The HXT1 gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a new member of the family of hexose transporters.
ABSTRACT: Two novel genes affecting hexose transport in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been identified. The gene HXT1 (hexose transport), isolated from plasmid pSC7, was sequenced and found to encode a hydrophobic protein which is highly homologous to the large family of sugar transporter proteins from eucaryotes and procaryotes. Multicopy expression of the HXT1 gene restored high-affinity glucose transport to the snf3 mutant, which is deficient in a significant proportion of high-affinity glucose transport. HXT1 was unable to complement the snf3 growth defect in low copy number. The HXT1 protein was found to contain 12 putative membrane-spanning domains with a central hydrophilic domain and hydrophilic N- and C-terminal domains. The HXT1 protein is 69% identical to GAL2 and 66% identical to HXT2, and all three proteins were found to have a putative leucine zipper motif at a consensus location in membrane-spanning domain 2. Disruption of the HXT1 gene resulted in loss of a portion of high-affinity glucose and mannose transport, and wild-type levels of transport required both the HXT1 and SNF3 genes. Unexpectedly, expression of beta-galactosidase activity by using a fusion of the lacZ gene to the HXT1 promoter in a multicopy plasmid was maximal during lag and early exponential phases of growth, decreasing approximately 100-fold upon further entry into exponential growth. Deletion analysis of pSC7 revealed the presence of another gene (called ORF2) capable of suppressing the snf3 null mutant phenotype by restoring high-affinity glucose transport and increased low-affinity transport.
Project description:HXT4, a new member of the hexose transporter (HXT) family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified by its ability to suppress the snf3 mutation in multicopy. Multicopy HXT4 increases both high and low affinity glucose transport in snf3 strains and increases low and high transport in wild-type strains. Characterization of HXT4 led to the discovery of a new class of multicopy suppressors of glucose transport defects: regulatory elements in the promoters of the HXT genes. We have designated these sequences DDSEs (DNA sequence dependent suppressing element). Multicopy HXT4 and DDSEs in the HXT1, HXT2, HXT3 and HXT4 promoters were found to restore growth to snf3 and grr1 strains on low glucose media. The DDSE in the HXT4 promoter was refined to a 340-bp sequence 450 bp upstream of the HXT4 translational start. This region was found to contain an 183-amino acid open reading frame. Extensive analysis indicates that the DNA sequence itself and not the encoded protein is responsible for suppression. The promoters of SNF3 and of other glycolytic genes examined did not suppress snf3 in multicopy. Suppression of snf3 by DDSE is dependent on the presence of either HXT2 or HXT3.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TRK1 and TRK2 are required for high- and low-affinity K+ transport. Among suppressors of the K+ transport defect in trk1 delta trk2 delta cells, we have identified members of the sugar transporter gene superfamily. One suppressor encodes the previously identified glucose transporter HXT1, and another encodes a new member of this family, HXT3. The inferred amino acid sequence of HXT3 is 87% identical to that of HXT1, 64% identical to that of HXT2, and 32% identical to that of SNF3. Like HXT1 and HXT2, overexpression of HXT3 in snf3 delta cells confers growth on low-glucose or raffinose media. The function of another new member of the HXT superfamily, HXT4 (previously identified by its ability to suppress the snf3 delta phenotype; L. Bisson, personal communication), was revealed in experiments that deleted all possible combinations of the five members of the glucose transporter gene family. Neither SNF3, HXT1, HXT2, HXT3, nor HXT4 is essential for viability. snf3 delta hxt1 delta hxt2 delta hxt3 delta hxt4 delta cells are unable to grow on media containing high concentrations of glucose (5%) but can grow on low-glucose (0.5%) media, revealing the presence of a sixth transporter that is itself glucose repressible. This transporter may be negatively regulated by SNF3 since expression of SNF3 abolishes growth of hxt1 delta hxt2 delta hxt3 delta hxt4 delta cells on low-glucose medium. HXT1, HXT2, HXT3, and HXT4 can function independently: expression of any one of these genes is sufficient to confer growth on medium containing at least 1% glucose. A synergistic relationship between SNF3 and each of the HXT genes is suggested by the observation that SNF2 hxt1 delta hxt2 delta hxt3 delta hxt4 delta cells and snf3 delta HXT1 HXT2 HXT3 HXT4 cells are unable to grow on raffinose (low fructose) yet SNF3 in combination with any single HXT gene is sufficient for growth on raffinose. HXT1 and HXT3 are differentially regulated. HXT1::lacZ is maximally expressed during exponential growth whereas HXT3::lacZ is maximally expressed after entry into stationary phase.
