The presence of sboA and spaS genes and antimicrobial peptides subtilosin A and subtilin among Bacillus strains of the Amazon basin.
ABSTRACT: This report demonstrates the usefulness of PCR for the genes spaS and sboA as a means of identifying Bacillus strains with a potential to produce subtilin and subtilosin A. One collection strain and five Bacillus spp. isolated from aquatic environments in the Amazon basin were screened by PCR using primers for sboA and spaS designed specifically for this study. The sequences of the PCR products showed elevated homology with previously described spaS and sboA genes. Antimicrobial peptides were isolated from culture supernatants and analyzed by mass spectrometry. For all samples, the mass spectra revealed clusters with peaks at m/z 3300-3500 Da, corresponding to subtilosin A, subtilin and isoforms of these peptides. These results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of these strains may be associated with the production of subtilosin A and/or subtilin. The PCR used here was efficient in identifying novel Bacillus strains with the essential genes for producing subtilosin A and subtilin.
Project description:Several products of industrial interest are produced by Bacillus, including enzymes, antibiotics, amino acids, insecticides, biosurfactants and bacteriocins. This study aimed to investigate the potential of two bacterial isolates (P5 and C3) from puba, a regional fermentation product from cassava, to produce multiple substances with antimicrobial and surface active properties. Phylogenetic analyses showed close relation of isolates P5 and C3 with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus thuringiensis, respectively. Notably, Bacillus sp. P5 showed antimicrobial activity against pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus, in addition to antifungal activity. The presence of genes encoding pre-subtilosin (sboA), malonyl CoA transacylase (ituD), and the putative transcriptional terminator of surfactin (sfp) were detected in Bacillus sp. P5, suggesting the production of the bacteriocin subtilosin A and the lipopeptides iturin A and surfactin by this strain. For Bacillus sp. C3 the presence of sboA and spas (subtilin) genes was observed by the first time in members of B. cereus cluster. Bacillus sp. P5 showed emulsifying capability on mineral oil, soybean biodiesel and toluene, while Bacillus sp. C3 showed emulsifying capability only on mineral oil. The reduction of the surface tension in culture medium was also observed for strain P5, confirming the production of surface-active compounds by this bacterium. Monoprotonated molecular species and adducts of sodium and potassium ions of surfactin, iturin, and fengycin were detected in the P5 culture medium. Comparative MS/MS spectra of the peak m/z 1030 (C14 surfactin A or C15 surfactin B [M+Na]+) and peak m/z 1079 (C15 iturin [M+Na]+) showed the same fragmentation profile of standards, confirming the molecular identification. In conclusion, Bacillus sp. P5 showed the best potential for the production of antifungal, antibacterial, and biosurfactant substances.
Project description:This study focuses on isolation, screening, and characterization of novel probiotics from gastrointestinal tract of free-range chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Fifty seven colonies were isolated and three isolates (FR4, FR9, and FR12) were selected and identified as Lactobacillus gasseri FR4, Bacillus tequilensis FR9, and L. animalis FR12 by 16S rRNA sequencing. Three strains were able to survive in stimulated acidic and bile conditions and inhibit the growth of pathogens. Especially, FR9 exhibited maximum inhibition against Listeria monocytogenes and none of them exhibited hemolytic activity. Native-PAGE revealed the presence of low molecular weight (3.4-5.0 KDa) antimicrobial peptide. The peptide was further purified by Sephadex G-50 column and RP-HPLC using C18 column. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of antimicrobial peptide showed 100% consensus to antilisterial peptide Subtilosin A and SboA gene was amplified from FR9 genome. FR9 showed maximum aggregation activity, exopolysaccharide production (85.46 mg/L) and cholesterol assimilation (63.12 ± 0.05 ?g/mL). Strong adhesion property (12.6%) and pathogen invasion protection ability was revealed by B. tequilensis FR9 towards HCT-116 human colon carcinoma cell line. This is the first study to demonstrate antilisterial Subtilosin A production of B. tequilensis. Our results indicate that B. tequilensis FR9 strain furnish the essential characteristics of a potential probiotics and might be incorporated into human and animal food supplements.
