A ubiquitin-specific protease possesses a decisive role for adenovirus replication and oncogene-mediated transformation.
ABSTRACT: Adenoviral replication depends on viral as well as cellular proteins. However, little is known about cellular proteins promoting adenoviral replication. In our screens to identify such proteins, we discovered a cellular component of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway interacting with the central regulator of adenoviral replication. Our binding assays mapped a specific interaction between the N-terminal domains of both viral E1B-55K and USP7, a deubiquitinating enzyme. RNA interference-mediated downregulation of USP7 severely reduced E1B-55K protein levels, but more importantly negatively affected adenoviral replication. We also succeeded in resynthesizing an inhibitor of USP7, which like the knockdown background reduced adenoviral replication. Further assays revealed that not only adenoviral growth, but also adenoviral oncogene-driven cellular transformation relies on the functions of USP7. Our data provide insights into an intricate mechanistic pathway usurped by an adenovirus to promote its replication and oncogenic functions, and at the same time open up possibilities for new antiviral strategies.
Project description:Infection with adenovirus triggers the cellular DNA damage response, elements of which include cell death and cell cycle arrest. Early adenoviral proteins, including the E1B-55K and E4orf3 proteins, inhibit signaling in response to DNA damage. A fraction of cells infected with an adenovirus mutant unable to express the E1B-55K and E4orf3 genes appeared to arrest in a mitotic-like state. Cells infected early in G1 of the cell cycle were predisposed to arrest in this state at late times of infection. This arrested state, which displays hallmarks of mitotic catastrophe, was prevented by expression of either the E1B-55K or the E4orf3 genes. However, E1B-55K mutant virus-infected cells became trapped in a mitotic-like state in the presence of the microtubule poison colcemid, suggesting that the two viral proteins restrict entry into mitosis or facilitate exit from mitosis in order to prevent infected cells from arresting in mitosis. The E1B-55K protein appeared to prevent inappropriate entry into mitosis through its interaction with the cellular tumor suppressor protein p53. The E4orf3 protein facilitated exit from mitosis by possibly mislocalizing and functionally inactivating cyclin B1. When expressed in noninfected cells, E4orf3 overcame the mitotic arrest caused by the degradation-resistant R42A cyclin B1 variant.Cells that are infected with adenovirus type 5 early in G1 of the cell cycle are predisposed to arrest in a mitotic-like state in a p53-dependent manner. The adenoviral E1B-55K protein prevents entry into mitosis. This newly described activity for the E1B-55K protein appears to depend on the interaction between the E1B-55K protein and the tumor suppressor p53. The adenoviral E4orf3 protein facilitates exit from mitosis, possibly by altering the intracellular distribution of cyclin B1. By preventing entry into mitosis and by promoting exit from mitosis, these adenoviral proteins act to prevent the infected cell from arresting in a mitotic-like state.
Project description:Early region 1B 55K (E1B-55K) from adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) is a multifunctional regulator of lytic infection and contributes in vitro to complete cell transformation of primary rodent cells in combination with Ad5 E1A. Inhibition of p53 activated transcription plays a key role in processes by which E1B-55K executes its oncogenic potential. Nevertheless, additional functions of E1B-55K or further protein interactions with cellular factors of DNA repair, transcription, and apoptosis, including Mre11, PML, and Daxx, may also contribute to the transformation process. In line with previous results, we performed mutational analysis to define a Daxx interaction motif within the E1B-55K polypeptide. The results from these studies showed that E1B-55K/Daxx binding is not required for inhibition of p53-mediated transactivation or binding and degradation of cellular factors (p53/Mre11). Surprisingly, these mutants lost the ability to degrade Daxx and showed reduced transforming potential in primary rodent cells. In addition, we observed that E1B-55K lacking the SUMO-1 conjugation site (SCS/K104R) was sufficient for Daxx interaction but no longer capable of E1B-55K-dependent proteasomal degradation of the cellular factor Daxx. These results, together with the observation that E1B-55K SUMOylation is required for efficient transformation, provides evidence for the idea that SUMO-1-conjugated E1B-55K-mediated degradation of Daxx plays a key role in adenoviral oncogenic transformation. We assume that the viral protein contributes to cell transformation through the modulation of Daxx-dependent pathways. This further substantiates the assumption that further mechanisms for efficient transformation of primary cells can be separated from functions required for the inhibition of p53-stimulated transcription.
