Familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the pituitary adenoma predisposition due to mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene.
ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenomas are one of the most frequent intracranial tumors and occur with a prevalence of approximately 1:1000 in the developed world. Pituitary adenomas have a serious disease burden, and their management involves neurosurgery, biological therapies, and radiotherapy. Early diagnosis of pituitary tumors while they are smaller may help increase cure rates. Few genetic predictors of pituitary adenoma development exist. Recent years have seen two separate, complimentary advances in inherited pituitary tumor research. The clinical condition of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) has been described, which encompasses the familial occurrence of isolated pituitary adenomas outside of the setting of syndromic conditions like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. FIPA families comprise approximately 2% of pituitary adenomas and represent a clinical entity with homogeneous or heterogeneous pituitary adenoma types occurring within the same kindred. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene has been identified as causing a pituitary adenoma predisposition of variable penetrance that accounts for 20% of FIPA families. Germline AIP mutations have been shown to associate with the occurrence of large pituitary adenomas that occur at a young age, predominantly in children/adolescents and young adults. AIP mutations are usually associated with somatotropinomas, but prolactinomas, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, Cushing disease, and other infrequent clinical adenoma types can also occur. Gigantism is a particular feature of AIP mutations and occurs in more than one third of affected somatotropinoma patients. Study of pituitary adenoma patients with AIP mutations has demonstrated that these cases raise clinical challenges to successful treatment. Extensive research on the biology of AIP and new advances in mouse Aip knockout models demonstrate multiple pathways by which AIP may contribute to tumorigenesis. This review assesses the current clinical and therapeutic characteristics of more than 200 FIPA families and addresses research findings among AIP mutation-bearing patients in different populations with pituitary adenomas.
Project description:Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) due to aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene mutations is an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance. Clinical screening of apparently unaffected AIP mutation (AIPmut) carriers could identify previously unrecognized disease.To determine the AIP mutational status of FIPA and young pituitary adenoma patients, analyzing their clinical characteristics, and to perform clinical screening of apparently unaffected AIPmut carrier family members.This was an observational, longitudinal study conducted over 7 years.International collaborative study conducted at referral centers for pituitary diseases.FIPA families (n 216) and sporadic young-onset (30 y) pituitary adenoma patients (n 404) participated in the study.We performed genetic screening of patients for AIPmuts, clinical assessment of their family members, and genetic screening for somatic GNAS1 mutations and the germline FGFR4 p.G388R variant.We assessed clinical disease in mutation carriers, comparison of characteristics of AIPmut positive and negative patients, results of GNAS1, and FGFR4 analysis.Thirty-seven FIPA families and 34 sporadic patients had AIPmuts. Patients with truncating AIPmuts had a younger age at disease onset and diagnosis, compared with patients with nontruncating AIPmuts. Somatic GNAS1 mutations were absent in tumors from AIPmut-positive patients, and the studied FGFR4 variant did not modify the disease behavior or penetrance in AIPmut-positive individuals. A total of 164 AIPmut-positive unaffected family members were identified; pituitary disease was detected in 18 of those who underwent clinical screening.A quarter of the AIPmut carriers screened were diagnosed with pituitary disease, justifying this screening and suggesting a variable clinical course for AIPmut-positive pituitary adenomas.