Project description:Subtilin is a lanthionine-containing peptide antibiotic (lantibiotic) which is produced by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Upstream from the structural gene of subtilin, spaS, three genes (spaB, spaT, and spaC) which are involved in the biosynthesis of subtilin have been identified (C. Klein, C. Kaletta, N. Schnell, and K.-D. Entian, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:132-142, 1992). By using a hybridization probe specific for these genes, the DNA region downstream from spaS was isolated. Further subcloning revealed a 5.2-kb KpnI-HindIII fragment on which two open reading frames, spaR and spaK, were identified approximately 3 kb downstream from spaS. The spaR gene encodes an open reading frame of 220 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 25.6 kDa. SpaR shows 35% similarity to positive regulatory factors OmpR and PhoB. The spaK gene encodes an open reading frame of 387 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 44.6 kDa and was highly similar to histidine kinases previously described (PhoM, PhoR, and NtrB). Hydrophobicity blots suggested two membrane-spanning regions. Thus, spaR and spaK belong to a recently identified family of environmentally responsive regulators. These results indicated a regulatory function of spaR and spaK in subtilin biosynthesis. Indeed, batch culture experiments confirmed the regulation of subtilin biosynthesis starting in the mid-logarithmic growth phase and reaching its maximum in the early stationary growth phase. Gene deletions within spaR and spaK yielded subtilin-negative mutants, which confirms that subtilin biosynthesis is under the control of a two-component regulatory system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Project description:Bacillus species are widely exploited as biocontrol agents because of their efficiency in impeding various plant pathogens with multifaceted approach. In this study, Bacillus species were isolated from rhizosphere of various plants viz., carnations, cotton, turmeric, and bananas in Tamil Nadu state of India. Their potential to control the mycelial growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was assessed in vitro by dual plate and partition plate techniques. B. amyloliquefaciens strain VB7 was much effective in inhibiting mycelial growth (45% inhibition of over control) and sclerotial production (100%). PCR detection of AMP genes revealed that B. amyloliquefaciens (VB7) had a maximum of 10 diverse antibiotic biosynthesis genes, namely, ituD, ipa14, bacA, bacD, bamC, sfP, spaC, spaS, alba, and albF, that resulted in production of the antibiotics iturin, bacilysin, bacillomycin, surfactin, subtilin, and subtilosin. Further, metabolites from B. amyloliquefaciens strains VB2 and VB7, associated with inhibition of S. sclerotiorum, were identified as phenols and fatty acids by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Delivery of bacterial suspension of the effective strains of Bacillus spp. as root dip was found promising for the management of stem rot of cultivated carnations. Minimal percent disease incidence (4.6%) and maximum plant growth promotion was observed in the plants treated with B. amyloliquefaciens (VB7).
Project description:To purify and characterize an antimicrobial protein (bacteriocin) isolated from the dairy product-derived Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.An unknown bacterial species cultured from the Yogu Farm probiotic dairy beverage was identified through 16S ribosomal RNA analysis as B. amyloliquefaciens, a phylogenetically close relative of Bacillus subtilis. The cell-free supernatant (CFS) of overnight cultures was active against Listeria monocytogenes and also against clinical isolates of Gardnerella vaginalis and Streptococcus agalactiae. At the same time, several isolates of vaginal probiotic Lactobacilli were resistant to the CFS. The nature of the compound causing inhibitory activity was confirmed as proteinaceous by enzymatic digestion. The protein was isolated using ammonium sulfate precipitation, and further purified via column chromatography. PCR analysis was conducted to determine relatedness to other bacteriocins produced by Bacillus spp.The antimicrobial protein isolated from B. amyloliquefaciens was shown to be subtilosin, a bacteriocin previously reported as produced only by B. subtilis.This is the first report of intra-species horizontal gene transfer for subtilosin and the first fully characterized bacteriocin isolated from B. amyloliquefaciens. Finally, this is the first report on subtilosin's activity against bacterial vaginosis-associated pathogens.
Project description:Subtilin is a ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotic produced by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Recently, we reported regarding genes spaB, spaT, and spaC (C. Klein, C. Kaletta, N. Schnell, and K.-D. Entian, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:132-142, 1992) which are involved in the biosynthesis of subtilin, and genes spaR and spaK (C. Klein, C. Kaletta, and K.-D. Entian, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:296-303, 1993), which regulate subtilin biosynthesis via a histidine kinase/response regulator system. Further sequence analysis revealed the presence of three additional open reading frames, spaI, spaF, and spaG, downstream of the structural gene spaS. The spaI gene encodes a hydrophilic 19.3-kDa lipoprotein containing a consensus signal sequence, indicating that this protein might be membrane anchored. A similar gene, nisI, has been identified in the nisin producer. SpaF shows strong homology to members of the family of ABC transporters. spaG encodes a hydrophobic protein which might form the active transporter together with SpaF. Gene disruption mutants in all three genes were still able to produce subtilin; however, these mutants were more sensitive to subtilin than the wild-type strain. These results show that these genes are involved in the immunity mechanism of the producer strain. A similar involvement of an ABC transporter in the self-protection mechanism has been described for the McbE and McbF transporter, which confers immunity against microcin B17 in Escherichia coli. Mutants containing mutations in the genes spaR and spaK, which are responsible for regulation of subtilin biosynthesis, also became more sensitive to subtilin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Project description:Eight different Bacillus subtilis strains and Bacillus atrophaeus were found to produce the bacteriocin subtilosin A. On the basis of the subtilosin gene (sbo) sequences two distinct classes of B. subtilis strains were distinguished, and they fell into the two B. subtilis subspecies (B. subtilis subsp. subtilis and B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii). The entire sequence of the subtilosin gene cluster of a B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii strain, B. subtilis ATCC 6633, was determined. This sequence exhibited a high level of homology to the sequence of the sbo-alb gene locus of B. subtilis 168. By using primer extension analysis the transcriptional start sites of sbo in B. subtilis strains ATCC 6633 and 168 were found to be 47 and 45 bp upstream of the sbo start codon, respectively. Our results provide insight into the incipient evolutionary divergence of the two B. subtilis subspecies.
