV infection of the airway epithelium, via the action of NS2, promotes epithelial cell shedding, which not only accelerates viral clearance but also contributes to acute obstruction of the distal airways. Our results identify RSV NS2 as a contributing factor for the enhanced propensity of RSV to cause severe airway disease in young children and suggest NS2 as a potential therapeutic target for reducing the severity of distal airway disease.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is increasingly recognized for causing severe morbidity and mortality in older adults, but there are few studies on the RSV-induced immune response in this population. Information on the immunological processes at play during RSV infection in specific risk groups is essential for the rational and targeted design of novel vaccines and therapeutics. Here, we assessed the antibody and local cytokine response to RSV infection in community-dwelling older adults (?60?years of age). During three winters, serum and nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from study participants during acute respiratory infection and recovery. RSV IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and virus neutralization assays were performed on serum samples from RSV-infected individuals (n?=?41) and controls (n?=?563 and n?=?197, respectively). Nasal RSV IgA and cytokine concentrations were determined using multiplex immunoassays in a subset of participants. An in vitro model of differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cells was used to assess RSV-induced cytokine responses over time. A statistically significant increase in serum neutralization titers and IgG concentrations was observed in RSV-infected participants compared to controls. During acute RSV infection, a statistically significant local upregulation of beta interferon (IFN-?), IFN-?1, IFN-?, interleukin 1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), IL-6, IL-10, CXCL8, and CXCL10 was found. IFN-?, IFN-?1, CXCL8, and CXCL10 were also upregulated in the epithelial model upon RSV infection. In conclusion, this study provides novel insights into the basic immune response to RSV infection in an important and understudied risk population, providing leads for future studies that are essential for the prevention and treatment of severe RSV disease in older adults.IMPORTANCE Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause severe morbidity and mortality in certain risk groups, especially infants and older adults. Currently no (prophylactic) treatment is available, except for a partially effective yet highly expensive monoclonal antibody. RSV therefore remains a major public health concern. To allow targeted development of novel vaccines and therapeutics, it is of great importance to understand the immunological mechanisms that underlie (protection from) severe disease in specific risk populations. Since most RSV-related studies focus on infants, there are only very limited data available concerning the response to RSV in the elderly population. Therefore, in this study, RSV-induced antibody responses and local cytokine secretion were assessed in community-dwelling older adults. These data provide novel insights that will benefit ongoing efforts to design safe and effective prevention and treatment strategies for RSV in an understudied risk group.
Project description:Long-lasting protective antibody is not normally generated in children following primary respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, frequently leading to reinfection. We used the BALB/c mouse model to examine the role of the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue and the bone marrow in the generation of RSV-specific long-lasting plasma cells, with a view to further understanding the mechanisms responsible for the poorly sustained RSV antibody levels following primary infection. We show here that substantial numbers of RSV-specific plasma cells were generated in the bone marrow following challenge, which were maintained thereafter. In contrast, in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue, RSV-specific plasma cell numbers waned quickly both after primary infection and after challenge and were not maintained at a higher level after boosting. These data indicate that the inability to generate a robust local mucosal response in the nasal tissues may contribute substantially to the likelihood of subsequent reinfection and that the presence of serum anti-RSV antibody without local protection is not enough to protect against reinfection.
Project description:Background: Infections with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause significant morbidity and hospitalization in older adults. We studied the humoral, mucosal and B cell responses of an investigational adjuvanted RSV sF vaccine, MEDI7510, in older adults. Methods: In a substudy of a randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study of MEDI7510 in adults ?60 years of age, we collected blood and nasal secretions at days 0, 8, 29, 91 and 180 post-vaccination to measure F-specific IgG and IgA antibodies by ELISA, and plasmablasts and memory B cells by IgA/IgG dual-color fluorospot. Results: The 27 vaccine- and 18 placebo-recipients had a mean age of 73 years and included 24 women. Among vaccinees, 93% had significant increases in F-specific plasma IgG 85% had increased plasma IgA; 74% had increased nasal IgG and 26% nasal IgA; 93% had IgG and 89% IgA plasmablasts on Day 8 post-immunization; and 82% had IgG and 7.4% IgA memory B cell responses to the vaccine. Vaccinees <70 years of age and women had the highest responses to the vaccine. Conclusions: This adjuvanted vaccine generated robust humoral immune responses in older adults, including RSV F-specific systemic and mucosal antibodies and memory B cells. Nevertheless, age ?70 years was associated with decreased immunogenicity of the adjuvanted vaccine.
Project description:The aim of this investigation was two-fold: i) to describe miRNAs involved in the immune response to Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a clinical setting in order to inform further research of immune system regulation by miRNAs in RSV or other infections; ii) to discover differences in miRNA expression between disease severity groups. We have therefore profiled miRNA in cytology brushings of the nasal mucosa in infants with RSV disease, comparing them to healthy infants. miRNA microarray identified 26 differentially regulated miRNA which were subsequently analyzed by RT-qPCR. Overall design: Nasal mucosal samples were taken from RSV positive infants using cytology brushes on admission to hospital after aspiration of nasal secretions. Samples were taken from healthy controls without clinical symptoms of respiratory infection using the same procedure.