Project description:PDE4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases regulate cAMP abundance in cells and therefore regulate numerous processes, including cell growth and differentiation. The rat PDE4A5 isoform (human homolog PDE4A4) interacts with the AIP protein (also called XAP2 or ARA-9). Germline mutations in AIP occur in approximately 20% of patients with Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma (FIPA) and 20% of childhood-onset simplex somatotroph adenomas. We therefore examined the protein expression of PDE4A4 and the closely related isoform PDE4A8 in normal human pituitary tissue and in pituitary adenomas. PDE4A4 had low expression in normal pituitary but was significantly overexpressed in somatotroph, lactotroph, corticotroph and clinically nonfunctioning gonadotroph adenomas (P<0.0001 for all subtypes). Likewise, PDE4A8 was expressed in normal pituitary and was also significantly overexpressed in the adenoma subtypes (P<0.0001 for all). Among the different adenoma subtypes, corticotroph and lactotroph adenomas were the highest and lowest expressed for PDE4A4, respectively, whereas the opposite was observed for PDE4A8. Naturally occurring oncogenic variants in AIP were shown by a two-hybrid assay to disrupt the ability of AIP to interact with PDE4A5. A reverse two-hybrid screen identified numerous additional variants in the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) region of AIP that also disrupted its ability to interact with PDE4A5. The expression of PDE4A4 and PDE4A8 in normal pituitary, their increased expression in adenomatous pituitary cells where AIP is meant to participate, and the disruption of the PDE4A4-AIP interaction by AIP mutants may play a role in pituitary tumorigenesis.
Project description:The aim of this study was to examine mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene by sequence analysis of exons 1-6 using leukocyte genomic DNA obtained from a cohort of familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) and apparent sporadic functional pituitary adenoma Turkish patients.Fourteen FIPA and 90 sporadic pituitary adenoma (somatotrophinoma, prolactinoma, and corticotrophinoma) patients, 1 sporadic gigantism case, and 70 healthy controls were included in the study.We did not detect AIP mutations in patients with FIPAs or sporadic pituitary adenomas, including the gigantism case. Only two exonic homozygous missense single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs641081 [Q228K] and rs4930195 [Q307R]) were identified in the AIP locus. Minor allele frequencies of the Q307R and Q228K variants were significantly higher in FIPA patients compared to controls. In addition, the minor allele frequency of the Q228K variant was significantly increased in patients with sporadic somatotrophinomas compared to controls, whereas the minor allele frequency of the Q307R variant was significantly increased in corticotrophinoma patients compared to controls. Conversely, the minor allele frequencies of Q228R and Q307R variants were similar between patients with prolactinomas and controls. No AIP gene mutation or variant was observed in the sporadic gigantism patient. These results suggest that Q228K and Q307R variants in the AIP gene might be involved in the genetic susceptibility to familial and sporadic pituitary adenomas (somatotrophinoma and corticotrophinoma) in the Turkish population.
Project description:PURPOSE:Germline mutations in the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) have been identified often in the setting of familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA). To date there is no strong evidence linking germline AIP mutations to other neoplasms apart from the pituitary. Our primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of AIP gene mutations and mutations in genes that have been associated with neuroendocrine tumors in series of tumors from patients presenting with both pituitary adenomas and differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs). METHODS:Pathology samples were retrieved from all pituitary adenomas in patients with concomitant DTCs, including one with a known germline AIP variant. Subsequently, two additional patients with known germline AIP variants were included, of which one presented only with a follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). RESULTS:In total, 17 patients (14 DTCs and 15 pituitary adenomas) were investigated by targeted next generation sequencing (NGS). The pituitary tumor samples revealed no mutations, while among the thyroid tumor samples BRAF (6/14, 42.9%) was the most frequently mutated gene, followed by NRAS (3/11, 27.3%). In one AIP-mutated FIPA kindred, the AIP-variant c.853C>T; p.Q285* was confirmed in the FTC specimen, including evidence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the AIP locus in the tumor DNA. CONCLUSION:Although most observed variants in pituitary adenomas and DTCs were similar to those of sporadic DTCs, we confirmed in one AIP mutation-positive case the AIP-variant and LOH at this locus in an FTC specimen, which raises the potential role of the AIP mutation as a rare initiating event.