Project description:Adenovirus has evolved strategies to usurp host-cell factors and machinery to facilitate its life cycle, including cell entry, replication, assembly and egress. Adenovirus continues, therefore, to be an important model system for investigating fundamental cellular processes. The role of adenovirus E1B-55k in targeting host-cell proteins that possess antiviral activity for proteasomal degradation is now well established. To expand our understanding of E1B-55k in regulating the levels of host-cell proteins, we performed comparative proteome analysis of wild-type, and E1B-55k-deletion, adenovirus-infected cancer cells. As such we performed quantitative MS/MS analysis to monitor protein expression changes affected by viral E1B-55k. We identified 5937 proteins, and of these, 69 and 58 proteins were down-regulated during wild-type and E1B-55k (dl1520) adenovirus infection, respectively. This analysis revealed that there are many, previously unidentified, cellular proteins subjected to degradation by adenovirus utilizing pathways independent of E1B-55k expression. Moreover, we found that ALCAM, EPHA2 and PTPRF, three cellular proteins that function in the regulation of cell-cell contacts, appeared to be degraded by E1B-55k/E4orf3 and/or E1B-55k/E4orf6 complexes. These molecules, like integrin ?3 (a known substrate of E1B-55k/E4orf6), are critical regulators of cell signalling, cell adhesion and cell surface modulation, and their degradation during infection is, potentially, pertinent to adenovirus propagation. The data presented in this study illustrate the broad nature of protein down-regulation mediated by adenovirus.
Project description:Human adenovirus (HAdV) E1B-55K is a multifunctional regulator of productive viral replication and oncogenic transformation in nonpermissive mammalian cells. These functions depend on E1B-55K's posttranslational modification with the SUMO protein and its binding to HAdV E4orf6. Both early viral proteins recruit specific host factors to form an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that targets antiviral host substrates for proteasomal degradation. Recently, we reported that the PML-NB-associated factor Daxx represses efficient HAdV productive infection and is proteasomally degraded via a SUMO-E1B-55K-dependent, E4orf6-independent pathway, the details of which remained to be established. RNF4, a cellular SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL), induces ubiquitinylation of specific SUMOylated proteins and plays an essential role during DNA repair. Here, we show that E1B-55K recruits RNF4 to the insoluble nuclear matrix fraction of the infected cell to support RNF4/Daxx association, promoting Daxx PTM and thus inhibiting this antiviral factor. Removing RNF4 from infected cells using RNA interference resulted in blocking the proper establishment of viral replication centers and significantly diminished viral gene expression. These results provide a model for how HAdV antagonize the antiviral host responses by exploiting the functional capacity of cellular STUbLs. Thus, RNF4 and its STUbL function represent a positive factor during lytic infection and a novel candidate for future therapeutic antiviral intervention strategies.IMPORTANCE Daxx is a PML-NB-associated transcription factor that was recently shown to repress efficient HAdV productive infection. To counteract this antiviral measurement during infection, Daxx is degraded via a novel pathway including viral E1B-55K and host proteasomes. This virus-mediated degradation is independent of the classical HAdV E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which is essential during viral infection to target other host antiviral substrates. To maintain a productive viral life cycle, HAdV E1B-55K early viral protein inhibits the chromatin-remodeling factor Daxx in a SUMO-dependent manner. In addition, viral E1B-55K protein recruits the STUbL RNF4 and sequesters it into the insoluble fraction of the infected cell. E1B-55K promotes complex formation between RNF4- and E1B-55K-targeted Daxx protein, supporting Daxx posttranslational modification prior to