Project description:We identified in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha (syn. Pichia angusta) a novel hexose transporter homologue gene, HXS1 (hexose sensor), involved in transcriptional regulation in response to hexoses, and a regular hexose carrier gene, HXT1 (hexose transporter). The Hxs1 protein exhibits the highest degree of primary sequence similarity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transporter-like glucose sensors, Snf3 and Rgt2. When heterologously overexpressed in an S. cerevisiae hexose transporter-less mutant, Hxt1, but not Hxs1, restores growth on glucose or fructose, suggesting that Hxs1 is nonfunctional as a carrier. In its native host, HXS1 is expressed at moderately low level and is required for glucose induction of the H. polymorpha functional low-affinity glucose transporter Hxt1. Similarly to other yeast sensors, one conserved amino acid substitution in the Hxs1 sequence (R203K) converts the protein into a constitutively signaling form and the C-terminal region of Hxs1 is essential for its function in hexose sensing. Hxs1 is not required for glucose repression or catabolite inactivation that involves autophagic degradation of peroxisomes. However, HXS1 deficiency leads to significantly impaired transient transcriptional repression in response to fructose, probably due to the stronger defect in transport of this hexose in the hxs1Delta deletion strain. Our combined results suggest that in the Crabtree-negative yeast H. polymorpha, the single transporter-like sensor Hxs1 mediates signaling in the hexose induction pathway, whereas the rate of hexose uptake affects the strength of catabolite repression.
Project description:How eukaryotic cells sense availability of glucose, their preferred carbon and energy source, is an important, unsolved problem. Bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) uses two glucose transporter homologs, Snf3 and Rgt2, as glucose sensors that generate a signal for induction of expression of genes encoding hexose transporters (HXT genes). We present evidence that these proteins generate an intracellular glucose signal without transporting glucose. The Snf3 and Rgt2 glucose sensors contain unusually long C-terminal tails that are predicted to be in the cytoplasm. These tails appear to be the signaling domains of Snf3 and Rgt2 because they are necessary for glucose signaling by Snf3 and Rgt2, and transplantation of the C-terminal tail of Snf3 onto the Hxt1 and Hxt2 glucose transporters converts them into glucose sensors that can generate a signal for glucose-induced HXT gene expression. These results support the idea that yeast senses glucose using two modified glucose transporters that serve as glucose receptors.
Project description:Hxt1 is a high affinity hexose transporter important for virulence of the phytopathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis on its host plant maize. Hxt1 shows the highest similarities to the glucose sensors Rgt2 and Snf3 from S. cereviciae (42% and 39% identity on amino acid level, respectively). In these sensors, the substitution of a highly conserved arginine to lysine leads to a constitutive active signal, resulting in expression of several glucose induced genes. Introduction of an analogous mutation in Hxt1 leads to loss of transport activity in the resulting Hxt1(R164K) protein. Expression of Hxt1(R164K) in hxt1 deletion strains results in a completely avirulent phenotype. Pathogenic developement of ∆hxt1 hxt1(R164K) strains is blocked immediately after plant penetration. Expression analysis of ∆hxt1 hxt1(R164K) cells 24 hours post inoculation revealed downregulation of a set of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism indicating a role of Hxt1 in carbohydrate signaling during initiation of the pathogenic stage. To analyze expression changes of SG200 and SG200∆hxt1 and SG200∆hxt1 hxt1(R164K) cells were harvested from the surface of maize leaves 24 hour post inoculation. For each strain three independent replicates were conducted.
Project description:Quinine has been employed in the treatment of malaria for centuries and is still used against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, its interactions with the parasite remain poorly understood and subject to debate. In this study, we used the Saccharomyces cerevisiae eukaryotic model to better understand quinine's mode of action and the mechanisms underlying the cell response to the drug. We obtained a transcriptomic profile of the yeast's early response to quinine, evidencing a marked activation of genes involved in the low-glucose response (e.g., CAT8, ADR1, MAL33, MTH1, and SNF3). We used a low inhibitory quinine concentration with no detectable effect on plasma membrane function, consistent with the absence of a general nutrient starvation response and suggesting that quinine-induced glucose limitation is a specific response. We have further shown that transport of [(14)C]glucose is inhibited by quinine, with kinetic data indicating competitive inhibition. Also, tested mutant strains deleted for genes encoding high- and low-affinity hexose transporters (HXT1 to HXT5, HXT8, and HXT10) exhibit resistance phenotypes, correlating with reduced levels of quinine accumulation in the mutants examined. These results suggest that the hexose transporters are facilitators of quinine uptake in S. cerevisiae, possibly through a competitive inhibition mechanism. Interestingly, P. falciparum is highly dependent on glucose uptake, which is mediated by the single-copy transporter PfHT1, a protein with high homology to yeast's hexose transporters. We propose that PfHT1 is an interesting candidate quinine target possibly involved in quinine import in P. falciparum, an uptake mechanism postulated in recent studies to occur through a still-unidentified importer(s).
Project description:The HXT2 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified on the basis of its ability to complement the defect in glucose transport of a snf3 mutant when present on the multicopy plasmid pSC2. Analysis of the DNA sequence of HXT2 revealed an open reading frame of 541 codons, capable of encoding a protein of Mr 59,840. The predicted protein displayed high sequence and structural homology to a large family of procaryotic and eucaryotic sugar transporters. These proteins have 12 highly hydrophobic regions that could form transmembrane domains; the spacing of these putative transmembrane domains is also highly conserved. Several amino acid motifs characteristic of this sugar transporter family are also present in the HXT2 protein. An hxt2 null mutant strain lacked a significant component of high-affinity glucose transport when under derepressing (low-glucose) conditions. However, the hxt2 null mutation did not incur a major growth defect on glucose-containing media. Genetic and biochemical analyses suggest that wild-type levels of high-affinity glucose transport require the products of both the HXT2 and SNF3 genes; these genes are not linked. Low-stringency Southern blot analysis revealed a number of other sequences that cross-hybridize with HXT2, suggesting that S. cerevisiae possesses a large family of sugar transporter genes.