Project description:Background:Pituitary adenomas have a high disease burden due to tumor growth/invasion and disordered hormonal secretion. Germline mutations in genes such as MEN1 and AIP are associated with early onset of aggressive pituitary adenomas that can be resistant to medical therapy. Aims:We performed a retrospective screening study using published risk criteria to assess the frequency of AIP and MEN1 mutations in pituitary adenoma patients in a tertiary referral center. Methods:Pituitary adenoma patients with pediatric/adolescent onset, macroadenomas occurring ?30 years of age, familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) kindreds and acromegaly or prolactinoma cases that were uncontrolled by medical therapy were studied genetically. We also assessed whether immunohistochemical staining for AIP (AIP-IHC) in somatotropinomas was associated with somatostatin analogs (SSA) response. Results:Fifty-five patients met the study criteria and underwent genetic screening for AIP/MEN1 mutations. No mutations were identified and large deletions/duplications were ruled out using MLPA. In a cohort of sporadic somatotropinomas, low AIP-IHC tumors were significantly larger (P = 0.002) and were more frequently sparsely granulated (P = 0.046) than high AIP-IHC tumors. No significant relationship between AIP-IHC and SSA responses was seen. Conclusions:Germline mutations in AIP/MEN1 in pituitary adenoma patients are rare and the use of general risk criteria did not identify cases in a large tertiary-referral setting. In acromegaly, low AIP-IHC was related to larger tumor size and more frequent sparsely granulated subtype but no relationship with SSA responsiveness was seen. The genetics of pituitary adenomas remains largely unexplained and AIP screening criteria could be significantly refined to focus on large, aggressive tumors in young patients.
Project description:Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) is an autosomal dominant condition with variable genetic background and incomplete penetrance. Germline mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene have been reported in 15-40% of FIPA patients. Limited data are available on the functional consequences of the mutations or regarding the regulation of the AIP gene. We describe a large cohort of FIPA families and characterize missense and silent mutations using minigene constructs, luciferase and beta-galactosidase assays, as well as in silico predictions. Patients with AIP mutations had a lower mean age at diagnosis (23.6+/-11.2 years) than AIP mutation-negative patients (40.4+/-14.5 years). A promoter mutation showed reduced in vitro activity corresponding to lower mRNA expression in patient samples. Stimulation of the protein kinase A-pathway positively regulates the AIP promoter. Silent mutations led to abnormal splicing resulting in truncated protein or reduced AIP expression. A two-hybrid assay of protein-protein interaction of all missense variants showed variable disruption of AIP-phosphodiesterase-4A5 binding. In summary, exonic, promoter, splice-site, and large deletion mutations in AIP are implicated in 31% of families in our FIPA cohort. Functional characterization of AIP changes is important to identify the functional impact of gene sequence variants.
Project description:Pituitary adenomas are common neoplasms of the anterior pituitary gland. Germ-line mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene cause pituitary adenoma predisposition (PAP), a recent discovery based on genetic studies in Northern Finland. In this population, a founder mutation explained a significant proportion of all acromegaly cases. Typically, PAP patients were of a young age at diagnosis but did not display a strong family history of pituitary adenomas. To evaluate the role of AIP in pituitary adenoma susceptibility in other populations and to gain insight into patient selection for molecular screening of the condition, we investigated the possible contribution of AIP mutations in pituitary tumorigenesis in patients from Europe and the United States. A total of 460 patients were investigated by AIP sequencing: young acromegaly patients, unselected acromegaly patients, unselected pituitary adenoma patients, and endocrine neoplasia-predisposition patients who were negative for MEN1 mutations. Nine AIP mutations were identified. Because many of the patients displayed no family history of pituitary adenomas, detection of the condition appears challenging. Feasibility of AIP immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a prescreening tool was tested in 50 adenomas: 12 AIP mutation-positive versus 38 mutation-negative pituitary tumors. AIP IHC staining levels proved to be a useful predictor of AIP status, with 75% sensitivity and 95% specificity for germ-line mutations. AIP contributes to PAP in all studied populations. AIP IHC, followed by genetic counseling and possible AIP mutation analysis in IHC-negative cases, a procedure similar to the diagnostics of the Lynch syndrome, appears feasible in identification of PAP.