functional inhibition. Hence, RNF4 represents a novel host factor that is beneficial for HAdV gene expression by supporting Daxx counteraction. In this regard, RNF4 and other STUbL proteins might represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:The transcription factor p53 (also known as TP53) guards against tumour and virus replication and is inactivated in almost all cancers. p53-activated transcription of target genes is thought to be synonymous with the stabilization of p53 in response to oncogenes and DNA damage. During adenovirus replication, the degradation of p53 by E1B-55k is considered essential for p53 inactivation, and is the basis for p53-selective viral cancer therapies. Here we reveal a dominant epigenetic mechanism that silences p53-activated transcription, irrespective of p53 phosphorylation and stabilization. We show that another adenoviral protein, E4-ORF3, inactivates p53 independently of E1B-55k by forming a nuclear structure that induces de novo H3K9me3 heterochromatin formation at p53 target promoters, preventing p53-DNA binding. This suppressive nuclear web is highly selective in silencing p53 promoters and operates in the backdrop of global transcriptional changes that drive oncogenic replication. These findings are important for understanding how high levels of wild-type p53 might also be inactivated in cancer as well as the mechanisms that induce aberrant epigenetic silencing of tumour-suppressor loci. Our study changes the longstanding definition of how p53 is inactivated in adenovirus infection and provides key insights that could enable the development of true p53-selective oncolytic viral therapies.
Project description:We have investigated the requirements for CRM1-mediated nuclear export and SUMO1 conjugation of the adenovirus E1B-55K protein during productive infection. Our data show that CRM1 is the major export receptor for E1B-55K in infected cells. Functional inactivation of the E1B-55K CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES) or leptomycin B treatment causes an almost complete redistribution of the viral protein from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and its accumulation at the periphery of the viral replication centers. Interestingly, however, this nuclear restriction imposed on the wild type and the NES mutant protein is fully compensated by concurrent inactivation of the adjacent SUMO1 conjugation site. Moreover, the same mutation fully reverses defects of the NES mutant in the nucleocytoplasmic transport of Mre11 and proteasomal degradation of p53. These results show that nuclear export of E1B-55K in infected cells occurs via CRM1-dependent and -independent pathways and suggest that SUMO1 conjugation and deconjugation provide a molecular switch that commits E1B-55K to a CRM1-independent export pathway.
Project description:The adenovirus E1B-55K and E4orf6 proteins cooperate during virus infection while performing several tasks that contribute to a productive infection, including the selective nucleocytoplasmic transport of late viral mRNA. Previous studies have shown that the E4orf6 protein retains the E1B-55K protein in the nucleus of human and monkey cells, but not in those of rodents, suggesting that primate-specific cellular factors contribute to the E4orf6-mediated retention of the E1B-55K protein in the nucleus. In an effort to identify these proposed primate-specific cellular factors, the interaction of the E1B-55K and E4orf6 proteins was studied in a panel of stable human-rodent monochromosomal somatic cell hybrids. Analysis of this panel of cell lines has demonstrated the existence of an activity associated with human chromosome 21 that permits the E1B-55K and E4orf6 proteins to colocalize in the nucleus of a rodent cell. Additional hybrid cells bearing portions of human chromosome 21 were used to map this activity to a 10-megabase-pair segment of the chromosome, extending from 21q22.12 to a region near the q terminus. Strikingly, this region also facilitates the expression of adenovirus late genes in a rodent cell background while having little impact on the expression of early viral genes.