Project description:Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 produces the cationic pore-forming lantibiotic subtilin, which preferentially acts on gram-positive microorganisms; self protection of the producer cells is mediated by the four genes spaIFEG. To elucidate the mechanism of subtilin autoimmunity, we transferred different combinations of subtilin immunity genes under the control of an inducible promoter into the genome of subtilin-sensitive host strain B. subtilis MO1099. Recipient cells acquired subtilin tolerance through expression of either spaI or spaFEG, which shows that subtilin immunity is based on two independently acting systems. Cells coordinately expressing all four immunity genes acquired the strongest subtilin protection level. Quantitative in vivo peptide release assays demonstrated that SpaFEG diminished the quantity of cell-associated subtilin, suggesting that SpaFEG transports subtilin molecules from the membrane into the extracellular space. Homology and secondary structure analyses define SpaFEG as a prototype of lantibiotic immunity transporters that fall into the ABC-2 subfamily of multidrug resistance proteins. Membrane localization of the lipoprotein SpaI and specific interaction of SpaI with the cognate lantibiotic subtilin suggest a function of SpaI as a subtilin-intercepting protein. This interpretation was supported by hexahistidine-mediated 0-A cross-linking between hexahistidine-tagged SpaI and subtilin.
Project description:The biosynthesis of the lantibiotics subtilin and nisin is regulated by autoinduction via two-component systems. Although subtilin is structurally closely related to nisin and contains the same lanthionine ring structure, both lantibiotics specifically autoinduce their biosynthesis. Subtilin and also the subtilin-like lantibiotics entianin and ericin autoinduce the two-component system SpaRK of Bacillus subtilis, whereas the biosynthesis of nisin is autoinduced via the two-component system NisRK of Lactococcus lactis. Autoinduction is highly specific for the respective lantibiotic and therefore of major importance for the functional expression of genetically engineered subtilin-like lantibiotics. To identify the structural features required for subtilin autoinduction, subtilin-nisin hybrids and specific point mutations of amino acid position 1 were generated. For subtilin autoinduction, the N-terminal tryptophan is the most important for full SpaK activation. The failure of subtilin to autoinduce the histidine kinase NisK mainly depends on the N-terminal tryptophan, as its single exchange to the aliphatic amino acid residues isoleucine, leucine, and valine provided NisK autoinduction. In addition, the production of subtilin variants which did not autoinduce their own biosynthesis could be rescued upon heterologous coexpression in B. subtilis DSM15029 by the autoinducing subtilin-like lantibiotic entianin.
Project description:Lantibiotics, such as nisin and subtilin, are lanthionine-containing peptides that exhibit antimicrobial as well as pheromone-like autoinducing activity. Autoinduction is specific for each lantibiotic, and reporter systems for nisin and subtilin autoinduction are available. In this report, we used the previously reported subtilin autoinduction bioassay in combination with mass spectrometric analyses to identify the novel subtilin-like lantibiotic entianin from Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii DSM 15029(T). Linearization of entianin using Raney nickel-catalyzed reductive cleavage enabled, for the first time, the use of tandem mass spectrometry for the fast and efficient determination of an entire lantibiotic primary structure, including posttranslational modifications. The amino acid sequence determined was verified by DNA sequencing of the etnS structural gene, which confirmed that entianin differs from subtilin at 3 amino acid positions. In contrast to B. subtilis ATCC 6633, which produces only small amounts of unsuccinylated subtilin, B. subtilis DSM 15029(T) secretes considerable amounts of unsuccinylated entianin. Entianin was very active against several Gram-positive pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The growth-inhibiting activity of succinylated entianin (S-entianin) was much lower than that of unsuccinylated entianin: a 40-fold higher concentration was required for inhibition. For succinylated subtilin (S-subtilin), a concentration 100-fold higher than that of unsuccinylated entianin was required to inhibit the growth of a B. subtilis test strain. This finding was in accordance with a strongly reduced sensing of cellular envelope stress provided by S-entianin relative to that of entianin. Remarkably, S-entianin and S-subtilin showed considerable autoinduction activity, clearly demonstrating that autoinduction and antibiotic activity underlie different molecular mechanisms.