Project description:Pituitary adenomas and pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (pheo/PGL) can occur in the same patient or in the same family. Coexistence of the two diseases could be due to either a common pathogenic mechanism or a coincidence.The objective of the investigation was to study the possible coexistence of pituitary adenoma and pheo/PGL.Thirty-nine cases of sporadic or familial pheo/PGL and pituitary adenomas were investigated. Known pheo/PGL genes (SDHA-D, SDHAF2, RET, VHL, TMEM127, MAX, FH) and pituitary adenoma genes (MEN1, AIP, CDKN1B) were sequenced using next generation or Sanger sequencing. Loss of heterozygosity study and pathological studies were performed on the available tumor samples.The study was conducted at university hospitals.Thirty-nine patients with sporadic of familial pituitary adenoma and pheo/PGL participated in the study.Outcomes included genetic screening and clinical characteristics.Eleven germline mutations (five SDHB, one SDHC, one SDHD, two VHL, and two MEN1) and four variants of unknown significance (two SDHA, one SDHB, and one SDHAF2) were identified in the studied genes in our patient cohort. Tumor tissue analysis identified LOH at the SDHB locus in three pituitary adenomas and loss of heterozygosity at the MEN1 locus in two pheochromocytomas. All the pituitary adenomas of patients affected by SDHX alterations have a unique histological feature not previously described in this context.Mutations in the genes known to cause pheo/PGL can rarely be associated with pituitary adenomas, whereas mutation in a gene predisposing to pituitary adenomas (MEN1) can be associated with pheo/PGL. Our findings suggest that genetic testing should be considered in all patients or families with the constellation of pheo/PGL and a pituitary adenoma.
Project description:CONTEXT:Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene are responsible for a subset of familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) cases and sporadic pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs). OBJECTIVE:To compare prospectively diagnosed AIP mutation-positive (AIPmut) PitNET patients with clinically presenting patients and to compare the clinical characteristics of AIPmut and AIPneg PitNET patients. DESIGN:12-year prospective, observational study. PARTICIPANTS & SETTING:We studied probands and family members of FIPA kindreds and sporadic patients with disease onset ?18 years or macroadenomas with onset ?30 years (n = 1477). This was a collaborative study conducted at referral centers for pituitary diseases. INTERVENTIONS & OUTCOME:AIP testing and clinical screening for pituitary disease. Comparison of characteristics of prospectively diagnosed (n = 22) vs clinically presenting AIPmut PitNET patients (n = 145), and AIPmut (n = 167) vs AIPneg PitNET patients (n = 1310). RESULTS:Prospectively diagnosed AIPmut PitNET patients had smaller lesions with less suprasellar extension or cavernous sinus invasion and required fewer treatments with fewer operations and no radiotherapy compared with clinically presenting cases; there were fewer cases with active disease and hypopituitarism at last follow-up. When comparing AIPmut and AIPneg cases, AIPmut patients were more often males, younger, more often had GH excess, pituitary apoplexy, suprasellar extension, and more patients required multimodal therapy, including radiotherapy. AIPmut patients (n = 136) with GH excess were taller than AIPneg counterparts (n = 650). CONCLUSIONS:Prospectively diagnosed AIPmut patients show better outcomes than clinically presenting cases, demonstrating the benefits of genetic and clinical screening. AIP-related pituitary disease has a wide spectrum ranging from aggressively growing lesions to stable or indolent disease course.
Project description:The genetic landscape of pituitary adenomas (PAs) is diverse and many of the identified cases remain of unclear pathogenetic mechanism. Germline genetic defects account for a small percentage of all patients and may present in the context of relevant family history. Defects in AIP (mutated in Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma syndrome or FIPA), MEN1 (coding for menin, mutated in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 or MEN 1), PRKAR1A (mutated in Carney complex), GPR101 (involved in X-Linked Acrogigantism or X-LAG), and SDHx (mutated in the so called "3 P association" of PAs with pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas or 3PAs) account for the most common familial syndromes associated with PAs. Tumor genetic defects in USP8, GNAS, USP48 and BRAF are some of the commonly encountered tissue-specific changes and may explain a larger percentage of the developed tumors. Somatic (at the tumor level) genomic changes, copy number variations (CNVs), epigenetic modifications, and differential expression of miRNAs, add to the variable genetic background of PAs.