Project description:Early region 1B (E1B) of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) encodes at least five different polypeptides generated by alternative splicing of a common mRNA precursor. Two of these gene products, E1B-19K and E1B-55K, are individually capable of cooperating with the Ad5 E1A proteins to completely transform rodent cells in culture. Substantial evidence suggests that these two E1B proteins contribute to cell transformation by antagonizing growth arrest and apoptosis. Here, we performed genetic and biochemical analyses to assess the attributes of the remaining E1B proteins (E1B-156R, E1B-93R, and E1B-84R). Our results show that E1B-156R, which comprises the 79 amino-terminal and 77 carboxy-terminal amino acids of E1B-55K, also enhances focal transformation of primary rat cells in cooperation with E1A. Since E1B-156R seemed unable to relocalize p53 and inhibit its transactivating function, it must be assumed that it contributes to transformation independently of repression of p53-stimulated transcription. Furthermore, we discovered that E1B-156R contains a functional transcriptional repression domain and binds Ad5 E4orf6 and the cellular apoptosis regulator Daxx. While the ability to bind E4orf6 could indicate further biological functions of E1B-156R in viral infection, the interaction with Daxx might also be linked to its transforming potential. Taken together, these analyses introduce E1B-156R as a novel transformation-promoting E1B protein that acts without repressing p53 transactivation. Moreover, identification of the interaction partners E4orf6 and Daxx provides a first glance of E1B-156R's potential functions.
Project description:In response to cellular genome breaks, MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) activates a global ATM DNA damage response (DDR) that prevents cellular replication. Here, we show that MRN-ATM also has critical functions in defending the cell against DNA viruses. We reveal temporally distinct responses to adenovirus genomes: a critical MRN-ATM DDR that must be inactivated by E1B-55K/E4-ORF3 viral oncoproteins and a global MRN-independent ATM DDR to viral nuclear domains that does not impact viral replication. We show that MRN binds to adenovirus genomes and activates a localized ATM response that specifically prevents viral DNA replication. In contrast to chromosomal breaks, ATM activation is not amplified by H2AX across megabases of chromatin to induce global signaling and replicative arrest. Thus, ?H2AX foci discriminate "self" and "non-self" genomes and determine whether a localized anti-viral or global ATM response is appropriate. This provides an elegant mechanism to neutralize viral genomes without jeopardizing cellular viability.
Project description:Little is known about immediate phases after viral infection and how an incoming viral genome complex counteracts host cell defenses, before the start of viral gene expression. Adenovirus (Ad) serves as an ideal model, since entry and onset of gene expression are rapid and highly efficient, and mechanisms used 24-48 hours post infection to counteract host antiviral and DNA repair factors (e.g. p53, Mre11, Daxx) are well studied. Here, we identify an even earlier host cell target for Ad, the chromatin-associated factor and epigenetic reader, SPOC1, recently found recruited to double strand breaks, and playing a role in DNA damage response. SPOC1 co-localized with viral replication centers in the host cell nucleus, interacted with Ad DNA, and repressed viral gene expression at the transcriptional level. We discovered that this SPOC1-mediated restriction imposed upon Ad growth is relieved by its functional association with the Ad major core protein pVII that enters with the viral genome, followed by E1B-55K/E4orf6-dependent proteasomal degradation of SPOC1. Mimicking removal of SPOC1 in the cell, knock down of this cellular restriction factor using RNAi techniques resulted in significantly increased Ad replication, including enhanced viral gene expression. However, depletion of SPOC1 also reduced the efficiency of E1B-55K transcriptional repression of cellular promoters, with possible implications for viral transformation. Intriguingly, not exclusive to Ad infection, other human pathogenic viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, HIV-1, and HCV) also depleted SPOC1 in infected cells. Our findings provide a general model for how pathogenic human viruses antagonize intrinsic SPOC1-mediated antiviral responses in their host cells. A better understanding of viral entry and early restrictive functions in host cells should provide new perspectives for developing antiviral agents and therapies. Conversely, for Ad vectors used in gene therapy, counteracting mechanisms eradicating incoming viral DNA would increase Ad vector efficacy and safety for the patient.