Project description:Cryptococcus is a major fungal pathogen that frequently causes systemic infection in patients with compromised immunity. Glucose, an important signal molecule and the preferred carbon source for Cryptococcus, plays a critical role in fungal development and virulence. Cryptococcus contains more than 50 genes sharing high sequence homology with hexose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, there is no report on their function in glucose sensing or transport. In this study, we investigated two hexose transporter-like proteins (Hxs1 and Hxs2) in Cryptococcus that share the highest sequence identity with the glucose sensors Snf3 and Rgt2 in S. cerevisiae. The expression of HXS1 is repressed by high glucose, while the HXS2 expression is not regulated by glucose. Functional studies showed that Hxs1 is required for fungal resistance to oxidative stress and fungal virulence. The hxs1? mutant exhibited a significant reduction in glucose uptake activity, indicating that Hxs1 is required for glucose uptake. Heterologous expression of Cryptococcus HXS1 rendered the S. cerevisiae mutant lacking all 20 hexose transporters a high glucose uptake activity, demonstrating that Hxs1 functions as a glucose transporter. Heterologous expression of HXS1 in the snf3? rgt2? double mutant did not complement its growth in YPD medium containing the respiration inhibitor antimycin A, suggesting that Hxs1 may not function as a glucose sensor. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Hxs1 is a high-affinity glucose transporter and required for fungal virulence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to ferment pentose sugars like d-xylose. Through the introduction of the respective metabolic pathway, S. cerevisiae is able to ferment xylose but first utilizes d-glucose before the d-xylose can be transported and metabolized. Low affinity d-xylose uptake occurs through the endogenous hexose (Hxt) transporters. For a more robust sugar fermentation, co-consumption of d-glucose and d-xylose is desired as d-xylose fermentation is in particular prone to inhibition by compounds present in pretreated lignocellulosic feedstocks. RESULTS:Evolutionary engineering of a d-xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain lacking the major transporter HXT1-7 and GAL2 genes yielded a derivative that shows improved growth on xylose because of the expression of a normally cryptic HXT11 gene. Hxt11 also supported improved growth on d-xylose by the wild-type strain. Further selection for glucose-insensitive growth on d-xylose employing a quadruple hexokinase deletion yielded mutations at N366 of Hxt11 that reversed the transporter specificity for d-glucose into d-xylose while maintaining high d-xylose transport rates. The Hxt11 mutant enabled the efficient co-fermentation of xylose and glucose at industrially relevant sugar concentrations when expressed in a strain lacking the HXT1-7 and GAL2 genes. CONCLUSIONS:Hxt11 is a cryptic sugar transporter of S. cerevisiae that previously has not been associated with effective d-xylose transport. Mutagenesis of Hxt11 yielded transporters that show a better affinity for d-xylose as compared to d-glucose while maintaining high transport rates. d-glucose and d-xylose co-consumption is due to a redistribution of the sugar transport flux while maintaining the total sugar conversion rate into ethanol. This method provides a single transporter solution for effective fermentation on lignocellulosic feedstocks.
Project description:Candida glabrata is an emerging human fungal pathogen that has efficacious nutrient sensing and responsiveness ability. It can be seen through its ability to thrive in diverse range of nutrient limited-human anatomical sites. Therefore, nutrient sensing particularly glucose sensing is thought to be crucial in contributing to the development and fitness of the pathogen. This study aimed to elucidate the role of SNF3 (Sucrose Non Fermenting 3) as a glucose sensor and its possible role in contributing to the fitness and survivability of C. glabrata in glucose-limited environment. The SNF3 knockout strain was constructed and subjected to different glucose concentrations to evaluate its growth, biofilm formation, amphotericin B susceptibility, ex vivo survivability and effects on the transcriptional profiling of the sugar receptor repressor (SRR) pathway-related genes. The CgSNF3? strain showed a retarded growth in low glucose environments (0.01 and 0.1%) in both fermentation and respiration-preferred conditions but grew well in high glucose concentration environments (1 and 2%). It was also found to be more susceptible to amphotericin B in low glucose environment (0.1%) and macrophage engulfment but showed no difference in the biofilm formation capability. The deletion of SNF3 also resulted in the down-regulation of about half of hexose transporters genes (four out of nine). Overall, the deletion of SNF3 causes significant reduction in the ability of C. glabrata to sense limited surrounding glucose and consequently disrupts its competency to transport and perform the uptake of this critical nutrient. This study highlighted the role of SNF3 as a high affinity glucose sensor and its role in aiding the survivability of C. glabrata particularly in glucose limited environment.